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18 9 5. 



For the Promotion of Research in 








18 9 5. 


Pi. I 





P»^RT I. 

Family 1.— NOTODONTID.^. 





1. lutroduction. 
II. Hints on the mixle of Evolntion of the Bristles, 
Spiui's, aiul Tubercles of Notoiloutiau and other 

III. On Certain Points in the external Anatomy of Bom- 

bycine Larvie. 

IV. On the Ineon,;;ruenee between the Larval and Adult 

Characters of Xotodoutians. 
V. Inheritance of Characters acquired during the Life- 
time of Lepidopterous LarviE. 

VI. (;eogra))hical Distribution of the American Xoto- 
Vn. Phylogeny of the Lopidoptera. 
VIII. Attempt at anew Classification of the Lepidoptera. 
IX. A rational Nomenclature of the Veins of the Winga 

of Insects, especially the Lepidoptera. 
X. Systematic Revision of the Notodnntida^, with spec- 
ial Reference to their Transformations. 


For some years past the nriter lias been collec ing materials for a general acconnr, systematic 
■and developmental, of our North American Bombyciue moths. The leading object or motif of 
the essay has been to collect materials for ^vorking out the origin of the larval forms of the higher 

The attempt has been made, so far as material and o]iportunity have allowed, to describe in 
us detailed a way as possible the transformations of our Bombycine moths, in the light of the 
r.'cent very suggestive and stimulating work of Weismann, entitled Studies in tlie Theories of 
Descent (1SS2). Until within a few years the majority of descriptions of caterpillars have been 
prepared simply for the purpose of identification, or for taxonomical uses, and without reference 
ti) the philosophic or general zoological significance of these changes. The transformations of 
some of the European Spliingidte have been very carefully worked out by Weismann, and also by 
Poulton, but it is believed that the life histories of the lower, more generalized families usually 
referred to the Bombyces, especially of the Notodontida-, Ceratocampi(hp, Saturniida:', Hemileu- 
cidre, Cochliopodida-, and LasiocampidiTe, will bring out still more striking and valuable results, 
inasmuch as they, or forms near them now extinct, are believed to be closely similar to the stem 
forms from which many of the higher Lepidoptera have probably been evolved. 

The aim therefore in such studies should be — 

1. To treat the larva- as though they were adult, independent animals, and to work out their 
specific and generic as well as family characters. 

2. To trace the origin of mimetic and protective characters, and to ascertain the time of larval 
life when they are assumed, involving — 

3. The history of the development of the more specialized setaj (hairs), spines, tubercles, lines, 
spots, and other markings.' 

■Besides the work of Weismann, compare also tlie suggestive papers of E. B. Poulton. in Transactions of the 
Entomological Society of London, 1881-1888, and my papers: Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History, 
xxiv-v, 1890-91. 



4. To obtain facts regarding the ontogeny of our native species and genera which, when added 
to what we know of the life histories of European, Asiatic, and Soutli American Bonibyces, may 
lead to at least a partial comprehension of the phylogeny of the higher Lepidoptera, viz, those 
above the so-called Microlepidoptera. 

The transformations of the Bombycine moths are especially noteworthy and useful for the 
purposes we have indicated, since the group is rich in stem forms, because of its probable 
geological antiquity, and because of the remarkable and significant diflerences presented by the 
larv;e of many of the groups in the numerous successive stages of their larval life, these stages 
being characteii/.ed l)y distinctive and highly modified shapes, colors, markings, and armatures. 
These peculiarities, signalizing nearly each stage, were, we believe, evolved in direct response 
to the changes in their environment, in their mode of life, or to changes in their food plants, 
and the necessity of being protected through unconscious mimicry from the assaults of insects and 
reptilian and avian enemies. 

The transformations also afibrd the clearest possible evidence of the action of what Darwin 
calls " inheritance at corresponding periods of life," and which llivckel has tersely designated as 
"homochrouic heredity." 

This fact, moreover, of inheritance at corresponding periods of life throws light on the 
problem so much under discussion at the present day of the transmission of characters acquired 
at different epochs daring the life of the individual. We have devoted a section to a discussion 
of this question, or rather to a review of some of the facts which strongly suggest the truth of 
this principle. 

The chai-acters, so unexpected and striking, as for those worked out in Heterocampa hiuiidnfa, 
E. (/uitivitta, and obliquK, for exami)le, as well as numerous other of the Notodontians and allied 
families, are plainly enough useless to the insect in the pupa or imago condition, and have evidently 
been inherited as the result of impressions or stimuli i eceived from without at different periods in 
the life of the caterpillar alone. 

Such cases occur in many other Arthropods, especially in the barnacles, and in the Decapoda, 
as well as in the parasitic worms, but the causes can nearly as well be investigated in these insects, 
which are so accessible. 

Another series of problems is opened up by a study of the mouth-parts of the Bombyces and 
of their venation, which disclose facts intimately bearing on the genealogy of the Lepidoptera. 

In no other Lepidoptera has the agency of use and disuse, particularly the latter, been more 
marked. While the mandibles are present in certain of the Tincina and I'liraUiUna, they have 
totally disappeared from the so-called Macrolepidoptera, or higher and less generalized and primi- 
tive groups. In the Bombyces, particularly the Saturnians, the maxilhe, owing to disuse, have 
undergone great redaction, with complete loss of their original function. In another direction, 
i. e., in the veins of the wings, there has been a reduction in their number, and this is correlated 
with their loss of power of taking food, the great but weak wings of these colossal moths being of 
no use in seeking for food, which they do not need; as, unlike the swift visitors of flowers, the 
butterflies. Sphinges, and Noctnids, they are too feeble of flight to sip the nectar of dowers, or 
too short lived to need any nourishment. 

The geograiihical distribution of the Bombyces also tends to confirm the view that they are 
an ancient and generalized group, and to this subject we have given si)eeial attention. 

In the systematic portion of the work I have endeavored to arrange the families, genera, and 
even the species, in accordance with the probable phylogeny of the group. I have begun my 
account of the entire sujicrfamily with what I regard as the most primitive family. The seven 
subfamilies of Notodontians easily fall into this arrangement; it is not difficult to perceive that 
the Gluphisiina' and Datanina' are the most generalized, and that the Cerurime are the most .spec- 
ialized, whether we study the larvic or imagines, though much the clearest light of course is thrown 
upon the subject by the larvre. It is less easy to indicate the true succession of the genera, though 
the way is made very plain in the subfamily of Ueterocampinic. 

The i)roper sequence of the species in a large genus is always difficult to make out. It is 
obvious, however, that the old. unphilosophic method of designating such and such a sjjccies as the 
type of a genus, and then arranging all the others under it, is a thoughtless procedure. Usually 


the type species is tlic most modified, that most unlike its cougeuers/uuless, as is often tbe case, it 
happens to have beeu the first one of its genus to have been discovered and described. 

We have thought it better and more phikisophical to begin with tliat species whose larva is 
the most simple and geueralized, and then arrange in their natural order those whose larvte are 
more and more specialized or modified, as regards the number and variety of their markings, or 
the complexity of their armature. In the genus lehthyura, for example, the larva of /. apicalia 
(van) is the most simple and geueralized, not having the high tubercles and bright varied mark- 
ings of /. inclusa and albosigma. I have therefore supposed this to have been the first species to 
have evolved, and this decision is supported by the wide distril)ution of the species and the rather 
large number of varieties and subvarieties into which the form has beeu broken up. 

In the case of the imago, that species which has plaiu wings without complicated bars and 
spots is more primitive than those with more complex markings. 

This course may at times lead to error and uncertainty, and involve more or less hypothesis 
or guesswork, but the simple attempt will lead to a more careful scrutiny of the larval character- 
istics, and to a profounder, more thorough, and better knowledge of the biology of the genus, and 
that of course is the aim in such work. Of course the systematic part of this or any other work 
of the sort is a necessary i)reliminary to all other higher endeavors to a complete history of the 
group from a morphological and biological point of view. 

On this account it is, we think, a great pity that some of the compilers of our check lists of 
Lepidoptera and other insects, and of our zoological text-books and other works of tlie sort, still 
persist to cater to the tastes, rather than true ueeds, of amateurs and collectors by beginning at 
the wrong end, i. e., with the "highest" forms rather than with the "lower" or more primitive. 
Such lists and works would have a far higher educational value and lead to much better mental 
training if such compilers could have had some knowledge of the immense impetus given to the 
science and the new way of dealing with systematic zoology which has resiilted from the labors 
of Darwin, Fritz Midler, Weismann, and others. 

In describing caterpillars, particularly those of the Bombyces, I have been particular to dis- 
tinguish between the three thoracic and the ten abdominal segments, because the former usually 
differ from the abdominal segments in the number, arrangement, and relative size of the tubercles, 
warts, and other markings. The warts or tubercles also are grouped into dorsal, subdorsal,^ 
and supraspiracular rows (though this latter may in some cases be the subdorsal row), and an 
infraspiracnlar row or series. 

In order to obtain further material to finish and to perfect this monograph of the Bombyces, 
the author would like to obtain from collectors and students in all parts of the country, especially 
in the Southern, Western, and Pacific States, the egg, larvre, or moths, in order to fill up gaps, as 
well as to afford material for illustration. 

Should anyone rear any of these Bombyces, with a view to publication, I should be greatly 
obliged for alcoholic specimens of the eggs and different larval stages, which might be sent after 
such descriptions were published.' Such specimens would be carefully kept and returned. It will 
only be by such coDperation that we shall arrive at a fair knowledge of the transfornuitions of 
this extensive group. 

This monograph could not have been prepared without generous aid from friends and cor- 
respondents, as well as from those in charge of the several nuiseums mentioned below, whose 
hearty cooperation I now acknowledge. 

I am specially indebted to Prof. C. V. Eiley for the opportunity of freely examiniug from time 
to time his extensive collections, so rich in preserved larva^, both blown and alcoholic, the result 
of years of labor while residing iu Illiuois, St. Louis, and in Washington, D. C. After presenting 
them to the United States National Museum, he has continued to allow me to examine the Bom- 
byces, and loaned me specimens of larva; as well as moths for study and illustration. lie has also 
permitted the use of numerous colored sketches, made by himself or his assistants under his 

' It is earuestly hoped that anyone receiving this memoir will kindly reciprocate by sending the eggs and larvte 
of any Bouibyiiue moths not herein described, packed in tin boxes, to the author, at Providence, R. I., or during 
July and Auiiust, at Brunswick, Me. We still lack the eggs and young larv.-e of Ellida, Lophodonta, Drymonia, 
and Notodonta. 


direftion, and lias seiievously turned over to me all liis notes on transformations, geographical 
distribution, etc., his contributions very much enhancing the value of this work. 

I am also indebted to the authorities of the American Museum of Natural History, New York, 
for the opportunity of examining the types of the late Mr. Ileury Edwards, and a few types of 
Mr. Grote. Other material and types in the Mu.seum of Comparative Zoology at Cambridge, 
Mass., of the IJoston Society of Natural Tlistory, particularly the Harris collection, and the 
■collection of the American Entomological Society at Philadelphia, have been examined, and to 
the authorities iu charge I am specially indebted. 1 should also acknowledge the frequent aid 
rendered by Mr. Henry Edwards before his death, and the labors of those who have in former 
years done much pioneer work in collecting and describing the Bombyces, especially of my friend, 
Mr. Aug. K. Grote, now of lUemen, Germany. 

Mrs. Annie Trumbull Slosson, of New York, has generously given me valuable material, and 
given me free access to her collection, and in this and other ways laid me under special obligations. 

Mr. H. G. Dyar and Mr. B. Neumogen have freely shown me their impoitant collections, 
and generously loaned specimens for illustration and study. Mr. Dyar has in a number of ways 
rendered most etlicieut aid, and lias my hearty thaidcs. We have together made a number of 
•comparisons, and thus arrived at results which otherwise would have been less certain. 

Dr. J. A. Lintncr, State Entomologist of New York, has opened his collection to me, and loaned 
me several colored drawings of larvse. 

From Rev. E. D. Hulst, of Brooklyn, I have received by exchange many speciniens. 

Dr. R. Thaxter has permitted me to examine his very valuable collection of larva*, now in 
the Cambridge Museum, and Professor French, of Carboudale, 111., has also kindly helloed nic I 
am much indebted to Miss Emily L. Morton, of Newburg, N. Y.. for eggs, larva', and the use of 
several colored drawings of Datana larva-, etc., and for notes on their habits. To Miss Caroline 
E. Soule also I am under obligations for a tine colored sketch of Nerlve bidentata. 

I am also indebted to the following entomologists who have aided nie with larva", eggs, moths, 
local lists, etc.: Mr. O. S. Westcott, Chicago, 111.: Mr. Tallant, Columbus, Ohio; Mr. Graef, 
Brooklyn, N. Y.; Mr. Trevor Kincaid, Olympia, Wash.; Mrs. Fernald, Amherst, Mass.; Mr. 
Charles Palm, of New York; I\Ir. William Beutenmueller, iu charge of the collection of insects 
in the American Museum of Natural History, New York, and to others whose aid is acknowledged 
ill the course of the work. 

To Mr. Joseiih Bridgham, who has nmde the drawings of the larval stages, I am under special 
obligations. Besides the work nf drawing, he has secured many of the larva-, and shown the 
utmost pleasure in aiding me to the extent of his ability. It is to be hoped that the work of the 
lithographer will bring out the delicacy of color and lidelity in drawing of the artist. 

I have also had ten drawings of Walker's tyi)es in the British Museum, made by Mr. H. 
Knight, of London, with the permission of Dr. A. Guenther, superintendent of the zodlogical 
department, to whom my hearty thinks are due; also for his courtesy in allowing me, with the 
kind aid of Mr. A. G. Butler, assistant in entomology, to examine some of Walker's types. 

I have also had copied in the plates a number of excellent colored drawings of caterpillars, 
made by the late Maj. John Eattou Le Conte, which were loaned me for such a purpose by his sou, 
Dr. John Lawrence Le Conte, a few years before his death. They were made iu Georgia, presuma- 
bly at Sans Souci, on the Ogeechee River, about 10 miles .south of Savannah.' 

Brown University, Providence, R. I. 

'See Scaddor'8 bio^r.aphicnl sk'tnh of .1. L. Le Conte, Trans. A.raer. Eat. Soc, Aug.. 1S84, ]>. 9. 




It is not improbable that, as a rule, all caterpillars at tirst lived on grasse.s, herbaceous and 
low-j;ro\ving- jilauts generally, and that gradually they began to climb trees, as the latter became 
developed, and in time became adapted to an arboreal station. As is well known, no deciduous 
trees or flowering plants ai)peared in such numbers as to form genuine forests before the Cretaceous 
l)eriod, and about that time in geological history began to appear the kinds of insects which visit 
flowers and trees that blossom. 

The species of the great lepidopterous family Noctuidie, of which we have in the United States 
alone over a thousand species, are, as a rule, low feeders. Certain species of Mamestra and of 
Agrotis, ordinarily feeding on grasses and low herbs, will however, especially early in the spring, 
ascend trees and shrubs of different kinds and temporarily feed upon the buds; and in summer 
a species of Mamestra will ascend currant bushes in the night and cut oft' the young, fresh shoots. 

In the group of forms represented by Catocala, Homoptera, and Pheocyma we have true 
tree inhabiting caterpillars, and, like the Notodontians and dendricolous Geometrids, their bodies 
difler remarkably from those of the low feeders, being variously spotted and mottled with shades 
of brown and ash, to assimilate them to the color of the bark of the tree they rest upon, and are, 
besides, provided with dorsal and lateral humps and warts, to further assnnilate them, in outline 
as well as in color, to the knots and leaf-scales on the smaller branches and on the twigs among 
which they feed. And then there is the small group of Noctuo-bomliyees, represented by species 
of Apatela, Platycerura, Raphia, Charadra, and their allies, which closely "mimic" the hairy, 
pencileil, or spiny arboreal Bombyces.^ It should, however, be observed that this is scarcely a 
case of mimicry, but rather of adaptation; the presence of hairs, jtencils, spines, and bristles being 
ai>parently due to the caterpillars having changed their environment from herbs to trees, and being 
subjected to the same conditions as the Bombyces themselves.^ 

In the exclusively low feeding cater))illars of certain groups of butterflies the body is usually 
smooth and adorued with lines and spots, while the general feeders and many arboreal forms are 
often variously spined and tuberculated, yet many spiued caterpillars of butterflies feed on low 
herbs.^ The Sphingidic in part feed on low plants and in part on trees, and they do not, except as 
regards the caudal horn, exemplify our thesis. 

'This section is reprinted with some .alterations from an article in the Proceedings of the Boston Society of 
Natural History, xxiv, 1890, pp. 482-515, 556-539. 

-Of 34 spt'cies of North America Noctuo-bombyces, whose trausformations are known, all except 1 feed upon 
trees. (See Edwards's catalojjue. ) 

'It is hardlj' necessary for us to express our entire disagreement with the view of Mr. A. G. Butler, that these 
Noctuidie are really Xotodoutians, or in any way allied to them. It seems to us that the characters which he 
remove them from the Noctuidte are superficial and adaptive. Nearly twenty-five years ago I satisfied myself, after 
an examination of the denuded head and wings, that the Noctuo-bombyces were true Noctuidiu, and did not depart 
essentially from the typical genera. 

■•While many, though not all, butterfly larra>, as shown l>y .Scudder and W. H. Edwards, have spine-like gland- 
ular hairs in the first stage, which may in some cases persist iuto one or two later stages, the body in many species, 
especially in those which are not general leeilers, but select low-growing, herbaceous jjlants, becomes smooth and 
ornamented with stripes or spots. However, as a rule, butterfiy larva' can not be divided, as the Bombyces, etc., 
into high and low feeders; yet from Scudder's "Classified list of food plants of American butterflies" (Psyche, 1889) the 
following facts and conclusions may be stated : 

Hesperidiy. — Out of 45 species enumerated, all but (3 fee<l on herbs and especially on grasses, and those which 
feed on tall shrubs or trees, such as Epargyreus titynis and 5 species of Thanaos, stand at the head of the group, which, 
as everybody knows, is tlie lowest family of butterflies and nearest related to the moths. 

rapilionida: — Of the 6 species enumerated, 3 feed on trees as well as shrubs and herbs; 1 of these, however 
(/'. ci-espl(iiiites), feeds on trees alone. None of this family are hairy or spined when mature, except P. phih'iwr, with 
its peculiar flexible, sjiike-like growths. 

Pieriiia: — Of 10 species, all feed on herbs, rarely on low shrubs, and none are armed with hairs, bristles, or 
spines. The other two groups (Lyc(vnida' and Symphalida.) are general feeders, occurring indifierently on herbs, vines, 
and trees, except the striking case of the 8 Satyrina-, which feed exclusively on grasses and herbs {E. porUandia, 
however, sometimes frequenting the Celtis). The very spiny Argyunis larvie feed on Viola. It should also be noted 


Of till' great groiiii of Geometiidu' many kinds arc arboreal (Dcndiogeonietiids), and in 
such cases are aliliost Invariably tuberculated in manifold ways. We know of no liairy or tufted 
caterpillars of this group or of any family below them, with the exception of the Pterophoridie. 

Tiie arboreal I'yralida-, Tortricida-, and Tineida- live in such concealment, between leaves, or 
in buds, or as miners, that they differ little in their surroundings from the low-feeding forms, and 
are thus scarcely ever tuberculated or spiny; in fact, we can not recall one of these groups which 
are s,-/. The Pterophoridic are, to be sure, spiny, but they are low feeders, and their peculiar 
excretory setse (the Driiseuhiirclieii or glaiulular hairs of /eller') are sinnlar, as Dimmock has 
observed, to the glandular or long hairs of plants; Miss Murtfeldt adding that "there is a very 
close imitation iu the dermal clothing of the larva? [of Lcioptil us Hericiduetylus] to that of the young 
leaves of Vernonia, on wliich the spring and early summer broods feed." (Psyche iii. 390, ISSii.) 

Keturniug to the Bombyces, all the Xotodontians, without any exception, known to us have 
trees as their principal, if uot exclusive, food plants. Thus, of the 37 species of this group whose 
larval forms are known, and which are enumerated in Mr. H. Edwards's ''Bibliographical catalogue 
of the described transformations of North American Lepidoptera," together with an additional 
species {Ichthjjiira.siriij<mi) omitted from the catalogue, all are known to feed on trees, unless we 
except Batiina mujur, which feeds on Andromeda. It is noteworthy that the (uily S])ecies found 
thus far on a herbaceous plant is the cateri)illar of Apaiclodcs tonr/avfa, which Harris found 
on the burdock, though usually it is an arboreal insect. This apparently omnivorous feeder 
resembles the species of Halesidota, all of which occur more commonly on trees than on herbs, 
and thus ditters markedly from the nurjority of the Lithosians and Aictians, unless we except 
the Xolida». Now the larva of Apatelodes is hairy, the long, white hairs having scattered among 
them black ones, with more or less black pencils, thus resendiling the peculiar yellowish or white 
caterpillars of Halesidota, with their black tufts and pencils. Similar forms are some of the 
arboreal, hairy Noctuid;e, as Charadra dciidens. It .seems evident that the resemblance to each 
other in such difiereut groups is the result simply of adaptation, brought about by two factors, 
the primary one being a change from a lowfeediug to an arboreal station, and consequent isolation 
or segregation, and the secondary one being natural selection, the latter further tending t(j i)re- 
serve the specific form. 

It will be seen by the following review that the North American Bombyces in general, with 
the exception of the Arctians and Lithosians, live on trees, and this will in general applj' to the 
Old World species. In the group of Lasiocampida-, represented by Tolype, Artace, Ileterocampa, 
Gastropacha, and Clisiocampa, the station is an arboreal one, none being known to feed on 
herbaceous plants. All the Ceratocami)ida', all tlie Hemileucida' and Attaci, the Platyptericida', 
all the Cochliopodidie (Limacodes), including both the naked and spiny genera, as well as the 
P.sychidie, live exclusively on trees. Of our North American Liparidie, all are aiboreal in station, 
except the (Jalifornian Orfpjui rctusia, which lives on the lupine. Finally wc come to the Arctians 
a:id Ijithosians, whose hairy, or rather setose, larvie in general feed on herbaceous plants and 
.sometimes on trees, being in many cases ouuiivorous, while those of the Nolida' and Nycteolidse 
whose history is known, are arboreal. 

Of the Zygicnidie, including the Cteuuchida'. the species are low feeders, living on lichens, 
grasses, and other low plants, or upo7i vines. The Uioptid genus Phryganidia feeds on the oak. 
Of the Agaristid.e, some are low feeders, Euscirrhopterus (jlovcri feeding on Portulaca, while the 
majority prefer vines (Vitis, etc.). As to tlie boring habits. of the Hepialida^ and Cossida% which 
we now consider as independent groups, related to the Tineina, rather than belonging to the 
superfamily Bombyces, these seem to be the result of early adaptation. 

An examination of the food plants of the British species of Bombyces, taken from Stainton's 
Manual of British butterflies and moths (1857), gives the same results for the Old World, as will 
be seen by the following statements: 

that mauy moths, Notodontiaus among them, which in this Northern States feed on trees alone, in the Gulf States,, 
aicordiui; to Abbott, feed on shrubs, vines, and low ]ilants, as well as trees. 

In reply to an inquiry, Mr. \V. H. Kdwards kindly writes nie: "1 do not think that the biiturlly larv;r whiih. 
live on trees are under more favorable conditions than low feeders as to healthiness or ease of rearing.'' 
'Revision der Pterophoriden. Linu:ea entoin., 1S.52, vi, 3r>i;. Xli-ntioueil by DiiMiuock. 


Noli(la\ — Of the .'5 British species, 2 feed on the oak and 1 on the Lawtliorn and sloe. 

Liparidiv. — Of the 12 species, all feed on trees and sbmbs, excejit Lcvlia ca-nosa, which Iiv<^s on 
leeds and other water plants. It is tufted. 

Xoto(Jonti(hv. — Of 24 species, 1 ( Diloba caruleocephaht. which is smooth, with no protuberances) 
feeds on the hawthorn and otlier plants. 

Platj/ptericida'. — Of the C species, 5 feed on trees and 1 on a shrub. 

Endromidn: — Tlie single sptcies is arboreal. 

Pnychidtv. — Tlie 2 sjjecies, whose larval habits were known, feed on trees and shrubs. 

Covhliopodida: — The 2 species feed on trees. 

Saturiiiida'. — The single British species feeds on the heather, a shrubby plant. 

Laslocampidw. — Of 11 species, 5 feed on trees, the others ou shrubs and herV)s. 

Nociuo bomhyccs. — All the British sjiecies are reported as "living on trees and shrubs quite 

Bomhycoidw. — All the species of Acronycta live on trees and shrubs. 

Influence of a chanije from loic t > high fei-dbuj planU, i. e., from lii-inc/ on an herbaceous to an 
■arboreal station. — It appears, then, that the more typical Bombyces, such as the Ceratocampidie, 
Heniileucidie, Attaci, Notodontians, Cochliojiodida', and Liparida^, are arboreal in their station, 
their bodies being variously i)rotected by spines, spinulated tubercles, hairs, or tufts. The group is 
indeed particularly distinguished for the manifold modifications undergone by what are morpho- 
logically setic, and it is an interesting inquiry whether the great development of these spines and 
hairs may not have originally resulted from some change in environment, such as that from 
low feeding to high feeding or arboreal habits. 

It may be objected that the seta^ and spines were originally due to the stimulus arising from 
the attacks of parasitic insects, such as ichneumons and Tachina^, or that, as hairy caterpillars 
are not usually devoured by birds, these hairs and spines have originated through natural selec- 
tion, and are danger signals, indicating to birds that the wearers of such hirsute and bristling 
armature are inedible. But while the final purpose or ultimate use of such an armature may serve 
the useful purpose of protection, and while natural selection may have been the leading secondary 
factor in the iireservatiou of varietal and specific forms of hairy and spiny caterijillars, this does 
not satisfactorily account for the initial causes of the growth of tubercles, spines, etc. 

If spines and hairs form hedge-like guards against the attacks of parasitic insects, why are 
they not developed as well in the great nuiltitude of low feeders as in the less numerous high 
feeders ! It may be said, however, that Euprepia mja is more subject to the attacks of ichneumons 
than almost any other larv;e. (A. G. Butler in Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 1891.) Everj'one knows 
how efficacious any hairs or bristles are in deterring ichneumons and Tachmie from ovipositing on 
caterpillars, and it is well known that naked or slightly piliferous larvie are more subject to their 
attacks than those which are densely hairy or spinose. 

The eruciform type of lartHV. — In endeavoring to account for the origin of the tubercles and 
spines, as well as the hairs of caterpillars, let us glance at the probable causes of the origin of the 
caterpillar form, and of the more primary colors and markings of the skin. 

It was Fritz Miiller who, in his Fiir Darwin (ISCl), maintained that '-the so-called complete 
metamorphosis of insects, in which these animals quit the eggs as grubs or caterpillars, and 
afterwards become quiescent pupa^, incapable of feeding, was not inherited from the primitive 
ancestor of all insects, but acquired at a later period." ' 

In 1869 Dr. F. Brauer' divided the larvae of insects into two groups, the campodea form and 
raupen form, and in 1871-1873 we adopted these suggestive views, giving the name of eruciform 
to the larviB of weevils and other coleopterous larviB of cylindrical form, as well as to the larv;e of 
Diptera, Lepidoptera, and Hymenoptera, all of which are the result of adaptation, being derivatives 
of the primary campodea type of larva. Brauer's views on these two types of larv;e were also 
adopted by Sir John Lubbock in his Origin and Metamorphoses of Insects, 1873. 

' Facts and Arguments for Darwin, with additions by the anther. Translated from the German Ijy W. S. Dallas, 
■ F. L. S., Loudon, 180'J. 

■'Betrachtiiugeu iiber diu Verwaudluui; der lusekteu iiu Sinue der Drfsceudeuztheorie. VitU. K. K. Zool. bot. 
Ces. Wien, 1869. 

'Embryology of Chrysopa. American Xaturalist, Sept., 1871. 


While the urif;iii of the eriiciform larva' of the Ceramuycida-, ( "urciilioiiidie, Scolytida-, and 
other wood-boring and seed-inhabiting and burrowing Coleopterous larva' in general, is plainly 
attributable to adaptation to cliaiiged modes of life, as contrasted with the habits of roving, 
carnivorous, canipodeiforni larva-, it is not so easy to account for the origin of the higher nietabolous 
orders of Diptera, Lepidoptera, and Ilymenoptera, whose larva* are all more or less eruciform. We 
are f )rced to adopt the sui>positioa that they have independently originated fi'otn groups either 
belonging to the Neuroptera. (in the modern sense) or to some allied but extinct group. 

i-{estricting ourselves to the Lepitloptera; as is well known the Lejiidoptera are now by some 
believed to have descended from the Trichoptera or from forms allied to that group. We should, 
however, prefer the view that the Lepidoptera, Trichoptera, and Mecoptera had a common origin 
from some earlier, e.xtinct group. The similarity of the imagines of certain of the lower Tiueina 
and certain of the smaller Trichojitera is certainly very marked, the most signilicant feature being 
the fact that the mandibles in the two groups are either absent or minute and rudimentary. 

We have attempteil, however,' to show that the larva' of the l'anorpida\ judging from Urauer's 
figures and descriptions, are much nearer in shape and ornamentation to caterpillars than to 
case worms. Hence, it seems to us probable that the ancestral or stem form of the Lepidoptera. 
was probably a now extinct group, somewhat intermediate between the Mecoptera (Pauorpidie) 
and the Trichoptera. 

The primitive cateiyiUai-.—Wi' would suggest that the earliest type of Lepidopterous larva 
was allied to some Tineoid which lived not only on land but on low berbage, not being a ndner or 
sack bearer, as these are evidently secondary adaptive forms. It is evident, when we take into 
account the remarkable changes iu form of certain mining Tineoid larvte described and figured by 
Chambers- and by Dimmock,' that the flattened, footless, or nearly apodous mining larva> of the 
earlier stages are the result of adaptation to their burrowing habits. The generalized or primitive 
form of the first caterpillar was, then, like that of Tineoid larvi« in general, and was an external 
feeder rather than a miner. The body of this forerunner or ancestor of our present caterpillars 
(which may have lived late in Carboniferous times, just before the appearance of flowering plants 
and deciduous trees) was most probably cylindrical, long, and slender. Like the Panorpid larv;^, 
the thoracic and abdominal legs had already becom differentiated, and it (littered from the larviB 
of Pauorpids in the plantar of the abdominal legs being provided with perhaps two pairs of 
crochets, thus adapting them for creeping witli security over the surface of leaves and along twigs 
and branches. The prothoracic or cervical shield was present, as this is api)arently a primitive 
feature, often reappearing in the Noctuid:e, and sometimes in the liombycina, and always present 
in the boring larvte of the Ilepialidie and the Cossid;e. 

As tactile hairs, defensive or locomotive set:e, and spines of manifold shapes occur in worms, 
often arising from fleshy warts or tubercles, it is reasonable to assume that the piliferous warts of 
lepidopterous larvre arc a direct heirloom of those of the vermian ancestors of the insects. In our 
primitive caterpillar, then, the piliferous warts were present, eventually becoming arranged as 
they now are in ordinary Tineoid, Tortricid, Pyralid, Geometrid, and Noctuid larva'. 

Orif/in of the (jreen color of cnterpillnrs.—Tha cuticle may at tirst, as in that of caseworms and 
Panorpid larva', have been colorless or horn colored. But soon after habitually feeding in the 
direct sunlight on green leaves, the chlorophyll * thus introduced into the digestive system and 
into the blood and the hypodermal tissues would cause the cuticle to become green. Afterwards, 
by further adaptation and by heredity this color would become the hue in general common to 
caterpillars. Moreover, some of the immediate descendants of our primitive caterjjillars were 
probably lighter in hue than others; this was probably due to the fact that the lighter-colored ones 
fed on the pale-green underside of the leaves, this ditterence becoming transmitted by heredity. 

I Third Report U. S. Entomological Commission. Genealogy of the Hexapod.a, pp. 297-299, 1883. Also American 
Xaturalist, Sept., 1883,932-94,-. 

-American Entomologist, iii, 1880, 2r)5-2(i2; Psy(h<', ii, 81, 1H7-22T; iii, (i3, 135, 117; i'v, 71. KcIVts to the larvio- 
of the "Gracilavid;e" and " Lithocolletidiu" together with Plivllociiistis. 

= Psyche, iii, Aug., 1880, 99-103. 

*See the important and <iuito conclusive footnote by Professor Meldola on p. 310 of Weisniann'.s Stuilics in the 
Theory of Descent, Vol. i ( " I have alreiidy given reasons for suspecting that the color of green caterpillars may bo 
due to the presence of chlorophyll in their tissues, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1873, 159. — R. M."). 


Orif/in of the lines. — As Weismaiin has shown, the primitive markings of caterpillars were 
lines and longitudinal bands, the spots appearing fiom interruptions or what may Ije called the 
serial atrophy of the lines or bands. It is not ditticult to account for the origin of the dorsal line, 
as this would naturally be due to the presence of the heart underneath. This dorsal line is, for 
example, wanting in the freshly hatched larva' of Spilosoma rinjinicd and Jfi/phantria fe.rtor, but 
after the first molt of aS'. vinjinica there is a slight, diffuse dorsal line of no decided color, though 
after the second ecdysis it is decidedly whitish, or at least much paler than the surrounding dorsal 
region. In pale caterpillars the dorsal line may be darker. In the first stages of the two moths 
in question there are no lines or bands; only the piliferous warts. Whether the subdorsal or the 
spiracular lines were the first to originate is uncertain, but probably, from what Weismanu has 
concluded from his -studies of the Sphingidiie, the subdorsal arose first. In the second stage of 
S2)ilosoma riryiiiicd the subdorsal lines are reddish lines extending between the two subdorsal 
rows of alternating subdorsal piliferous warts, the line becoming more decided, however, in the 
third stage of this species, there being as yet no signs of a spiracular or of any lateral line. In 
the freshly hatched larva of H. textor, however, what maybe the first beginnings of the subdorsal 
line are elongated brownish linear spots inclosing the subdorsal row of larger piliferous dots, but 
not reaching the sutures between the segments. These patches, however, do not in the second 
stage unite to form continuous lines, but two rows of decided black elongated spots inclosing 
the black piliferous tubercles. In the freshly hatched larva of Edema albifrons each of the two 
subdorsal lines is a row of elongated black spots connected on the three thoracic segments, but 
separated by the sutures along the abdominal segments. 

The spiracular line is seen in the same larva of the same stage to be a yellowish band inclosing 
the spiracles, and there seems to be a tendency in some, if not many, larva- for the spiracles to be 
inclosed and connected by a parti-colored or bright line, and for this to have a darker (as in Edema) 
or lighter edging. Why the spiracles themselves are so apt, as in Bonibyces and Sphinges, to be 
inclosed by a dark or conspicuous line remains to be explained. 

To return to the subdorsal lines in the pale-reddish larva of Datana, probably D. intcgerrima, 
these lines before the first molt are also inclosed by the two rows of subdorsal piliferous spots, 
and in both the first and second stages there are pale spiracular lines, which appear to be contem- 
poraneous with the subdorsal line. In the third stage a new dark-red line is interpolated between 
the subdorsal and spiracular. In the fourth stage the spiracular line has disappeared, and there 
is a supra and an infra- spiracular pale line on the now brown, dark skin of the caterpillar. Seen 
from above there are four pale lilac lines, but after molting two of them disappear, and in the 
last stage there are oidy two subdorsal lines to be seen, if my colored drawings, very carefully 
made by Mr. Brigham, are correct. We thus see that after the subdorsal and spiracular lines are 
formed, others are rapidly introduced— and some may as rapidly vanish, as necessary features of 
certain stages — which, when they become useless are discarded. 

The adnnrable and most suggestive work of Weismanu has placed on a sound basis the theory 
of the origin of the lines, bands, and spots of the Sphingidie. The additional notes by Frofessor 
]\Ieldola and the beautiful researches of Mr. Poultou have added to the strength of the arguments 
of Weismanu. The lines, bars, stripes, spots, and other colorational markings of caterpillars, by 
which they mimic the colors and shadows of leaves, stems, etc., have evidently been in the first i)lace 
induced by the nature of the food (chlorophyll), by the efl'ects produced by light and shade, by 
adaptation to the form of the edge of the leaf, as in the serrated back of certain Notodontians, by 
adaptation to the colors of different leaves and to the stems, often reddish, shades of greens, yellows, 
reds, and browns being as common in the cuticle of caterpillars as on the surface or cuticle of the 
leaves and their stems or in the bark of the twigs and branches. We (and probably others) have 
observed that the peculiar brown spots and patches of certain Notodontians do not appear until 
late in larval life, and also late in the summer or early in the autumn contemporaneous with the 
.appearance of dead and sere blotches in the leaves themselves. 

Now, to say that these wonderful adaptations and marked changes in the markings of cater- 
liillars are due to '' natural selection," and to let the matter rest there, is quite unsatisfactory. 
Natural selection may account for the elaboration of these larval forms with their markings after 
they have once appeared, but we want to discover, if possible, the original causes of suc^h orna- 


mentation, i. c. the primary factors concerned in their evolution. "Weisniann in his earlier worlc 
repeatedly as.serts that tliesc changes are dne to the direct action of external conditions togetlier 
with natural selection. Within a few years past many naturalists have returned to a more profound 
study of the causes of variation along some of the lines vaguely pointed out by Lamarck.' It is 
noteworthy that Darwin changed his ^•ie\^'s somewhat in his Variation of Animals and Plants under 
iJomesticatioa, and laid more stress on the intluence of the surroundings than in his Origin of 

Neither Wcismann nor other authors, however, so far as we know, have formally discussed 
the probable mode of origin of humi)s, horns, tubercles, spines, and such outgrowths in larvie. 
They are so marked and so manifold in their variations in form, and so manifestly related, aud iu 
fact have so evidently been directly develoi)ed by adaptation to changes in the habits of the 
Notodontian caterpillars and tree-feeding larva' in general tliat this group atfords fa\orable material 
for a study of the general problem. 

Spines and prickles in animals, like tliosc^ of plants, serve to protect the organism from external 
attack, and also to strengthen the shell or skin; tlicy are adaptive structures, and have evidently 
arisen in response to external stiimili, either those of a general or of a cosmical nature, or those 
resulting from the attacks of animals. It is almost an axionnitic truth that a change of habit 
in the organism precedes or induces a change of structure. 

What has caused the enlargement and specialization of certain of the piliferous warts'? As 
remarked by Sir James Paget, " Constant extrapressure on a ])art always appears to produce 
atroi)hy and absor])tion; occasional pressure may, and usually does, ])roduce hypertrophy and 
tiiickeniug. All the thickenings of the cuticle are the consequences of occasional i»ressui-e, as the 
])ressure of shoes iu occasional walking, of tools occasionally used with the hand, and the like, 
for it seems a necessary condition for bypertroi>hy, in most parts, that they should enjoy intervals 
in which their nutrition may go on actively." (See Lectures on Surgical Patliology, I, p. S!>, (pioted 
by Ilenslow, who remarks iu his suggestive Avork, "The origin of floral structures through insect 
and other agencies," that "the reader will perceive the significance of this passage when recalling 
the fact that insects' visits are intermittent."-') 

It is now assumed by some naturalists that the thorns, spines, and i)rickles of cacti and other 
plants growing in desert or dry and sterile places are due either to defective nutrition or to " ebbing 
vitality" (Geddes), or by others, as Mr. Wallace, to the stinuilus resulting from the occasional 
attacks or visits of animals, especially mammals. It shmild be borne in mind that the great deserts 
of the globe are of quite recent formation, being the result of the desiccation of interior areas of 
the continents, late in the Quaternary epoch, succeeding the time of river terraces. Owing to this 

' Herbert Spcnoer savs: "Tlie direct action of the medium was the primordial factor of organic evohition " (see 
The Factor of Organic Evolution, 1>'86). Claude Bernard wrote: " The conditions of lil'o are neither iu the organism, 
iior iu its exterual surroundings, lint iu both at once" ((luoted from .1. A. Thompson's Synthetic Summary of the 
]n:hicnce of the Environment upon the Organism, Proc. Eoy. I'h.vs. Soc, ix, 18.S8). Sachs renuirks: ''A far greater 
portion of the plienouicna of life are [is] called forth by external inlluenccs than one formerly ventured to assmue" 
(I'hys. of Plants, 1SS7, ISU, English translation). Semper claims " that of all the properties of the animal organism, 
variability is that which may first and most easily be traced by exact investigation to its efticii'ut causes" (Animal 
Life, etc., preface, vi). " conditions can exert not only a very powerful selective intluence, but a transform- 
ing one .as well, although it nnist be the more limited of the two'' (lb., S7). " No power wliich is al)le to act only as 
a selective, and not as a transforming, inlluence can ever be exclusively put forward as the proper efficient cause — 
(.'luaa ejiciens — of any phenomenon (lb., 404). 

•Ilenslow also ad<ls that "atro|)hy by pressure and absorption is seen in the growth of embryos, while the 
constant pressure of a ligature arrests all growth at the constricted place. On the other hand, it would seem to be 
the ]iersistent contact which causes a climber to thicken." 

It mayhere be noted that the results of the hypertrophy and overgrowth of the two consolidated tergites of 
the second anteinial and mandibular segments of tlii^ Decapod Crustacea, by which the carapace has been ])roduced, 
has resulted in a constant jiressure on the doisnl arcluis of the succeeding live cephalic and five thoracic segnients, 
until as a result we have an atro))hy of the dorsal arches of as many as ten segments, these being covered by the 
carapace. Audouiu early in this century enunciateil the law that iu articul.ated aninuils one part was built up at 
the expense of adjoining portions or organs, and this is beautifully cxemplitied by the changes in the development 
of the carapace of the embryo and larval Decapod Crustacea, and also in insects. For cxam])lc, note the change in 
form and partial atrophy of the two hinder thoracic somites of some lieetles, as compared with the large prothorax, 
dne probaldy to the more or less continual pressure exerted by the folded elytra aud wings. 


widespread change in tlie eiivii-oiiiiieiit, involving a drying iii> of the soil, much of it alkaline, the 
direct influence on plant life must have been profound, as regards their protective defenses, aud 
after S])ines began to develop one can well understand how their shapes should have been regulated 
for each species and preserved by the set of minor factors which pass current under the term 
"natural selection." 

Animals may also, in some cases, have developed spines in response to a change of environ- 
ment. If we glance over the epochs of paleontological history we shall see that at certain periods 
trilobites, brachiopods, ammonites, and perhaps otlier groups showed a tendency to become tuber- 
culated, spiny, or otherwise excessively ornamented. These periods must have been characterized 
by great geological changes, both of the relative distribution of land and water and iierhaps of 
climate and soil. Among the brachiopods, more spiny species occur in the Carboniferous period 
than iu the earlier Paleozoic times,' Among the trilobites, although in Paradoxides and in other 
genera the gense and sides of the segments are often greatly elongated, we only find forms with 
long dorsal spines at the close of the Silurian and during the Devonian.^ There are no such S])iny 
forms of ammonites as in the uncoiled Cretaceous Crioceras,' etc. 

These types, as is well known, had their period of rise, culmination, and decline, or extinc- 
tion, and the more spiny, highly ornamented, abnormal, bizarre forms appeared at or about the 
time when the vitality of the type was apparently declining. Geddes claims that the splines of 
plants are a proof of ebbing vitality. Whether or not this was the case with the types of animal 
life referred to, whether the excess of ornamentation was due to excess or deficiency of food, it is 
not improbable that the appearance of such highly or grotesquely ornamented forms as ceitain 
later brachiopods, trilobites, and ammonites was the result of a change in their environment during 
a period when there were more widespread and profound changes in physical geography than had 
perhaps previously occurred. 

If the tendency to the production of spines in past geological times was directly or indirectly 
due to a change in the milieu, and if plants when subjected to new conditions, such as a transfer 
to deserts, show a tendency to the growth of thorns, or if those which are constantly submerged 
tend to throw out ascending aerial root^,'* or if, like epiphytes, when growing iu mid-air, they throw 
out descending aerial roots, I have thought it not improbable tliat tubercles, humps, or spines may 
have in the first place been developed in a few generations, as the result of some change iu the 
environment during the critical time attending or following the close of the Paleozoic or the early 
part of the Mesozoic age, the time when deciduous trees aud flowers probably began to appear. 

I have alwaj'S regarded the Bombyces, or the superfamily of silkworm moths, as a very 
ancient one, which has lost many forms by geological extinction. We thus account for the many 
gaps between the genera. Both the larv;e and the moths differ structurally far more than the 
genera of Geometrids aud of Noctuidiie, and the number of species is less. The two latter families 
probably arose from the great speci;dizatioa of type in Tertiary times; while evidently the great 

' Althougli tbere are spiny brachiopods in the Silurian, thoy become more common in the Devouian (e. g., Atri/pa 
hi/slrix, Chonetes scitula, C. coroiiala, C. muricala, I'rodnctella hirsiila, P. hjisti-iciila, P. rarhpiva, an 1 Slrophacosia 
prodiictoidcs), and are apparently more numerous in the Carboniferous formation (e. g., Prodmtiis longispiiins, P. 
nehrancensis, Chonelcs nrnala, C. mtsuloha, C. rariolala, C. saliiiaiiinnit, C. setUjc.nts (also Devouian), C. fischeri, etc., 
ProdiicteUa newhen-i/i, besides the Permian Productus horrida. 

-Besides Paradoxides, there are such forms as the Cambrian llijdrocephaliix careiis, the Silurian DaJimaiia punctata, 
Clieininis pleiirexantliemiiK, and Eiirijcare brccicaiidii, while the spiny species of Acidaspis seem to be more abundant in 
the Devonian than iu the Silurian strata, but those which bear dorsal spines, such as Delphon foi-hesli aud Jrijis 
annatus, are Devouian. 

■'Quite long spiues occur in the Cretaceous species of Crioceras and Aiici/loceras iiiatlteroiiiiiiiiiin of Europe, but 
noue, so far as we are aware, iu earlier times. 

^See N. S. Shaler: Notes on Taxodiiini distichitm, Mem. M. C. Z., xvi, 1, 2, aud W. P. Wilson: The prodnctiou 
of aerating organs on the roots of swamp and other plants, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., April 2, 1889, quoted in 
Garden and Forest, .Jan. 1, 18.10. Shaler conjectures that the fuuction of the "knees" la iu some way connected 
with the aeration of the sap. Mr. Wilson shows that " besides the cypress, other plants which habitually grow with 
roots covered with water (the water gum, A''// silvalica, var. a(jiiaticn, Ariccnnin iiitida, aud Piiiits serotinit) develop 
similar root processes ; aud what is still more suggestive, Jlr. Wilson has induced plants of In<lian corn to send roots 
aljove the surface of the soil by keeping it continually saturated with water." It is to be observed that the aerial 
roots of the latter develop iu a single generation. 

S. Mis. 50 2 


frroupor superfamily Tiiieina anil allied forms, in some of which the iiuuuliblcs still persist/ and 
which in other features (besides having, as in Nepticula and Phyllocnistis, nine i)airs of abdominal 
legs') show theirattinity to the Trichoptera and Mecojjtera, originated at an earlier date. As is 
well known, the Cretaceous land was covered witii forests of oaks, lii|aiilanibars, maples, willows, 
sassafras, dogwood, hickory, beech, poplar, walnut sycamore, laurel, myrtle, tig, etc., at or soon 
after the close of the Laramie epoch, and this may have been the time, if not earlier in the 
Mesozoic, when in all probability the low feeding caterpillai's of tliat time began, perhaps through 
overcrowding, to desert their pinmitive herbaceous food plants and to ascend trees in order to feed 
on tlieir leaves. 

Darwin ' has made the significant remark " th;it organic beings, when subjected during several 
generations to any change whatever in their conditions, tend to vary." Further on he refers to 
the general arguments, wliich appear to him to have great weight, " in favor of the view that 
variations of all kinds and degrees are directly or indirectly caused by the conditions of life to 
which each being, and more esi)ecially its ancestors, have been exposed"' (p. l.'41), and he finally 
concludes: "Changes of any kind in the conditions of life, even extremely slight changes, often 
suffice to cause variability. Excess of nutriment is perha])s the most efficient single exciting 
cause" (p. 25S). 

When, in Mesozoic or possibly still earlier times, caterpillars began to migrate from herbaceous 
plants to trees, they experienced not only some change, however slight, in the nature of their 
food, but also a slight climatic change, so to speak, involving a change in the temperature. Insects 

'Dr. A. Walter has discovered the presence of minute nidimeutary raimdibles iu the European Micropter/ix 
cdllelhi, Tinea pvUionella, Tiiieola biseliella, Jrgiiri'slliia iiitiililla, Cramhnu trinlelliit, and two geuera of I'terophoridie 
(.Sitzungsl). Jena, (Jes. fiir Med. u. Natnrsviss., IS:).')). I have detected thoin in Coleophora voritscipeiiiu-Ua and iu 
another Tineid of a genus as yet uudetermiued. 

'The larviB of Phyllocnistis have no thoracic legs, but have eight ])airs of membranous retractile abdominal legs 
and an anal pair. (American Entomologist, iii, 25(5.) Mr. H. T. Stainton kindly informs mo that the larvie of 
Xepticula have no thoracic legs "but possess nine pairs of abdominal legs," which, however, bear no hooks; " they 
look like so many fleshy prominences." 

'The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication, second edition, revised, London, 1888. In the 
same work Darwin gays : "Nathiisius states positively (pp. 99, 103), as the result of common experience and of his 
experiments, that rich and abundant food, given during youth, tends by some direct action to make the head [of the 
pig] broader and shorter, and that poor food works a contrary result." 

Darwin .also states that '•the n.aturo of the food supplied during many generations has app;irenlly affected the 
Iciigth of the intestines, for, according to Cuvier, their length to that of the body in the wild boar is as 9 to 1, in 
tlie cnmmou domestic boar as 13.5 to 1, and in the .Si;im breed as 16 to 1 " (lb., 77). See also the cases mentioned by 
.Semper in his Animal Life, etc., pp. C>0-(52, and N(Mimayr's .St'imine der Thierreichs, 1889, 123. Virchow claims that 
the characters of the skull depend on the shape of the Jaw, this being due to dilfereuces in food; an<l here might be 
i[iioted the witty remark of Brillat-S.avarin, "Dis-moi ce <|ue tu manges, je te dirai ce ipie tu es." 

The most remarkable case, and one <lirectly aiiplical>le to our subject of the probal)le cause of the growth of 
spines, is that cited by Prof. J. A. Ryder: "Even certain species of fishes, when well fed and kept in conhuement, 
not only spawn several times during a season, instead of only once, as I am informed by Dr. W. H. Wahl, but also 
when kept from hibernating, as ho suggests, tend to vary in the most astounding manner. The wonderful results of 
Dr. Wahl, attained iu the comparatively short period of six years, show what may bo done in intensifying the 
monstrous variations of J.apauese goldfishes, tliroughs(dcction, confinement in tanks and aquaria, with comparatively 
limited room for swimming, plenty of food, etc., all of which conditions tend to favor growth an<l metabolism, aud 
the exjjenditure of energy under such wholly new and restricted conditions as to render it almost certain, as he 
thinks, that these factors have something to do with tlio development of the enornu)Us and abnormally lengthened 
])e(^toral, ventral, dorsal, double anal, aud caudal lius of his stock. Some of the races of these Ushes have obviously 
been affected in appearance by abnn<lant feeding, as is attested by their short, almost globular liodies, protuberant 
abdomens, and greedy habits, as I have observed in watching examples of this short-bodied race living in Dr. 
Wahl's aquaria. In these last instances we are brought face to face with modifications occurring in fishes under 
domestication which are infinitely in excess, morphologically speaking, of anything known .among any other 
domesticated animals. That the abundant feeding and exposure to ,a uniform temperature during the whole year 
and confinement in comparatively restricted quarters have had something to do with the genesis of those variations, 
through an influence thus extended upon the metabolism atlecting the growth of certain parts of the body, which 
have tended to become hereditary, there can scarcely bo any doubt" (American Xaturalist, .Jan., 1890). 

Darwin states that in India several species of fresh- water fishes "are only so far treated artificially that they 
are rean^l in great tanks; but this small change is sufficient to induce much variability" (Variation of Animals aud 
Plants under Domestication, ii, 21Gj. 


living in trees or slirubs several or many feet above the ground are certainly exposed to a more 
even temperature, as it is colder at uiglit even in midsummer within a few inches of the ground, 
say about a foot, the usual height to which grasses and herbs grow. The changes, therefore, by day 
and night are greater at the surface of the ground than among the leaves and branches of a tree. 
Moreover, forests, not too dense for insect life, with glades and patlis to admit the sunlight and 
teat, must necessarily have a more even temperature and be less exposed to cool winds, and less- 
subject to periods of drought than grassy fields. There is also a less free circulation of air among 
grasses and herbs, which may be more or less matted and lodged after heavy rains, than among the 
separate and coarser leaves of trees, such as the different species of oak, which in North America, 
at least nortli of Mexico, harbors a far greater number of species of insects (over 500) than any- 
other plant known. On the whole, forest trees support a far larger number of kinds of phytopha- 
gous insects than grasses or herbs, and may this not be due to better air and a freer circulation, 
to a more equable temperature, perhaps of a higher average, and thus lead insects to eat more? 
May not the jdump bodies of the larger silkworms, as the larval Attaci, the Ceratocampids, and 
especially the Cochliopodida' (Limacodes), be in some way due to their strictly arboreal environ- 

When the ancestors of the present groups became fairly established under these changed 
conditions, beconung high feeders, and rarely wandering to low herbaceous plants, we should 
have a condition of things akin to geographical isolation.' The species would gradually tend to 
become segregated. The fenniles would more and more tend to deposit their eggs on the bark or 
leaves of trees, gradually deserting annual herbs. 

For example, the fenmles of the Attaci and their allies, as well as the Cochliopodid;¥, may have 
at first had larger wings and smaller bodies, or been more active during flight than their descendants. 
Their present heavy, thick bodies and sluggish habits are evidently secondary and adaptive, and 
these features were induced perhaps Ijy the habit of the females ovipositing directly upon leaving* 
their cocoon, and cocoon-spinning moths are perhaps as a rule more sluggish and heavy-bodied 
than those which enter the earth to transform, as witness the CeratocampidsB compared with 
the cocoon-spinning silkworm {B. mori) and the Attaci. Spinning their cocoons among the 
leaves at a period in the earth's history when there was no alternation of winter and summer 
aud probably only times of drought, as in the dry season of the Tropics at the present day, the 
females may have gradually formed the habit of depositing their eggs immediately after exclusion 
and on the leaves of the trees forming their larval abode. The females thus scarcely used their 
wings, while (as in CaUosamia promethcn) the males, with their larger wings, lighter bodies, 
broadly pectinated antenna^, and consequently far keener sense of smell, could fly to a greater 
or less distance in search of their mates.- The principal of segregation' so well worked out by 
Mr. Gulick, to which Mr. Komanes' theory of physiological selection is a closely allied factor, if 
not covering the same ground, would soon be in operation, and the tendency to breed only among 
themselves, rather than with the low feeders, would more and more assert itself, until, as at present, 
arboreal moths, as a rule almost, if not wholly, oviposit exclusively on the leaves or bark of trees. 

'The fat, overgrown slugworms (Limacodes) may be compared to the overfed, high-bred pig, which eats- 
voraciously, has little ueed of rooting, and takes but little exercise. Where, as amoug cave animals, there is a- 
deficiency of food, we have a constant tendency to slimness, to an attenuation of the body. Tliis is seen in the 
blind cave arthropods, such as the blind crayfish, blind beetles, blind Ca'cidofcca, etc., compared with their allies 
which live under normal conditions. (See the author's memoir on the Cave Fauna of Xorth America, etc., Mem. 
Nat. Acad. Sciences, iv, 24, 1889.) 

= The secondary sexual characters so marked in Bombyces are perhaps the result of their peculiar arboreal 
habits; so also the apterous tendency of Orgyia and a few other forms, esi>ecially the arboreal Psychidie (CEcclicits 
and Tlii/riiJopteri/x). as well as Anisoplcrijx and Hibernia. The larva' of the Xi/ssia feed on trees or low plants. It 
may be questioned whether any wingless female Lepidoptera live on herbaceous plants. Contrast with them the 
grass-feeding species of Noctuiihe, as) those of Agroih, Leitcaiiia, etc. 

^lu fact nearly the whole group of insects is an example on a vast scale of the principles of segregation, 
geogr.aphical isolation, and physiological selection. As soon as the ancesters of insects acquired wings their miHeii 
was changed. The air rather than the earth became Iheir habitat; the acquisition of wings introduced them to a 
new world of existence, and free from the attacks of creeping enemies and other adverse conditions to which the 
terrestrial Myriopods and Arachnids were subjected; the winged insects living a part of their lives, and the most 
important part, above the surface of the soil, multiplied prodigiously, the number of species being estimated by 
millions when we take into account the fossil as well as the living forms. 


Coining;: now to tlii' <)ri},'iii of liuiiii)s. lixt'd or ino\iiblt', jiiul of spines, the ehniigc from herba- 
ceous to arl)()real fecdiiij;- jiTounds doubtless affected not ouly the shape of the body, causing it iu 
niauy cases to be tlii.»'k and tlesliy, but also led to a hyijcrtrophy of tlie piliferous warts conunon 
to all lepidopterous larva'. The change was probably not necessarily due to the stimulus of the 
visits and attacks of parasitic insects, l)ecause the low feeders are, if anything, at the ])resent day 
at least, more subject to injury from them than arboreal caterpillars. The cau<e was probably 
more pervasive and a result of a change of the euvironinent, such as is seen iu the growth of 
thorns on desert ])lants, or the knees of tlie cypress and otlier water jtlants, or the aerial roots of 
ochiils and other eitiphytes; and that tiiey may have originated with compaiative suddenness 
seems probable when we bear in nund the aerial roots of corn artificially produced in the lifetime 
of a single individual; though it should be taken into account that plants are far more ])lastic 
tliau animals. 

If the reader will look at the recapitulations we have given at the end of the detailed life 
histories of certain Notodontiaus, it will bi- seen that not only are there diflereiit a(hi])ti\e charac- 
ters in tlie larval, ]>upal, and imaginal stages, but that the lar\a itself in its different stages is 
wonderfully adapted to different surroundings. 

1. At first some, indeed most, species live socially on the underside of the leaves near where 
they were born, and thus C(Uicealed IVom observation. Many have glandular hairs, while the 
tubercles are more or less uniform. 

2. Toward the end of Stage II and in Stage III they feed in exjiosed situations on the upper 
side of the leaves, and at the same tiuui ai)pears the showy style of ornamentation both as regaids 
colors, hairs, and tubercles, approximating to that of the mature caterpillar, whose life api)areMtly 
is conditioned by its bright colors and bizarre trappings. 

The smooth-bodied, green larvip of Gluphisia, Xadata, Lophodoiita, etc., are the primary forms.' 
Their shai)e, <'oloration, and retired habits ally them biologically to the larvic of the European 
Panolin pinipcrda and other smooth bodied, green caterpillars with reddish or yellowish sti-ipes, 
wliicli feed on trees. These smooth larvaj are, however, rare and exceptional, especially in Xorth 

But now, owing to a change iu the euvironmeut, there arose a tendency to the hy])ertrophy of 
the normal piliferous warts, and in the actual life history of the caterpillar the tendency manifests 
itself in the third stage of larval life. We are inclined to believe (1) that the hypertroi)hy of certain 
of the tubercles was effected in a comparatively sudden period iu conseijuence of a comparatively 
sudden change from herbs to trees, and (L') in response to a sudden exigency; (3) that the si)ines 
and stiff, dense spinulated hairs were immediately useful in preventing the attacks of parasitic 
insects, while (4) the |)oison glands at the base of the tubercles (in the Attaci. etc.) served to render 
them distasteful to birds, (5) the bright colors serving as danger sigiuils. 

The Lamarckian factors (1) of change (both direct and indirect) in the milieu, {-) need, and 
(.3) change of habit, and the now generally adoi>ted jjrinciple that a change of function induces 
change iu organs^ and iu .some or many cases actually induces the hypertrophy and specialization 
■of what otherwise would be indifferent parts or organs; these factors are all-important in the evo- 
lution of the colors, ornaments, and outgrowths from the cuticle of caterpillars.' 

' 1 ;uii liDWcvur iiicliiRMl, since writing tlif above, to legard |i:il:nia ;mil I",, ^icni iis tlic iiiiist [iriniitivo forms of 
Notoilontiiiii.s, t\w sniootli-tmdiid l;iivie ol' Glupliisia Ijeiiig secondary ionl :i(lai)tive forms. 

- K. Marey : I.e trausformismc et la physiologic cxpi'-vinieiitale, Cours du College de Fiance. Kevne .scientiliiiue, 
■2" Sdrie, iv, 81S. (Function malics the organ, especially in the osseons and muscnlar systems.) 

Seo also A. Dobru : Der Irspniiig der Wirbelthiero nud das I'linei)! des rnnctionswechscls, Leipzig, 1875. 

■' It is pcssible that the close resemblauce of the warts, projections, and sjiiiies of certain .irboreal caterpillars 
which so closely mimic the spines, leaf scars, and projections of tin- branches or twig^ or plants, has been brought 
al)Out iu a way analogous to the production of spots and lines on the body of caterpillars. Darwinians attrilmte 
this to the action i>f "jirotectivo mimicry," bnt this expression rather cxjiresses the result of a series of causes to 
which we have iMubavored to call attention. The elleet of dark and light shades and the light and shade iu 
liroduciug the stripes and bars of caterpillars are comparatively direct and manifest ; but how can thorns and other 
jirojectious on trees ami shrubs alVect caterpillars directly? Given the origination by hyi)ertrophy of warts and 
spines, and it is then easy to seo that b,v natural selection caterpillars may have finally become adajited so as to 
mimic similar vegetable growths. Our object is to endeavor to explain thc^ causes of the jirimary growth and 
development of such projections, i. e., to lay the foundation for the action of natural selectiou. 


The tbllowiug table is lui attempt at a olassiticatiou of some of the struetiiies arising from 
the various modifications of the primitive piliferous warts or tubercles commou to uearly all, if uot 
all, smooth-bodied lepidopterous larvae As is well kuowii, the term '-hair'' does not i)roperly 
apply to the bristles or hair-like structures of worms aud Arthropoda, as mor[)hologically they 
are not the hoinologues of the hairs of mammals, but arise, as Newport lirst showed, through a 
modification and hypertrophy of the nuclei of certain cells of the cuticle. Hence the word seta, 
as suggested by Laukester, is most applicable. 


a. Simple mid iiiiiiiitt; due to a sliijlit thickening of the hyporlermis and a deciiled thickeuiuLt of the over- 
lying cuticle; the hypodcrmis coutains a large uuicellular gland, either for the seuretiou of the seta or for the 
production of poison. 

1. Minute piliferous warts. (Most Tineid, Tortricid, aud Noctuid larva'.) 

2. Enlarged smooth tubercles, bearing a single seta. (Many Geometrid aud Jiondjycine larv:p.) 

3. Enlarged spherical tubercles, bearing a number of setsB, either radiated or sul>verticillate. (Arctians, Lithosiaus., 

Zygivnid.'p, inclndiiig some Gl.aueopinib.) 

4. High, uiovalde, smooth tubercles, having a terrifying fnnction. {Schizura, Xyliiiodes, Xotodonia, Xerice.) 

5. Low and broad, rndimeut.ary, replacing the "caudal horn." (Chirrooampa, the European I'heosiu dictaa, aud 


h. More or less spiiiiilosc or Kpini) (disappearing in some .Sphinges after Stage I). 

1. Long aud slender, usually situated on top of the eighth abdominal segment, with microscopic spiuules in Stage I. 

(Most Sphiugidiv aud Sesia.) 

2. Smooth subspherical warts. (Zygamida', e. g., Chalcosia. E.ast Indies) ; or elongated, but still smooth. (JItaciis 

atlas, and a species from Southwestern Territories. V. S. A.) 

3. .Subspherical or clavato spiny tubenles of many Attaci; the spiuules usually short. 

4. Spiuulated spines or elongated tubercles of Ceratocamipda' aud Heniilucidie. (//. io aud 77. maia, etc.^ 
.5. .Spike-like hairs or spines. {Samia cijiithia, Auisot.a, East Indian llypsa, Anagnia.) 

6. Antler-like spines. Early stages of Heterocampa bhiiidata, gutlirilfa ami ohliqna.) 

B.— Set.e ("Hairs," Biustles, ktc). 

1. Simple, fine, short or long, microscopic or macroscopic set;e, tapering hairs, scattered or dense, often forming 

pencils. (JIany Bombyccs, Zyga'uida-, Noctuo-bombyces, Apatelie ) 

2. Glandular haii-s, truncate, spnidle-shaped or forked at the end, and secreting a more or less viscid fluid, i Mauy 

m Stages I and II of Notodontians, many butterfly larvie, and in the last stages of Pterophoridic-.) 

3. Long, spindle shaped hairs of Apatelodes, Apalela americana, figured in Harris Corr., PI. Ill, fig. 2; also Packard's 

Guide, fig. 23G, and the European Tinolius ebiirneiffutta Walk. 

4. Flattened, triangular hairs in the tufts or on the sides of the body of Gastropachu americana, or llattened, spindle- 

shaped scales in the European G. quercifolia.' 

0. Spiuulated or barbed hairs. (Most Glaueopides, etc., Arctians, Lithosiaus, aud Liparid*. and many other 


1. The filaraeutal anal legs (stemapoda) of Cerura and Heterocampa mnrihesia. 

2. The long suraual spine of Platyjitericida'. 


Everybody has noticed that the horn characteristic of larval Sesiie and Sphinges is uniformly 
situated on the back of the eighth abdominal segment and uo other, and that when it is absent, 
as in Chcerocampa, etc., it is replaced by a small, low, and flattened tubercle, the segment itself 
being somewhat swollen. The larval Agaristidie (Alypia, Eudryas, Copidryas, Psychomorpha, 
etc.) have a prominent, gibbous hump on this segment, or at least this segment is more or less 
prominent and humped, not only in this family, but also in certain smooth-bodied Noctuida-, as 
Amphipyra. and Olyfim remicolor, etc. 

In many Notodontida' the first abdominal segment bears a conspicuous hump, sometimes 
forked, often ending in a seta. 

In the larval Ceratocampida^, either the prothoracic segment or the second and third thoracic 
segments bear high conspicuous horns and spines. They may be roughly classified as follows: 

1 See my article in Annals and Magazine of Natural History. Ser. G. ix. jip. 372-373. 1892. 


Prothoracic segment. — With ii large subspherical tubercle on each side bearing uuuierous 
radiating hairs (Lasiocampida' of first stage) or pencils of hairs (Parorgyia); two autlers {H. 
(/uttivittn, hiinidatd ;iiid H. ohlujiia). 

Second thoracic segment. — Two high slender spines. First stage of Aiti-sotd .•ienatoyia, A. stigma, 
and Dryocampa rubicunda. 

Third thoraeir segment. — Two spinulose pappose flaps, Empretia stimuha. 

First, second, and third thoracic segments. — Each with a pair of high spines, Ciiheronia regal is 
and Fades imperialis. 

Second and third thoracic segments. — Each with a pair of long horns, Sphingicampa hieolor. 

First and third thoracic segments. — In Stage I of the European Aglia tint (I'oulton). 

JPir.s/ al>dominal segment. — Movable tubercle in Schizura and Xyliuodes. 

Eighth alidominaJ segment. — The caudal horn of Sesia and most Sphingidie, Theosia, and 
Endroniis, BomJ>yx mori, and other species — Sphingicampa, Fades, Citlieronia, and Aglia tan 
(Stage I). 

So far as I am aware no one has suggested why these horns and high tubercles, and often 
pencils of hairs, are restricted to these particular segments. As a partial explanation of the reason 
it may be stated that the presence of tliese high tubercles, etc., is correlated with the absence of 
abdominal legs on the segments bearing the former. It will also be noticed that in walking the 
apodous segments of the caterpillar are more elevated and prominent than those to which the legs 
are apjiended. They tend to bend or hump up, particularly the tii-st and the eighth abdominal, 
the ninth segment being reduced to a minimum, and the tenth simply represented by the suranul 
and paraiml plates, together with the last pair of legs. 

As is well known, the loopers or geometrid worms, while walking, elevate or bend up the part 
of the body situated between the last tlioracic and lirst pair of abdominal legs, whicli are appended 
to the seventh uromere. Now, in the larva of Nematocampa filamentaria, which bears two pairs of 
remarkable filamental tubercles rolled \\\^ at the end, it is certainly very suggestive that these are 
situated on top of the loop made by the caterpillar's body duiing progression, the lirst pair arising 
from the second and the hinder pair from the fourth abdominal segment. 

It seems, therefore, that the humps or horns arise from the most ])rominent ])ortions of the, 
body, at the p. tint where the body is most exposed to external stimuli; and the force of this is 
especially seen in the conspicuous position of those tubercles which are voluntarily made to nod or 
so move as to frighten away other creatures. Perhaps the tendency of these segments to loop or 
hump up has had a relation of cause ami effect in inducing the h}i)ertropliy of the dermal tissues 
entering into the composition of the tubercles or horns. 

Analogous i)ositions are in the vertebrates utilized, as in spiny, osseous fishes, or the sharks, 
the horned Amphibia, or horned reptiles and horned mammals. The prominence of the foundation 
])arts, from which the tubercles arise, may lead to a determination of the blood toward such places, 
and thus in well fed or overfed (possibly underfed) individuals induce a tendency to hyi)ertropliy, 
which once set up in early generations led to the i)roduction of incipient humps which became more 
developed as they proved useful and became preserveil in this or that form by natural selection. 
On the other hand, the hypertrophy of certain piliferous warts would tend to cause an arrest of 
development or a tendency to atrophy in the piliferous warts of adjoining segments. And in like 
manner may the simple seta^ havci become liypertro])liied on account of their great utility as 
deterrent organs, and become wonderfully modified in this and that direction in such aiid such 
forms, until they became in recent geological times the common and normal inlieritance not only 
of scattered species but of certain genera in scattered families, and even of entire families. 

It is to be observed, as one will see by referring to the sju'cial larval histories and the lecapit- 
ulations which we have appended, that in the species of Schizura the evolution or hypertrophy of 
the movable or nutant tul)ercles begins in the third stage at about the time when the young 
caterpillars leave their common bn-thplace on the underside of the leaf and seek more conspicuous 
feeding grounds on the outer edge or on the upper side of the leaf, where they are exposed to 
the visits of ichneamons, or Tachina', or carnivorous Ilemiptera, or to the onset of open-mouthed 
insectivorous birds. At the same time arise the bright colors, spots, and stripes, the very peculiar 
V-shaped silver or yellowish white mark characteristic of the species of Schizura — these are per- 


Laps danger siguals — though later in life the brown shades and green tints, so like the green leaf 
with its serrated, blotched, sere-patched edges, would often deceive the most observant of birds. 

In regard to the nutant.or movable tubercles, it may be observed that a slight motion 
of these appendages may suftice to scare off an approaching ichneumon or Tachina. If most 
insects have, as supposed by Exner and by Plateau, more imperfect vision than has formerly been 
attributed to them, so that they are extremely nearsighted and only clearly perceive bodies when 
in motion, then even slight movements of these tubercles, while the caterpillar itself was immobile, 
would probably be sufiBcient to frighten a parasitic insect and deter it from laying its eggs on the 



As is well known, the larv;p of this family vary greatly in form and ornamentation for a group 
of such moderate numbers; and the following synopsis has been prepared in order to show this 
great variety in as graphic a manner as possible: 

1. Body smooth, not hairy, with red and yellow spots. GlKphiain. 

2. Body smooth, moderately hairy. Datana. 

3. Very hairy, the body almost totally concealed. Apalelodes. 

4. Body smooth, hairless; with no humps or tubercles, of a noctuid shape; anal legs never 
elevated; color green, with yellow lines, the latter sometimes edged with reddish; feeding less 
consjucuously than any others of the t;imily. Xddata, Lophodonia, etc. 

5. Body with two dorsal tubercles; also hairy. Ivhthyura. . 

G. Body smooth, polished; a single hump, surmounted by a horn on the eighth abdominal 
segment. Pheosia. 

7. Back 2-8-humped, serrate, body smooth, not brightly striped. N'otodonta, Iserice. 

8. Body smooth, gayly striped, eighth abdominal segment gibbou s. Edema, Dasylophia. 

9. Body smooth, with nutant tubercles on first and eighth abdominal segments; end of body 
uplifted. Colors green with l)rown patches simulating dead blotches on leaves. Hmmrpax, 
Schizura, and Xylinodes. 

10. Body with stout spines and with spiny tubercles on first and eighth abdominal segments. 
Sell izn ra ii n ico rn is. 

11. Body smooth, tapering; anal legs normal, often with two prothoracic tubercles, enormous 
in early stages. Heterocampa guttivlffa, biuiidata, and ohliqua. 

12. Body smooth, striped; anal legs normal. Heterocampd manieo. 

13. Body with two dorsal prothoracic tubercles; anal legs fllamental; each ending in an 
eversible dagellum. Macrurovampa murtliesia. 

14. r.ody with two lateral prothoracic tubercles; anal legs fllamental, each ending in an 
eversible flagellum. ('crura. 

15. Body doubly humped on the abdominal segments; fllamental anal legs. The Old World 
genus Stauropiis. 

So far as I have gone in the examination of the structure of the moths, this succession of 
genei-a roughly corresponds with the classiflcation of the family. Judging by the moths alone. 
Datana stands at one end of the series and Cerura at the other. 

Perhaps Cerura has generally been placed at the end of the group because of its fancied 
resemblance to the larva of Drepana, but this is deceptive, because the long caudal filament of 
the latter genus is simply a hypertrophy of the suranal plate, and the anal legs themselves are 
atrophied, while in Cerura they are enormously hypertrophied, probably owing to their active use 
as deterrent appendages. 


One would suppose that the two genera Nadata and Lophodonta, with the Old World genera 
Pterostoma, Ptilophora, Drymouia, Microdonta, and Lophoi)teryx ' (of the two species L. cucullina, 
■which is humped on the eighth abdominal segment, connects with the plain- bodied L. carmelita 

' Tho first hirval stashes of the following genera are still nnkuown. and the author would be niueh indeliteil for 
eggs or alcoUolie specimens of the larv:e of the tirst and later stages: EUida, Lophodonta, Drvnioiiia, Notodoiita, 


and the above-iiicntioiieil group, I'licosia, Lei()C:irii])a) should properly, by their smooth, iioctui- 
form shape, stand at the bottom of the family, as beiuff nearest related to the primitive form of the 
group. lUit until we know more of the earliest stages it is best to suspend our Judgment. 

1. The moi-e jtrominent tubercles and sjiines or bristles arising from them are hypertr<iiiliie<l 
piliferous warts, the wart.s with the seta or hair whieli they bear being eoinmon to all caterpillars. 

2. The hypertrophy or enlargement was probably primarily due to a change of station from 
herbs to trees, involving better air, a more etjuable temperature, perliaps a diHereiit and better 

3. The enliirged and specialized tubercles developed more rapidly on certain segments than 
others, especially the more prominent segments, because the nnrritive Huids would tend to more 
freely supply parts most exposed to exteriml stimuli. 

4. The stimuli were in great part due to the visits of insects and birds, resulting in a mimicry 
of the spines and projections on the trees; the colors (lines and spots) were due to light or shade, 
with the general result of protective mimicry or adaptation to tree lile. 

5. As the result of some unknown factor several of the hypodermic cells at the Ijasc of the 
spines became in certain forms specialized so as to secrete a poisonous fluid. 

0. After such primitive forms, members of different families, jiad become established on trees, 
a process of arboreal segregation or isolation -would set in, and intercrossing with low feeders 
would cease. 

7. Heredity, or the unknown factors of which heredity is the result, would go on uninter- 
ruptedly, the result being a succession of generations perfectly adapted to arboreal life. 

8. Finally the conservative agency of natural selection would operate, constantly tending 
toward the elaboration and preservation of the new varieties, species, and genera, and would not 
cease to act in a given direction so long as tbe environment remained the same. 

9. Thus, in order to account for the origin of a species, genus, family, order, or even a class, 
the first steps, causing tbe origination of variations, were in the beginning due to the primary 
(direct aiul iiulirect) factoi'S of evolution (Neolamarckism), and the final stages were due to the 
secondary factors, segregation and natural selection (Darwinism). 


Homology of the '■'■Jiayellum'^ of Centra, ete., with the planta of the other tibdomiital let/.s. — We 
have in a former ' article, in describing the lai'vsB of Macrtirocampa marthesia and of certain species of 
Cerura, called attention to the nnXure of the stenuipoda- or filamental legs of those caterpillars, 
and their generally undisputed homology witli tlie anal legs of other Notodontians. I'l. XXXVII, 
fig. 9, represents the anal legs of Daniilophia anguinn in its first larval stage. It is internuHliate in 
form between the normal leg and the stemapod. It has no crochets, but the planta, of whicli the 
"flagellum" of Cerura and H. marthesia seems to be the homologue, is retracted and the retractor 
nius(^les, one of which is divided, are much as in the filaniental legs of Cerura, etc. 

Note on the modifications in the tenant or (/landidar hairs of the thoracic feet. — As is well known, 
the thora(;ic feet of caterpillars are five Jointed and end in a single claw, with apparently a 
rudimentaiy one at the base. Usually, besides the unguis or claw, there is a tenant hair, which 
is generally spine like, but besides these appendages there are sometimes more or less flattenecl, 
lamellate seta;, which are curious and worthy of notice. In Parorgyia paraUela, besides the unguis 

' Proceedings Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., xxiv, 1890. 

^Tho term "tails" or p;iii(lal filaments is too vague for these highly modified anal legs; hence we jirnpose the 
term etimapoda or stemapods for those of Cernra and Macrurocam])a. The diTivatioii is Gr. ani/ui, lihiment, Troij-, 
TTorW, leg or foot. Mr. J. Ilellins, referring to these organs in liucklcr's Larvir of tlie liritisli liutterllics and 
Moths (Ho.v. Soc., ii, 13H), remarks: "Hut now through Dr. T. A. t'liapmau's good tcacliing, I regard them as dorsal 
appendages, somewliat after the fashion of the anal sjiines of thi; larvie of tlie Satyrid.r.'' Tliis, I am satistiud, is au 
error. After repeated comparisons of the tilatneutal anal legs of Cerura with tluise of Mdcriirocanipa marthinUi, and 
comparing these with tlio greatly elongated anal legs of young //. iniirolor as figureil l>y I'openoe, and taking into 
account the structures and homologies of the snpraaual and paranal ilap.s, one can scarcely doubt that those of 
Cerura are modified anal legs. 


and the spine-like tenant hair, there is a lamellate, flattened hair. PI. XXXVII, flg. 10, represents 
the end of a thoracic leg of Hefenwamptt mautco. Besides the nnguis and tenant hair at the end, 
there are two singular, thin, flattened, oval leaf-like seta' arising near the middle of the joint. 
The use of the claw and teinint hair as grappling organs is quite apparent, but the function of the 
singular lamellate hairs is a matter of conjecture. 

Iliuts oil the origin of the prothoracio or cereical nhield. — Xot only in the wood-boring Lepi- 
doptera, such as the larva- of the Hepialida^, and the Cossidie, as well as the Sesiidse, is there a 
well marked cervical shield, but also in the grubs of Cerambycida", and some other Coleopterous 
families whose larva? bore in hard substances, and in such groups this hard, chitinous plate 
serves to protect the base of the head and adjacent parts of the body most exposed to injury. 
Developed in the borers of widely diilerent orders, aiul obviously of direct use to the animal, it 
has probably arisen in response to an external stimulus, an extra quantity of chitin having been 
developed by the hypodermal cells of the tergal arch of the i)rothoracic segment, which by friction 
has become thickened, just as the skin of the sole of the foot in savages becomes thick and horny 
in those accustomed to go barefoot in dry, rough places. 

In the lower lepidopterous families, as tlie Tineina, Tortrieida', ryralida\ as well as in the 
low-feeding Noctuida', which hide under stones, such as the cutworms, a well developed cervical 
shield is generally present. 

In the Bbmbyces, which feed exposed both on trees and on herbaceous plants, the cervical 
shield is rarely even well developed, but there are sporadic cases of its development, and especially 
of its appearance in the early stages and of its suppression in later larval life, which are of interest 
and merit notice. 

In the Xotodoutian genus Cernra, the prothoracic segment is unusually broad and flat above, 
although it is not smooth, chitinous, or polished ; whether its use is to support the large lateral 
tubercles or to resist pressure and friction is a question. 

In the first stage of Dasijiophia anfjuina there is a small cervical shield (PI. XXXVII, flg. lie), 
which bears four glandular sette on each side of the median red dorsal line. 

In Dntaiia iiitef/errima, a small, transversely oblong, conspicuous black cervical shield is 
present in the freshly hatched larva and in the subsequent stages. There is, however, no shield 
or rudiments of one in Edema albifrons or in Heterocampa and Macrurocampa. 

In the other Bombyces there is no genuine shield, but in the first stage of some forms the two 
dorsal piliferous warts on the prothoracic segment are more or less enlarged and sometimes 
coalesced so as to indicate that the shield may have been formed by the enlargement and 
coalescence of these warts. 

The siipraanal or suranal plate.— This i^\a.te, the pode.v of Kirby and Spence, in Bombycine 
and Geometrid larvic, both as to its shape and ornamentation, attbrds excellent characters for 
distinguishing species, and we have found it of great use, especially in describing Geometrid 
caterpillars. It varies much in shape and ornamentation in Xotodontidiip, also in Attacidse .and 
Ceratocampid;¥. In Noctuida^ it is not, so far as we know, very characteristic. It seems to be 
especially developed in those larva^. which constantly use the anal legs for grasping, while the front 
part of the body is more or less raised. It is thus correlated with enlarged anal legs. 

Morphologically this plate appears to represent the dorsal arch of the tenth or last abdominal 
segment of the body,' and is the "anal operculum" or lamina siipraaiialin of diff'erent authors.^ 
This suranal plate is in the Platyptericid* remarkably elongated, forming an approach to a 
flagellum-like terrifying ap])endage, and in the larva of AfjUa tun, forms a long, prominent siiarp 
spine. Its shape also in Cernra caterpillars is rather unusual, being long and narrow. In the 
Ceratocampidaj, especially in Anisota, Dryocampa, Eacles, and Citheronia, this plate is very 
large, the surface and edges being rough and tuberculated, while it seems to attain its maximum 
in Sphingicampa, being triangular, ending in a bifid point. 

' See my note, "The number of abdominal segments in Lepidopterous larv.-e." American Naturalist, March, 
1885, pp. 307, 308. 

- Compare E. Haase, " On the constitution of the body in the Blattid:i"." Ann. and Ma;j;-. Nat. Hist., March, 1890,. 
227-234. Translated from Sitznngsb. Ges. Naturf. Frenude zu Berlin, .lahrg., 1889, 128-136. 


The uiiitli abdomiual segment is unusually well developed in the Attaiidie and the Cerato- 
campidie, sonietiiiics, as has been pievionsly stated, hearing a true "caudal horn," which takes 
the place of that usually growin<'' on the eighth segment. In the KhopalDcera, the suranal plate 
is iu general, esi)ecially in Hesperida^ and Papilionid.i', .small and rounded, much as in the 
Noctuida', hut in the Xym])halida' it is more or less S|)('cialized, and remarkably so in the larva of 
Xco)i;i»ipha phodou and other satyrines, where it is greatly elongated and forked. (iSee figures 
in Scudder's "Butterflies of New England;'' also W. Midler's figures of larva of Prepoua.) 

The paranaJ lobrs. — These are the hoinologues of the two anal valves {ndnila' of Burnieister, 
"the podical plates" of Huxley) observed in the cockroaeli, and occurring in nearly all, if not all, 
insects. In Geometrid larvie they are full, fleshy, lobe like, or i)apilliform, bounding the areas on 
each side, and appear as if i)rojecting backward from the base of the anal legs. 

In the Ceratocampida' these paranal lobes are not well developed. In the larva of Cerura they 
are much as iu Geometrid caterpillars, where they end each in a seta. 

The paranal forks. — We have already called attention to these two bristles iu our description 
of the larva' of Cerura. (Proceedings Boston Soc. N. H. xxiv, p. 55;3.) They are well developed, 
arising from the cud of a papilla projecting directly backward. Their use has been indicated by 
Mr. ,Tohn Uellins,' who refers to a pair of sharp points underneath the anal flap, " which are used to 
throw the pellets of frass to a distance." Occurring in Notodontian and other arboreal caterpillars, 
notably the tree-inhabiting Geometrids, they are wanting in Noctuida- (including Acronycta and 
Catocala), Sphingida*, and Ehopalocera, as well as the lower Geometrids and the Microlepidoptera, 
and are not developed in the Si)hingidie. In Ichthyura (Clostera) they are slightly developed. In 
the European Urnptcnjx sainbucata (received from M. P. Chretien) these lobes are very large, 
papilliform, and setiferous, and in our Chcerodes, etc., they are similarly developed and the 
use of the two setre or the fork is undoubtedly the same as in Cerura. 

Till' infraanal lobe. — My attention was first called to this lobe or flap while examining some 
Geometrid larvae It is a thick, conical, fleshy lobe or llap, ending often in a hard cliitinous point, 
and situated directly beneath the vent. In appearance it is somewliat like the eggguide of the 
Acrydii, though the latter is thin and flat. Its use is evidently to aid in tossing the ])ellets of 
excrement away so as not to allow them to come in contact with the body. In a large not iden- 
tified Geometrid worm, which lives on the ash, this Hap is large and conical, ending in a blunt 
chitinous point. In a large geoaieter bt-longiug to another genus, the tip is sharper and harder, 
and in what is probably a larva of Endropia, while the ])aranal forks are well develojjed, the 
infraanal lobe ends in a stiff bristle. Whether this infraanal lobe is the homologue of the ninth 
nrosternite or ventral plate I will not at present undertake to say. 

Glanihilar .sefrc— Among the Notodontidie the freshly hatched larvae of several genera are 
provided with glandular hairs of various shapes. In iJittdna iiitegerrima they are clavate; in 
Diisiihplna anrjuiiia they are clavate, somewhat flattened, and are dark, but clear at the tii),^ while 
in all the other caterpillars we have observed that the glandular hairs are confined to the body, 
those on the head tapering to a point, and ai)parently not fitted for secreting a fluid; those on the 
head of Dasylophia are glandular, all ending in a slight transparent bulb. 

Other genera of this grouj) will iirobably on further investigation be found to possess glandular 

:seta' in their first larval stages. They occur in tlie freshly hatched larva of what is probably a 

■sjiecies of Heterocampa, also in Xadata f/ibbos(t, Ichthyura iiivhtsa, and Plicositi riiiiosa. 

■ It is to be observed that the freshly hatched caterpillars of Ceratonia tricolor Smith are 

provided with glandular hairs. They are tlatteued at the tip, which is slightly tridentate, with 

'Tlio use of thcho I finil expluiiicil by Mr. Hcllins in liis dcscrijition of tlie larva of C. hijida in liiirklL^r's Liirv:i> 
of liritisli liiittertlics and Motlis, ii, p. 112, as follows: "At the tip of tli(! anal flap are twosliarp points, and ai\otlior 
pair uiidenioath, wliii-h -.nv, used to throw tlio pellots of frass to a distauco." Similar dun^'forka are very generally 
present in (Jeonietrid larva-, the paraual papilliform tubercles bciun well developed, thouyli wo have not seen them 
lu use. 

1 have noticed a caterpillar of ('. horralis iu the process of dofecatiur;, and with the forceps pulled olV a jxdlct 
which was held by the two spines of the paranal tubercles. Mr. Dyar tells me he has both seen and heard the 
caterpillars casting their pellets with the ai<l of their spine against the side of a tumbler. 

■ ^I'l.XXXVII, lig 11. <ilandular hairs of Dasylophia; «, of body; b, of the head ; c, of inothor.icic shield. 


grooves passing down tlie shaft from the miti-hes between the teeth. They occur not only on the 
back and sides of the body segments, but also on the sides of the abdominal legs. The occurrence 
of such hairs in this genus is interesting from the fact that they have not yet been observed in 
Ar(!tians, to which this moth has been referred, nor in the Noctuidw, among which it should be 
placed, since no Arctians have when hatched smooth glanduhir hairs.' 


As is well known to zoologists, from the writings of Fritz Miiller and later students, in groups 
of animals which generally undergo a metamorphosis, two or more species of the same genus may 
difier remarkably in respect to their early life, one species jiassing through a complicated meta- 
morphosis while a clo.sely allied form has a direct development, hatching in the form of the adult. 
The embryo, however, iu the latter case rapidly passes through a series of changes, constituting 
a premature, abbreviated, or condensed metamorphosis, epitomizing the ordinary early stage of its 
metamorphic allies. Thus the lobster differs from the other marine macruran Crustacea in having a 
condensed metamoi'phosis before hatching from the egg, rapidly passing through a nauplius and 
a zo(>a phase. It is so with some crabs. All the fresh- water Decapoda, notably the crayfish, have 
no postenibryonic metamorphosis. The fact that the embryo exhibits a condensed metamorphosis 
shows their origin from metamorphic forms. 

These are ])erhn])S the most remarkable cases of incongruence between what may be closely 
allied genera and even species. 

Also two allied species of Gammarus may differ in toto as regards the mode of segmentation 
of the yolk, total cleavage occurring iu one marine species {G. lociisto) and partial or peripheral 
cleavage in two fresh-water forms {G. pulex and flnriatilis). 

Exaniples of such great divergences in larval or early life, or in the condition in which the 
animal is hatched, iu species closelj' similar iu adult life, are not uncommon iu worms, Echiuoderms, 
Molluscs, Crustacea, besides insects, aud the phenomenon is with little doubt due to the changed 
conditions of the environments to which forms with such exceptional modes of develoijment have 
been exposed. 

The principle, Then, of divergence or incongruence of larval characters iu forms whose adults 
are closely allied has been established in the lower classes of Metazoa. The most remarkable 
and j)uzzling case, perhaps, is that of Balanoglossus, whose Tornaria larva is so nmcli like that of 
Echiuoderms, while the adult is a protochordate animal. 

As a matter of fact this does not affect the classification of these animals. Zoologists have 
not thrown forms with a direct development into distinct groups where tlie adults have not 
shown any differences; at the same time no one would unite the two species recognized as such 
which presented no easily observed differences if one had a direct and the other a metamorphic 
development. In the present state of our knowledge it may be well to at least provisionally 
mark the differences between the two forms, so divergent in their early life, by giving them 
distinct names, and thus emphasizing the fact that of the two closely allied forms one has 
diverged from the other through having been subjected to a different set of external influences, 
whatever such conditions may liave been. 

Systematic zoology has undergone within the last thirty years an entire change. Our present 
systems of classification are now attempts to arrange animals in the order of their probable 
appearance, i. e., phylogenetically, and as the subject is yet in its infancy, and our attemi)ts 
provisional and tentative, we are obliged to give great weight to any differences in the larval 
conditions of animals with a metamor^jhosis, because such differences were undoubteilly due to 
differences in the environments of their parents. Indeed if it had not been owing to changes iu 
the physical and biological environment, animals would never have risen beyond the dead level 
of the lowest Protozoa. 

Such reflections as these and a knowledge of the mode of development of the lower classes 

of invertebrates are all-important to the students of insects, especially of the metamorphic orders, 

^ • 

'PI. XXXVII, fig. 12. Olandular liairs of Ceratoeia iricolor, a, from the second thoracic and first abdominal seg- 
ment; h, those on the first and second abdominal legs. 


Neuropteia, Coleoptera, Mecopteni, TiicLo]iter!i, Lopidopteiii, Dipteia, and Ilymeiioptcra, where 
there ai-e so many and ijcrplcxing cases of incongruence or divergence in larval lornis whose 
parents are very closely allied. 

It is worthy of ui)tice that in respect to Diptera the veteran dipferologist, Baron U. von Osteii 
Sacken, remarks of the iiemocefons tlies: »'An arrangement of the imagoes based uixiu snch prin- 
ciples will of necessity be Justitied by a more or less tangible correspondence in the characters of 
their larvie. This structural correspondence, this parallelism of larviB and imagoes among the 
Xcmoccra, suffers, as far as I know, but one exception, Myvctohia jxiUiprx and Ithyplius. In both 
almost identical larviu produce tlies belonging to dift'erent families." (Berliner entomolog. Zeit- 
schrift, Bd. xxxvii, 1802, Heft iv, p. 418.) In the copy kindly sent me by the author a second 
case of Anopheles and Dixa is nu'utioued in the printed cojjy, but struck out by the author in the 
emended copy. 

Everyone is familiar with the fact that there is a nearly similar incongruity between the larvae 
of the MuscidiC anil the flies. Many new facts bearing on this subje(;t ai)i)eared iu Portchinsky's 
article on the habits of the necrophagous and coprophagous larva- of Muscida-, of which an English 
abstract by Baron R. von Osten Sacken appeared iu the Berliner ent. Zeitschrift for 1887. After 
speaking of the wonderful power of adaptation of these larvsB to their environment, he states: 

Distinctly related species belonging to different genera issue from larv;e almost indistinguishable from each 
other. And again closely related and almost indistinguisliable imagoes, species of the same genus, differ iu their 
oviposition (size and number of eggs), and their larv:e follow a different law of development (as to the degree of 
maturity the larva reaches within the body of the mother and the number of stages of development it passes through ). 

In one case even (Mnsca corviiia) larva' of the same species were found to have a different mode of (!evel())uucut 
iu northern and southern regions of Russia. 

Here also it is evident that the cause of the incongruity is due to the fact that the larva', for 
the tiiue being different animals from the adult, are modified by their environment, the similar 
surroundings and habits of the larvie of quite different genera causing the larva- externally at 
least to closely resetuble each other. Whether they are so similar in their internal organs reniaitis 
to be seen. Dr. C. W. Stiles, who has studied so carefully by microscopic sections tapeworms of 
externally similar form, and which can not be separated by external characters, tells me that the 
internal organs seem to afford excellent specific and generic characters. 

Lepidopterists in general do not hesitate to base their systems of classification on the larval 
as well as adult features. They in general regard their systetnatic arrangements of the imagines as 
more or less provisional, and all ac^knowledge that it is immensely satisfactory, even after they are 
pretty well satisfied with th eir arrangement of the adults of a group, whether a genus or family, 
to work out the larval stages aiul to check their classifications based on adult features by the 
larval characters. In matiy cases they may be led to change the position of a species or genus, 
or to split up a genus or species. 

But, after all this, the tact that so many larva, even in the same group, are hatched with such 
different shapes and characters; the fact that some are so much more simple and primitive than 
others, ope;is up most perplexing yet interesting questions and problems. We may, however, be 
able to solve these, and in the present group of Bombyces it seems to us that the different larval 
forms, some primitive and generalized and others more or less modified or specialized, give clues 
to the phylogeny of the groups which we confess we had not expected. 

And in this memoir we have endeavored, though often it is mere guesswork, to drop the old- 
time method of putting the type species first and then ranging the others after it in an ill assorted 
gioup, and have attemi)ted to begin with what has seemed to us to be the ancestral form of the 
group, following with the later forms. This can be best accomi)lishe(l by takitig into consideration 
the caterpillar, beginning with the generalized forms and ending with the later more modified 
or specialized forms. In such a large genus as Heterocami)a this is not difficult to do. For 
example, as we shall see hereafter, the larva of H. manico is as sitiqile and generalized as any, 
while that of H. unicolor is the most modified, with its semi-stemapoda, from which Macrurocampa, 
with its fully formed stemapoda, may have descended. And then, while Cerura, with its stemapoda 
alike in all the species, is often or generally placed first in the group, it is evident that it was 
descended from some Heterocampalike form through Macrurocampa. Aided by our knowledge of 


tlie larval forms, esi)ecially of tlie. earliest stages, it is not difficult to coustruct a geuealogicai 
tree, of tUc subfamilies Ileterocampiiia- aud Cerurina-. Wbeii taking into account llie larval stages 
of the entile family, even with our present imperfect knowledge, it is easj^ to see that Datana 
stands at the base, is the more generalized primitive form, and was perhaps the first to diverge 
from the stem form of the family. 

The first author to call attention and at the same time to treat in a philosophic way of what 
he has called "the incongruence of form relationship, between larviBon the one hand and imagines 
on the other" is TVeismann, in his well-known work entitled Studies in the Theory of Descent. In 
Chapter II of the second volume, entitled -'Does the form relationship of the larva coincide with 
that of the imago?" he points out certain incongruences between the larval and adult characters. 
He claims that "neither the group of Microlepidoptera nor those of the NocUiina, Bovihycina, 
SphiiKjina, and RhopaJocera can be based .systematically on larval characters," adding the quali- 
fication, "Several of these groups are indeed but indistinctl,y defined, and even the imagines 
present no connnon characteristics by which the group can be sharply distinguished." Within the 
families, howev(!r, he states: "There there can be no doubt that in an overwhelmingly large 
majority of cases the phyletic development has inoceeded with very close parallelism in both 
stages; larval and imaginal families agree almost completely. On the other hand, "in the butter- 
flies a perfect congruence of form relationship does not exist, inasmuch as the imagines constitute 
one large group of the higher order, whilst the larva' can onlj- be formed into families." But in 
this case Weismann does not seem to be aware that the imaginal lihoijalocera as such is ijuite an 
artificial group, and that the imaginal families recognized by Bates, Scudder, and others have 
perhaps more equivalent, congruent, or nondivergent larval forms than his remarks would seem to 

But without attempting to enter into an exposition or criticism of Weismaun's general 
statements, his whole discussion being most suggestive and stimulating, we will turn to what he 
says of the Notodoutidic: 

Au especially striking case ol' iucou^nieuce is ofteretl Ijy tbe family Xofodonlidir, iiuder wliicli Boisduval, 
(lepemlinj; only on imaginal characters, united genera of which thu larvie differed to a very great extent. » ♦ » 
In fact, in the whole order Lepidoptera there can scarcely be fonud associated together such diverse larvic as are here 
placed in one imago family. 

lie then refers to the short cylindrical caterpillars of CnetJiocnmim, which, however is not a 
Notodontian, but a Lasiocampid. lie then briefly refers to the larva' of llarpyia (Cerura) and the 
caterpillars of Stauropus, Ilybocampa, and Notodonta. Without g'ving further attention to the 
family, he returns to the butterflies. This family, then, presenting "an especially striking case of 
incongruence," we will briefly discuss, referring the reader for fuller details to the figures on the 

In the first place, as a matter of fact, the more one liecomes familiar with the Lepidoptera 
and their larval forms the easier it is to distinguish the larvie by their "family" characteristics, 
premising, however, that the term family is of very uncertain meaning, and that ditterent 
authors differ as to what to call a family as much as they do what to designate a species. But 
no one, we think, need to err in correctly picking out or identifying any Bombycine larva except, 
jierhaiis, a few Notodont larva', which are liable to be confounded with certain Thyatirid;e, and 
the hairy x^octuid:e, but even then a careful examination will show family differences even when 
adaptation and modification have nearly bridged over the fundamental differential characters. 

In this work I have divided the family into seven groups, which may be for convenience 
regarded as so many subfamilies. 1 was first led to do so by the larval characters alone, but 
found that this classification Avould also apply in general to the moths, so that there proved not 
to be so much incongruity as was expected. There appear to be, then, seven larval subfamilies 
and seven imaginal subfamilies. Others may not agree with this view, but it is the most rational 
classification I have been able to make. 

Beginning with the most simple forms of larva, those of the Glt(2>hi>iiiuv, which, both as 
regards those of the Old and New World, are tolerably constant, the adults certainly difler notably 
from those of other subfamilies, as also do the larva' and pupte. 


The remarkably woolly and penciled laiv;e of Apatelodes are congrumis with the very distinct 
imagines of the subfamily ApalcJodlnw, whicli are so well dehiied by their structural characters. 

The hairy and brightly banded larva- of the I'l/yarina; so unlike those of other Notodoiitians, 
are paralleled by the general ai)pearance and structure of the moths, so much so that the group was 
regarded as a distinct fiimily (Pyganida') by Duponchel. The larva- of the Euroi)ean Pygii-rinai 
are hairy aiul gaily striped, and related iu much the same way to our larval Dataua as the imago 
is to our imaginal Datana. 

The larvae of the subfamily IchilnjnrUuv, represented by only a single genus, need not be 
coufoundi'd with those of aiiyotlier divisiim of the family, though there is a. great deal of plasticity 
within the limits of the group. The most generalized species is the larva of /. upicalis (ran) and 
its allies bnuri (»ii(ltnoma), since it has no large specialized tubercles like those of inclusa and 
alhosigmn, and the latter species differs, both as regards larva and imago, from /. inclusit. The 
iin'ongrueuce in this group is not greatly emphasized. 

But in the two next subfamilies there is a striking lack of congruity betweeu the larva and 
moth, both iu the genera and species. 

Among the Notodoutina- we have Ilyparpax, whose imago is so different, in the shape of the 
wings and in the color of the body and wings, compared with any other genus of the group or 
even of the family; yet the larva is very nearly allied to those of Xylinodcs and of Schiziira. 

A remarkable case of incongruence is the larva of Schizura concinna. This well-known 
caterj)illar, with its formidable armature of long hobnail like spines and its gay head and swollen 
coral-red dorsal hump, would seem to be the tyiie of a distinct genus, and yet from a study of its 
adult character it is not separable from the other sj)ec)es of Schizura, and we have dropped the 
genus (Edcmasia we originally proposed for it from the lack of stable dilferential characters. 
The freshly hatched larviE, however, is undistinguishable from that of other Schizuriie j^et known, 
and perhaps we have done violence to the principles of classifi(;ation iu not allowing it to remain 
in the genus we originally proposed for it. At all events, it with other Schizuric evidently had a 
common parentage, and it has diverged since it first molt farther away from the stem than others 
of its cospecies and maybe regarded as an incipient genus. It is also plain that the causes which 
have acted upon this organism have from the first been of a quite difterent nature from those wliich 
have been efticient in causing fixed variations in other directions, resulting in the fixation of the 
other species of the genus. As the change takes place after the first molt, this may have been 
produced in the Tertiary period. Its larval stages are discussed at some length under the head of 
the species in the systennitic portion of this work. 

On the other hand, iu the genus Seirodoiita we have a remarkable case of congruence iu its 
larva as compared with that of Heierocampa manteo. It is almost impossible until after repeated 
and careful comparisons to distingush the caterpillars of Seiroilonta hiUncata and IT. manteo, though 
the imagines difl'er somewhat, perhaps generically. At times I have united IScirodanta with 
Heterocampa, but for the present conclude to keep them apart, as others have done, but really the 
genus is not so "good" a one as (Edemasia.' 

In the genus Heterocampa, as the name implies, there is a remarkable degree of diversity 
between the caterpillars of the different species, and our knowledge of them, especially of their 
early stages, has greatly ext(-nded since the days of Doubleday. 

If we take account of the fully grown caterpillars, it seems (juite evident that there are several, 
perhaps three, " larval" genera in the group. In H. manteo, (juttiritta, hiundata, obUrpia, and astarfe, 
the body in the fully grown larva is smooth and unarmed, but in pidrerea, which has a i)air of 
small tubercles on the prothoracic segment, we have a notable persistance of early larval features. 
Unfortunately we are not yet familiar with the early stages of this caterpillar. Possibly this 
species is the stem form of the group. 

In J{. unicolor we have a transfer of the differential generic characters from the prothoracic 
region to the anal legs. Though the high prothorai-ic tubercle appears in the first stages and 
perhaps, as in Macrurocampa, in all except the last stage, when the larva is on a level with the fully 

' I have some sljetchi-s made by Mr. Bridgham of a larva in its first three stages which is Schiznra-like, and as 
it feeds on the elm it is jirobably Seirodouta. Slunild it prove to bo such, tliis genus is a Schizura in the early stages 
and a Heterocampa in the last. 


gTOKu 2)1(1 re red, itoutstiiiis tbat form, and the uew forces of variatiou are couceiitrated at the other 
end of the body, resulting;- in tlie hypertrophy of the anal legs. 

This tendency once initiated, it became accelerated, until in the larva of Macrurocumpa it 
culminated in a pair of aual filameuts with their evertible flagella as fully finished as iu Cerura, 
the larva using these in the same manner as deterrent structures; and yet nature holds on to the 
prothoracic armature, rudimentary to be sure, through all the stages of larval development up to 
and including the fourth or peuultimate stage. Without doubt by very careful and close»observa- 
tions in the past geological times of the Tertiary, the courses of the variation along this line would 
have been worked out had there been an eye and trained mind behind it to observe. 

Attention should also be called to the remarkable incongruence in the first larval stages of 
this subfamily, the presence of nine pairs of antlers in H. fjuftivitUi and of but a single pair, 
restricted to the prothoracic segments, in H. biundata, though the moths are very closely allied. 

In the succeeding and what we regard as the latest and most highly modified or specialized 
■group, taking the larviie into account, are the Cerurina'. 

The imago of Cerura is structurally quite distinct from Macrurocampa, but apparently the 
sluggish habits, the infrequent, weak, and more or less curtailment of the power of flight common 
to the entire family of Bombyces have led to a lack of variation iu form and structure which does 
not obtain in the larvte themselves. 

The larva of Cerura is evideiitly a derivation from MacrKrocampa or some lost ally, at least 
some member of the subfamily Heterocampina?. The prothoracic horns of the young larva of 
Cerura, owing to the great development and specialization of the first segment succeeding the 
head, are thiown wide apart and project out laterally. These horns are yet perhaps an heirloom 
from the dorsal horus of Hcteroeumpa. 

The Cerura larya varied iu the direction of the enlargement of the prothoracic segment to 
form a sort of hood to admit the head, serving to make a visage calculated to frighten away any 
assailant. It is the putt' adder among the Bombycine caterpillars, as the larva of Chwrocampa 
is among Sphingid larvse. The stematopoda, which seemed to have proved very useful in 
Macrurocampa, were retained in Cerura, being apparently too useful to be lost. 

While the Cerura caterpillars assume a defensive and ott'ensive attitude in order to frighten 
away other animals, they do not mimic the appearance of other animals; but iu the singular 
caterpillar of Stauropus there is such a mimicry, the thoracic legs being much longer than in any 
other known lepidopterous larva and the stemapods being thickened and shortened, so that when 
the creature throws itself into a sprawling, grotesque attitude, with the tail up iu the air, as 
renuirked by Hermann Midler, it resembles a great spider. At the same time the style of coloration 
is changed: it has not the green and red tints of Cerura, but is tinted light and dark horn-brown, 
like the bodies of many large spiders. 

In the case, then, of Stauropus, variation has gone on iu a novel and determinate direction, 
the process of natural selection ending in a result not to be observed in the case of any other 
lepidopterous larva^ the initial cause of variation being apparently the result of protection due to 
a resemblance to members of another class of arthropods. 


We have seen that the moths of the Bombyces are far less active, have a weaker flight, are 
more sluggish, and hence are more uniform iu color and markings than any other superfamily of 
Lepidoptera. The females remain stationary on the bark of trees and in similar situations, while 
the males seek and fiiul them, not so much by virtue of swiftness of flight as by their unusual 
power of scent, as evidenced by their well-pectinated antennae. Variation, then, is the result more 
of disuse of the wings and of the maxilhe than any other cause, these suffering more or less reduction. 
Tlie very shoit or vestigial maxilla? of the Saturnians and the reduction in the number of veins of 
the wings iu that group is the result of disuse; but, on the whole, variations in details of structure, 
iu the specialization of the scales, of the parts and appendages of the legs, of the palpi, and other 
parts so striking in the Noctuina are very noticeable. 

On the other hand, from causes potent though obscure, the degree of variation in the larval 
forms is most striking. We have every reason to believe that this great degree of modification 


anil specialization of larval forms in the Bombycos is duo to changes in their einiroiinient after 
they had ett'eeted their descent from their Lithosian ancestry. It was from adaptation to totally 
new surroundings which at t)nce broke up the old simplicity of shape of their early ancestry and 
induced a striking plasticity of form and of structural features. 

Such changes as these could not have been brought about so lecently as the Quateinary 
peiiod, but must have been most active during the late Mesozoic and throughout the Tertiary. 
Probably the date of the appearance of the liSombycinc jihylnm was coeval with tlie appearanaeof 
the Cretaceous forests. 

We have always maintained that the Bombyces are a very old type, which have lost a 
great many tbrms by geological extinction. In number of species the type is at present far less 
numerous than the Noctuina. The ranks of the latter have not been thinned by the ravages of 
geological time; on the contrary, there are few and unimportant gai)s in their numbers— few links 
which are missing. 

We would suggest, then, that the plasticity of the larval forms of the Bond)yces, especially 
in the "lower," or to speak more correctly, the more primitive and in a degree generalized, families, 
is due to the great changes in their environment during the Cretaceous and Tertiary periods. 

This is indicated by the facts in geographical distribution to be stated in more detail further 
on. When species are widely distributed this is to be taken as an evidence that they have had a 
high antiijuity. When, for example, a group like the TIeterocanii)ina' is entirely wanting in Europe 
and the western portion of North America, such great gaps in distribution are naturally to be 
attributed to geological extinction. 

It will be recalled that the opossum and other marsupials are extinct in Europe, though existing 
at present in Australia and .Vmerica. Lingula was once abundant all over the globe; it now only 
lives along portions of the iVmerica n and Asiatic and Australian coasts. Limulus was represented 
by several species in the Jurassic of Europe but now only occurs on the northeastern shores of 
North America and the eastern shores of Asia from the Malaysian Peninsula to Jai)an, having 
become extinct in other parts of the world. 

In like manner the great gaps in the genera of onr existing Bombyces are probably due to 
geological extinction, anil also to the great plasticity or marked difference in the larva', as compared 
with the homogeneousuess of the imagines, these being due to the widespread changes in the 
envirf)iiment which took place during the later Mesozoic and Tertiary i)eriods, and which reacted 
on the insects in their early rather than later stages. 

This incongruity between the larval and adult stages, then, was jjrobably most marked in the 
periods before the (Quaternary, while since then there has been divergence. We have some reason 
to suppose that the families of Noctnida^ and Geometrida-, so numerous in species, were largely 
evolved during the Pliocene and (Quaternary. 

Where a family or subfamily is equably developed both in the Old and New worlds, we are 
inclined to suppose that it was a recently evolved group. 

It is well known that America has lagged behind I'lurope, geologically siu'aking, although 
America is the older continent as such; the process first of specialization anil then of extinction 
has gone on more rapidly in the Old World, or at least the westcm jjortion of it. 

Were fossil Bombyces ever to bo found iu Europe, we should expect to discover among them 
representatives of the Cochliopodida', of the Attacine Saturniida', Ceratocam])ida', and Notodon- 
tidie, now characteristic of North and South America or of the tropical regions of Asia and perhaps 
of Africa. 

Among the Notodontida' the Ileterocampida^, for example, now contined to eastern North 
America, Central America, and western South America, may have flourished in Europe contem- 
poraneously with the sequoia, magnolia, liquidambar, gum tree, and other existing types of 
vegetation now extinct in Europe. Although Macrurocampa is an American genus, some form like 
it may have existed in Europe, from which the Eurojjean Ccrur'nuv nuiy have evolved, unless the 
type nugrated from Asia. There is a species of Stauropus iu India, though there are few Noto- 
dontiaus iu that country, and southeastern Asia is evidently the center of development of the bulk 
of the European genera of Bombyces, geological extinction in these moths having gone on very 
extensively in Europe, perhajjs as the result of the cold of the Glacial epoch. 



Perliaps in no other group or order of animals may we study the subject of tlie inheritance of 
•acquired characters with more success than in the Lepidoptera. In these insects the four stages 
of existence — the egg, larva, pupa, and imago — are definite and fixed, and during eacli of the three 
last periods the organism is, so to speak, a different creature, with distinct and separate shape 
and structure, external and internal, and during each leads a different life. Family, generic, and 
specific characters are inherited at each of these stages, and at each there is a combination of 
congenital and acquired characteristics, some of both classes of which, i. e., those least marked, 
are difiQcult to sepai'ate from each other. 

The following is an attempt at a rough grouping of such features at the last three stages. We 
omit the egg stage, for though they more or less vary in shape and ornamentation, this is perhaps 
due more to difference in the structure of the lining of the oviduct of the female than to the action 
of external circumstances on the egg after it has been laid. Yet this should be said with some 
reservation, because we are not aware that any one has discussed the probable mode of origin of 
the specific diflerences in the shape and color of the eggs of birds or the shape and markings of 
the eggs of insects, though undoubtedly the agency of external causes, together with natural 
selection, has had something to do with the variation. 

It has seemed to us that the relation of specific and generic characteristics in the eggs of 
insects is a most difScult i)roblem. Yet it should be observed that while the differences in orna- 
mentation and shape are primarily due to the impression on the shell received from the lining of 
the oviduct, yet the wonderful diversity we see in the eggs of insects is often readily seen to be 
correlated with the external conditions in which they exist after having been deposited by the 
parent. In birds the thick, solid shell and the oval shape of the murre's egg seem due to the 
unprotected manner in which they are left on the rocks and shelves, from which they are liable 
to fall. 

We may contrast with such an egg that of the robin, in which the shell is thin and uniform 
in color, since it is protected from harm by being contained in a nest; so also the color of tlie 
murre's eggs may be due to the action of protective mimicry, the spots assimilating them to lichen- 
grown rocks, by which they escape the observation of their natui'al enemies, the fox, the mink, 
and other egg devouring animals. So the eggs of Chrysoi^a, of many bugs, etc., are in shape and 
mode of attachment beautifully adapted to prevent them from being seen by egg-devouring 

In the larval histories given in this work we have endeavored, where they have been observed 
with sufficient completeness, to discriminate between the congenital and the acquired characters. 

1. Larval state. — A. In this state we have the inheritance of congenital characteristics. 

B. Inheritance of what were originally acquired characters, the results of attacks of enemies: 
Examples are the tubercles armed with spines and sometimes with caltrops (Empretia, etc.) and 
stripes, all aiiparently inherited at different periods of larval life, the least important specific 
and varietal characters probably having been acquired during the life of an .individual. 

i.'. Pupa state. — A. Cocoon : The absence or presence of a cocoon was doubtless originally due 
to differing external conditions, while the dense, perfect cocoon is characteristic of the spinning- 
moths (Attacidte, Lasiocampidne, etc.); the Ceratocampidie make none at all, but, like the Sphinges, 
the larvre simply bury themselves in the earth before pupation. In the Arctiid.i? and the Lipa- 
rid;e the cocoon is chiefly composed of the barbed larval hairs, with a little silk to fasten them 
more firmly together; in the Geometrida^ certain larvte spin a loose, thin web. In such cases the 
spinning of a cocoon is intimately associated with a change of larval habits, and Is, with little 
doubt, an acquired habit, originally formed by a single individual. 

B. The shape of the pupa is often dependent on the presence or absence of a cocoon. In the 
Notodontida; the cremaster is often absent in genera such as Gluphisia, which spins a very slight 
cocoon, and Lophodonta, which spins no cocoon, and is closely alHed to those which do. In 
Cerura there is no spine on the rudimentary cremaster, because the pupa lies in a very dense 
cocoon fastened to the bark of trees, etc., and being in no danger of being shaken out no cremas- 
S. Mis. 50 3 


terial spine or hooks are developed. The cremaster affords excellent generic and specific characters,. 
In the subterranean pupa of Datana it is present, and is of use in aiding the pupa to reach the- 
surface of the ground. It is very large and acute iu the subterranean pupie of Ceratocampidio 
and Si)hinges. It is evident that in the presence or absence of the cremaster, and in its sliape 
and in the number of hooks and their shape, we have a set of very phistic characters (though 
excellent for distinguishing genera and species) whose variability and plasticity is due to the 
varying habits of the pupa, whether living above or under ground, whether protected by a very 
thin, loose, net-like cocoon or by a solid double one like that of Cerura or of the silkworms. Also 
whether the thread is continuous and can be readily reeled, as in Bomhyx mori, or whether the 
thread is often interrupted at the anterior end, as iu Platymmia cecropia, is a feature which was 
probably the result of a slight change of circumstances and may have been inaugurated as the 
result of variation in a single individual during a single lifetime, afterwards in succeeding genera- 
tions becoming fixed by homochrouic inheritance. 

3. Imayo state. — It is easier to select what may have been acquired characters iu caterpillars 
than in butterflies and moths, and yet the latter have a complicated series of what may originally 
have been acquired characters. It should be borne in mind that while caterpillars live for weeks 
and even mouths, are subject to frequent molts, are active, and are dependent on a proper supply of 
their food, usually this or that plant, butterflies and moths perish, as a rule, directly after mating, 
taking little or no food. Of course acquired cluxracters are most marked in the parts which are 
most used, as the maxilL^, wings, and external genital armature. 

The absence of maxilhe or their very rudimentary condition in Bombycine moths is, with little 
doubt, a recently acquired character. The very arbitrary distribution in Lepidoptera of scent 
organs (Androconia, etc.) are apparently characters recently ac(iuired. The wonderful variations 
in the markings of the wings, due to a variety of slight causes, may often arise during an indi- 
vidual's lifetime and become a matter of inheritance, the result of sudden changes in temperature, 
moisture, or dryness, and changes in food of the larva. By subjecting individual pupse to pro- 
longed cold, or vice verm, varieties and a greater or less number of broods may be produced 
artificially, and this may illustrate how seasonal varieties have arisen in nature. 

Many species are only separated by differences in the male genital armature. These, as is 
well known, are subject to great individual variation, and why should not the characters peculiar 
to a distinct variety, or even species, arise during the lifetime of two individuals when mated? 
An unusually vigorous polygamous butterfly may have some new congenital extra development 
of hooks and processes, and by frequent use develop the nuiscles controlling these to the extent 
of providing an acquired character, which may be, if useful, inherited in the next and succeeding 

But an especially interesting and fruitful field of investigation woidd be a study of wingless 
Lepidoptera, such as the cankerworm, the autumn moths allied to it, the tussock moths (Orgyia), 
and especially the sscck bearers or I'sychidte. 

The loss of wings in these cases seems to be due to disuse in individuals more sluggish than 
others, and with little doubt has been the result of inheritance of what were originally acquired 
characters. It is easy to imagine how this has been induced by a study of a series of forms, 
beginning with certain European genera, in which the wings of the female are very small, and 
passing to those in which they become simple pads, as in Orgyia, and eiuling Mith those such as 
Anisopteryx, in which their reduction is still further carried out. And then Lepidoptera should 
be compared with certain of the Ephemerae, whose hind wings are so nuich reduced; with Pezzo- 
tettix and other Orthoptera with aborted wings, and certain Ilemiptera in which the wings are 
aborted, ending with tlie great order of Diptera, comprising a. vast number of species, in which 
the hind wings have not only undergone a great reduction, but have been transformed through 
change of function into balancers, with their extraordinary sense organs. It is not ditUcult to see 
that the disuse of wings may have begun in the life of a single individual, which, losing its wings 
and having perhaps inherited a tendency to tliis lesion tiirough corpulency and other bodily 
changes, became inactive, averse to flight, and finally transmitted the i)eculiarity to its offspring. 

In a paper in the Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History (xxiv, 482), on tlie 
life history of Brepana arcuata, 1 have described Mie different stages of this moth, and at the end 


recapitulated the congenital cliaracters, and finally given a synopsis of the chief steps in the 
evolution of the adaptional characters, which appear after the first exuviation. It seems very 
probable that these later features were the resnlt of the action of external stimuli, both physical 
and biological, and that they were acquired not only during the lifetime of the larva, but at certain 
distinct stages or periods during the growth of the creature. The changes are both colorational 
and structural, and during the different stages the larva was adapted for different surroundings, 
and thus at each important stage was virtually for the time being a distinct animal. 

Daring the pupa stage special and unusual structural adaptations arose, the cremaster being^ 
unusually developed, and also a i)air of cephalic hooks, seeming to entangle the head in the web 
of the cocoon, so that the pupa can not be thrown out of the curled leaf, which remains in the first 
brood on the trees. These I regard as characters acquired by the insect after birth and in response 
to the exigencies of life at difi'erent stages. I will here add the conclusions given in that jiaper. 



1. Anal legs obsolete; suranal plate already ending in an elevated rod-like spine in Stage I. 

2. Glandular haii's (split at the end) present only in Stage I. 

3. Piliferous warts well developed but of uniform size on all the segments in Stage I. 

4. Head and body dark brown, but the warts pale; uromeres 1 and 7, pale yellowish in 
Stage I. 

5. Crochets of abdominal legs more numerous than usual, forming an incomplete circle, 
compensating for the lack of anal legs and crochets. 

0. These congenital characters are of generic value, the specific characters apjiearing at and 
after Stage III. 


1. Eeductiou in size and length of hairs after Stage I, glandular hairs being replaced by 
ordinary tapering ones. 

2. At the beginning of Stage III the body becomes yellowish-green, and the dorsal region^ 
previously dark, becomes broken up into pale yellowish-green spots. Head distinctly banded 
with yellow. 

3. In Stages IV and V the greenish portions of the body become darker, like that of the food 
plant, and the reddish-brown parts are assimilated to the hue of the leaf stalks and twigs. 

4. In Stage III the prothoracic dorsal warts degenerate, and those of the two succeeding, 
stages slightly progress in development. 

5. The ninth uromere becomes as large as, if not slightly larger than, the eighth, and separated 
by a distinct suture from the tenth — a very unusual feature in caterpillars. 

0. The chief adaptational features are: (1) colorational, to enable the partly or fully growa 
caterpillar to escape observation, and (2) structural, the unusually large ninth and tenth abdom- 
inal segments being upraised, with the upturned threatening suranal rod or spine fitted to frighten, 
away ichneumons or Tachinse, and possibly insectivorous birds. 


The pair of cephalic stout hooks serving to entangle the head in the web of the cocoon, the 
cremaster also being unusually well developed, so that the pupa, which in the first brood remains 
on the tree, is slung by its head and tail, and can not be thrown out of the curled leaf. 


When I first noticed the moths, with their broad wings outspread and resting on the upper side 
of the leaves, I mistook them for pieces of dead, dry, yellowish leaves which had fallen upon and 
become fastened to the surface of the fresh leaf. 



In the succi'C<liiig systematic jjoi tioii of tliis work I have niveii a imiiiher of life histories of 
the family, and with more or less detail pointed out tlie later adaptional as distinj;;uished from 
the congenital characters. I have on pages 21-23, called attention to the varying shapes of the 
tubercles and seta- in the larva' of the Bombyees and other of the higher Lei)ido])tera and to their 
probable mode of origin and Avhy they appear on eertain segments in [yreference to others. The 
attention of the reader is called to the summary or recapitulation of changes especially in the life 
liistory of Datana intcf/errima, Apntehulets iorrefacta, Symmerista albifrons, ^facnlroc((mp^ martlicsid, 
and of three si)e('ies of Ceriini, while there is a summary of the steps in the assnmi)ti()n of the 
adaptive characters at the different larval stages of several si>ecies of Sehizura. The steps in the 
evolution of what maybe regarded as ac(iuired characters in Schizura, and in DanyJophia Huguiua 
Hypari)ax, lleteiocanipa, etc., are readily seen by an examination of the plates. 

The Notodontians are remarkable in general for the humps, tubercles, and spines of their 
larva>., some of which are congenital, while others appear at different stages after birth. Still some 
larvar of this group are entirely without them and remain so throughout their larval life. And 
this is an argument that the various processes of the cutit-le or outgrowths of the entire integu- 
ment are characters originally acquired during the postembryonic life of the young insect. 

Take for example the larval Nadata gibhosa; this, like the caterpillar of Gluphisia and of 
Lopliodonta, is a smooth-bodied larva, ornamented with lines, but entirely unarmed. The life 
history of N. (libbosa shows that it is born with a smooth body, without any traces of tubercles or 
enlarged bristles, while no traces of the yellowish subdorsal lines appear until at the end of the 
second stage, the only ornamentation being coloration. This forju is therefore a ]irimitive one, and 
this fact would seem to demonstrate that the humps, tubercles, and spines so fre(piently observed 
in the group ai'ose within recent geological times, and were acquired during the postembryonic 
stages of the larva> of different genera in response to various changes in the suiToundiugs of 
different species, these finally becoming fixed and regularly transmitted along various lines of 
■development, resulting in a series of forms constituting the present genera of the family. 

One of the most notable cases in the family is that of the loss at about the middle of the 
larval life of the remarkable antlers of Hetcrocampa biiunluta. During the three earliest stages 
the larva bears on the prothoracic segment a pair of enormous antlers with four tines. At the 
second molt these are discarded, and in the two last stages are represented by a pair of conical, 
rounded, polished, piliferous knobs. The rest of the partly grown body of the larva is smooth. 
After casting its horns the larva assumes a new set of coloration markings, so that in its last 
two stages it is a totally different creature in appearance from the earlier stages. 

One of the plates represents a series of colored drawings, by Mr. Bridgham, of the still more 
wonderful changes undergone by tlic caterpillar of Heierommpa fiKttlvitfa, representing five 
stages, nearly each of which presents notable differences. In the first, directly after hatching, 
the reddish larva has not only a pair of enormous antlers with four tines on the first thoracic 
segment, but a pair of long antler like si)ines on abdominal segments 1 to (! and als(t 8 and 9, 
those on segments 1 and 8 being about three times as large as the others. It is certainly one of 
the most singular larviB of the family. 

Now this bizarre armature is entirely discarded at the first molt, with the exception that the 
prothoracic antlers are represented by a jiair of knob like tubercles, the other segments, however, 
showing no trace of the former existence of spines. Also, while the body was not striped in Stage 
I, it is now paler red, with a more brownish tint, and is marked with four yellowish strijjes. At 
the end of this stage the lines become effaced and the body grows more yellowish on the sides. 
In the third stage the tubercles still persist, but the markings differ very much, as reddish dorsal 
patches appe ir in the middle and near the end of the body, and there are anticipati(ms of the 
markings of the fully grown caterpillar. In the ])resent stage the insect closely resembles the 
mature larva, having bright crimson markings on the thoracic segments and on the third and 
fourth and on the fifth and sixth abdominal segments, these bright s2)ots becoming somewhat less 
decided and (!onspicuous in the final stage. 

Fig. 1 (J). 37) Hipresents the first larval stage of H. obliqua, its horns being like those of H. gut- 
tivitta (Ilia), and also dropi)ed at the first molt. 



Now, it seems uatural to suppose that the disappearauce of the armature of this insect with 
the tirst molt was due to the lack of need for it by the caterpillar, which gradually became adapted 
to a life on the underside of an oak leaf, where it assumed a simple spindle-shaped body extended 
when at rest along the midrib, in which position we have found the older caterpillar, its body 
glaucous-green and so marked with yellowish lines and reddish spots, as well as with daslies and 
lines, as to be wonderfully assimilated to the greenish, reddish, and whitish hues of the leaf under 
which it was sheltered. 

Fig. 1. — Early stiagrs of Hetemcainpa obliqva and II. fjuttivitta. — I. Heterocampa oblujita Paci. — Freshly batched larvaj 7a, dorsal 
view; lb, spiue ou third ; ICy spine on eighth : Jd, spiue on cintli abdominal segment ; le, prothoracic horns of stage I, enlarged. II. Hetero- 
canjpa obliqna Pack. — Stage 11; Ila, horns on prothoracic segment. III. Hclcrocampa gnttivitta Walk. — Horns in stage I; a, pro- 
thoracic horn; h, one on second abdominal : c. one on third lo tilth, and rf, tin ninth abdominal segment. (Thosetffi are in some cases omitted). 

It also seems reasonable to suppose that these adaptatioiial, colorational features were acquired 
by the ancestors of the present forms during the different stages succeeding the first ecdysis. 
And thus we are warranted in assuming that this and multitudes of other cases of adaptation to 
the change in habits and modes of life and special situations were acquired originally, at different 
periods after birth, during an earlier geological period than this, when the ancestors were fewer 
in number and more plastic than now. Otherwise, how can we have the differentiation of a few 


ancestral forms into the itreseiit series of genera, subfamilies, and families represented by such a 
great number of species? 

Indeed, it seems difficult to account for the evolution of the vast hordes of existing species of 
insects, unless we assume that tliere was going on throughout the entire prcjccss the rise and 
gradual perfecting of postnatal acquired characters, such characters becoming tixed by heredity 
and reappearing with unerring certitude at dift'erent stages in the life of the individual, while in 
some animals whose postnatal metamorphosis became suppressed we have the more salient stages 
epitomized during the life of the embryo. 

Tlie reddish and russet spots developed in the three, and especially two, last stages of tlio larva 
of these Notodontians are, as shown by the experiments of Wood, and especially of I'oulton, the 
result of the environment, being due to the action of tlie color of the spots of the leaves on the 
sensitive portions of the skin or cuticle of the caterpillars. It seems to be fundamentally due to 
the action of both physical and jihysiological processes. The skin is spotted and painted l)y the 
reflection of the red and russet tints of the leaves on the sensitive skin of the living organism. 

The results are inherited at a corresponding period of life, just as the tubercles, spines, horns, 
and other kinds of armature. Hence for thousands of generations we have had such spotted 
caterpillars. Now if, as is quite obvious, the spots are thus suddenly produced, since light and 
dark hues were so i^roduced in Mr. Poulton's laboratory, at a certain time in the life of the cater- 
pillars observed by him, as we know by his experiments the colors were produced in the individuals 
of a single generation, it would seem to follow that in nature the characters were thus acquired in 
the larva at a certain stage in the life of the indiviihml, and have been transmitted by homochronous 
inheritance. Moreover, this appears to be a case where the characters have been produced by 
the direct action of the environment. 

At the time, the last of summer, when the leaves are fully mature, preparing to fall oft" and 
beginning to be variously spotted and tinted, there is made ready the peculiar environment of these 
leaf-feeding larva% and so long as these conditions of red and russet spotted or tinted leaves exist 
we shall continue to have similarly spotted cateri)illars; should the leaves remain green, we should 
not expect to have such spotted larvai. Now, these changes in the larvre are due to the primary 
factors of organic evolution, i. e., to changes in the environment, to the reflection of these bright 
or russet colored patches on the cuticle of the animal. By the neo Darwinian, the organization 
and i)roduction is attributed to "natural selection,"' as if it were the main and only eflicient cause 
of evolution, but really it is not so at all. It may act as a subordinate factor after the colors are 
2iroduced, and serve to preserve those individuals most distinctly marked, those less so more 
readily falling a prey to birds and insects. Natural selection does not originate, but alter the new 
structures or markings have appeared, as the result of the operation of the primary factors of 
organic evolution (the views of neo-Lamarckiaus), natural selection comes in as a late and quite 
subordinate factor to preserve tiie organism. 

Family Cerafocampitlw. — It is easy to believe that this grou]) miglit have evolved from such a 
thoroughly armed caterpillar as that of Hetcrocampa guttimtta, whose ontogeny we have just out- 
lined, as all the Ceratocampida' bear spines which vary in degree of c<unplexity. We are now 
acquainted with the life history of each important genus of this interesting group. We will select 
the case of Sphimikampa hicolor, a creature of nuirvellous beauty of ornamentation, which feeds 
on the (lleditschia or spiny locust. After a detailed study of the larva through its first larval 
stages to its maturity, we have drawn up the following summary of the more salient features in 
its ontogeny, dividing the characters into those 'which are congenital and those which we believe 
to have been acquired during the stages succeeding the first: 


1. The two pairs of enormous spines of secfuid aiul tliird thoracic segments one-half as long 
as the body and ending in a two-spined, large, flattened, dark bulb, freely movable and phiinly 
defensive in function. 

2. The large, reddish, spiny "caudal horn" on the eightli uroniere ending in two bri.stles. 


3. The double jnliferous tubercle on the ninth uromere becoming obsolete in Stages IV and V. 

4. The abdominal region is longitudinally striped with dark and whitish bands, but there are 
no transverse marks in Stage I or in later stages. 


1. The head slightly angular, face siibtriangular, with a light-brown or greenish lateral stripe 
(Stages II-V). 

2. Appearance of a transverse row of dorsal granulations on the hinder end of each segment 
in Stage II, persisting through larval life. 

3. The eight thoracic spines lose their bulbous tips and .become simply slightly forked in Stage 
III and later. 

4. The two dorsal spines of uromeres 1-7 are in Stage II larger than the others; in Stage III 
they become ivory white externally and in Stage IV larger and silvery white on the outside. 

5. In the last two stages the eight thoracic spines become very much shorter in i)roportiou to 
the size of the body and become less movable; as thej' decline in size and functional importance, 
the metallic, silvery, dorsal spines on the abdominal segments become conspicuous and apparently 
useful to the larva. 

The following summary of a better-known caterpillar, that of Eacles imppriaUs, will bring out 
more clearly, perhaps, the point we wish to make, i. e., that the later adaptational characters have 
been acquired during the lifetime of either one or of a series of ancestral forms leading up to the 
present one. 



1. In stage I there are three pairs of very long dorsal deeply forked thoracic horns, nearly 
half as long as the body. 

2. A similar median spine on theeighth abdominal segment, with one half as long on the ninth. 

3. The abdominal segments are transversely banded with black. 

4. The lateral spines ou the abdominal segments bifid and nearly as large as the subsimple 
dorsal ones. 

5. Body pale chestnut brown ; head light reddish. 

6. The sijiracles minute and difficult to detect, as they are situated in one of the transverse 
black bands. 


1. The forks of the larger dorsal spines disappear at the end of Stage III. 

2. The dorsal thoracic spines become recurved in Stage III. 

3. The dorsal thoracic and caudal horn become much shorter and stouter in Stage IV, when 
the characters of Stage V (and last) are nearly assumed. 

4. In Stage II the dorsal spines on the prothoracic segment begin to grow shorter and stouter. 

5. In Stage II the large horns begin to be less deeply forked. 

6. The transverse black stripes disappear at the end of Stage II. 

7. The dorsal and lateral spines on abdominal segments 1-7 are much smaller in jiroportion 
in Stage III than in Stage II. 

8. Toward the end of Stage III the colors of the body become more conspicuous and variable. 
It. In Stage III the spiracles become ])arti-colored and very conspicuous. 

10. The dorsal thoracic and the ''caudal horn" become much shorter in Stage IV and not 
forked at the tip. 

11. The hairs become long and abundant in Stage IV. 

12. The body in Stage IV becomes much stouter and heavier than before, while the head has 
not greatly gained in size jiroportionately. 

The European Aglia tau appears to be the sole representative in the Old World of the 
American group or family Ceratocampidae, though with the larval, pupal, and imaginal characters 


it seems to be the type of a distinct snbdivisiou of the CeratocauipidiB (the subfamily Affliinw), as 
we have iiaineil the group. This form is a connecting link between the genuine Ceratocampidie 
and theSaturniid;e. As originally shown by Duponchel and more recently by Mr. Toulton, before 
the last molt the caterpillar wholly discards the cougeuital characters, viz, its spinous armature, 
characters common to the Ceratocampida-, and assumes an entirely and strikingly ditt'erent shape. 
It is ni)w destitute of any spines at all, its body is rather short and thick, the segments full convex, 
and it closely ap[)roxiuiates the geneval appearance of a Saturuiau larva, though the majority of 
these are armed with more or less spinose tubercles; the caterpillar of the Brazilian Attucus bit is 
Walker, however, is tigured and described by Burmeister as being smooth-bodied. The Aglia is 
now quite a different creature from what it was in its earlier stages ; its conditions of existence have 
somewhat changed, and in adaptation to such changes its means of defense are of a different nature. 
It now feeds passively on its food plant, and is dependent on its colors, various delicate shades 
of green and yellow, to escape the observation of its vertebrate and insect enemies, and if discovered 
it appears to rely on its large, terrifying eye-spot and somewhat sphinx like attitude to frighten 
away its aggressors. 

Now, it seems most natural to suppose that the features of the last stage were in the ancestors 
of this insect acquired wholly or in part during a dehuite epoch in the lifetime of one or perhaps 
of a few generations. The mature characters were not originally congenital and would have 
perhaps been useless in the early stages of the caterpillar. They may have suddenly appeared in 
a single individual and then have become transmitted by heredity and tixed by natural selection, or 
this process may have extended through several, though not very many, generations. 

The chief factors in the origination of such a striking change iu shape and ornamentation after 
the last molt appear to have been the atrophy of the spines and tubercles by disuse, the larva, by 
a change in its mode of life, with more sluggish habits and perhaps feeding in less exposed 
conditions, not needing them, the same change resulting in a transfer of the nutritive liuids 
and bringing about the deposit of i)iginent in definite places, as in the eye-spots. 

Whether one accepts the view of the transmission of acciuired characters or not, it must be 
conceded that the remarkable changes exhibited by Aglia in the last stage must have been 
induced with more or less suddenness; that the tendency, at least, to the change was probably 
originated during the lifetime of perhaps a single individual. The case seems to us to almost 
amount to a crucial one, and if it can be explained by any other mode of reasoning than 
the one suggested it will be a matter of interest. Certainly the congenital characters show a 
remarkable contrast with what we assume to be acquired characters, and we know of no better 
example which could be cited to prove the fact of the transmission of acquired characters. 

Family SaturniidK.—ln the larval stages of this regal family we have great contrasts between 
the tirst and later stages, both in armature and coloration, as summarized below, each stage 
differing remarkably from the others: 



1. The setic in Stage I blunt, slightly bulbous, and glandular. 

2. The tubercles are all of tlie same size. 

3. Body in Stage I dark, almost blackish green; head jet black ; tubercles yellowish green. 

4. The homologue of the "caudal horn" shows plainly its double origin. 

5. The difference between the colors of the larva of the lirst and last stages very marked. 


1. The thoracic dorsal tubercles in Stage II and onward are longer than the abdominal ones. 

2. Five rows of indistinct black spots along the body in Stage II, not so distinct as in <S'. Cynthia^ 
the body ])eing still dusky green. (These do not originate from lines.) At the end of Stage II 
the larva is more like cynthia of the same age, tlie body being more yellow and the black spots 
more distinct. The spots disappear at the end of Stage IV. 


3. The tlioracic dorsal tubei'cles deep orange; their homologiies ou the abdominal segments 
amber yellow. 

4. The tubercles at the end of Stage II and in Stage III spotted on the sides with black. 

5. In Stage III the dorsal tubei'cles of second and third thoracic segments showy coral red. 
The subdorsal and infraspiracular tubercles tipped with pale blue; in Stage II the same tubercles 
are almost entirely pale blue. 

6. The head becomes green in Stage IV, with a black spot on the side. 

7. The larva is most gaudily colored and conspicuous in the last two stages, while in S. 
vynthia there are not such marked ditterences between the different stages, thongh the last is the 
most variegated, owing to the beautiful turquoise-blue trappings. 

In CaUosamia prnmethea the freshly hatched caterpillar is most remarkably banded, and all its 
marks and tubercles are in striking contrast with the fully grown larva. The differences may be 
epitomized as follows : 



1. Hatched with heavy black transverse bands on a yellow body, and the head black, banded 
with yellow; the bristles moderately long; thus the larva is already a rather conspicuous object. 

2. The dorsal thoracic tubercles already differentiated in size and color from those on abdom- 
inal segments 1 to 7. The differences between the freshly hatched larva and the last stage very 
marked; more so than in Platysamia or Samia. 


1. In stage II the body becomes paler, and thus the black b.mds more conspicuous. The 
second and third tlioracic dorsal tubercles and those on abilominal segments 1 to 8 are now all 
yellowish and of the same size. 

2. Disappearance in Stage III of the transverse black bands. The abdominal tubercles all 
become blackish. 

3. In Stage IV the head becomes yellow, being less conspicu jusly marked, and the dorsal 
abdominal tubercles are about half as long and large as those ou the second and third thoracic 

4. The body becomes in the last stage much smoother than before, the dorsal pxothoracic and 
abdominal tubercles being much shorter than in Stage IV. .This reduction of size and inconspicu- 
ousness of the dorsal abdominal tubercles is carried out to excess in G. angulifera, where they 
become obsolete, and the larva is simply a large green eater-pillar with inconspicuous .markings, 
and simply protected by its green color, like the majority of lepidopterous larvje, not being so 
strikingly marked as in the fully fed Samia. cynthia. 

It is not improbable that the reduction and atrophy of the dorsal tubercles in question is also 
accompanied by a great reduction, if not total abolition, of the poison glands at the base of these 
spines. However, having lost the power of resisting or avoiding attack by this means, it, by the 
action of the law of correlation, also loses its bright markings or danger signals, and having 
become harmless to its enemies it is preserved from. extinction by passively relying on its smooth, 
glaucous-green body to escape the observation of its natural enemies. 

A tendency to the same end is seen in the larva of Samia ci/nthia, which is paler, less gaily 
ornamented with bright markings, and also is much less heavily intercalated than the caterpillar 
of Platysamia cccropia. 

It is evident that of the two species of Callosanua, C. promethea is the more primitive form and 
C fl«</M/i/Vrrt a derivation from it; the former is what systematists call a "higher" species and 
C. aiujiili/cra a "lower," but many "lower" species are simply a set of those individuals which 
have undergone some degree of moditication or degeneration, and are later in point of origin. 

Likewise the Asiatic genus, Samia (S. cynthia being an introduced form), with little doubt, is 
a form which has undergone more or less moditication and indeed a slight degree of reduction or 
atriii)hy, and is thus a later form, the genus Phitymmia being an earlier type, since it has probably 
been envolved from Saturnia, which is the most primitive genus of the family. 


The terms "high" iiud "low" are expressions mucli misused and misai)])lied; tlie terms 
generalized, or early or primitive; and modified, specialized, or later, are perhaps truer to nature. 

It is not always the liighest — i. e., most specialized — forms which are furthest removed from 
the ancestral forms. For example, the Diptera, especially the Muscid;e, are the most modified of 
insects, i. e., the furthest removed structurally from the winged ancestral forms; but the Ilyme- 
uoptera, especially the wasi)s and bees, when we take into account the adult stage, are the 
"highest" — i. e., the most specialized — of all insects. 

The life histories of the colossal moths, Telca polfiphcnius and Actian I una, are of nnich interest 
in connection with this topic, and our remarks should be illustrated by elaborate detailed desi^rip- 
tions and colored figures, but the essential points may be indicated by the following epitomes. It 
should be premised that the shape of the tubercles and the glandular setie they bear difter greatly 
in the freshly hatched larva from their appearance after the first molt:' 



1. The setfB (bristles) of Stage I but little longer than the tubercles, and both truncate and 
distinctly bulbous at tip. 

2. A slight but distinct differentiation in size and color of the dorsal tubercles, those of the 
third thoracic and ninth abdominal segments being of the same size, and larger than those on 
uromeres 1-7, and of a deeper yellow shade. (Stage I.) 

3. The homologue of the "caudal horn'' is distinctly double and more deeply divided than in 
any other American genera of Attacina^; each fork about as long as thick. (Stage I.) 

4. Abdominal legs each with 24 crotchets — a larger number by to 8 than in the other genera. 
(Stage i.) 

5. Each abdominal segment (uromere) with a lateral pair of transverse black slashes in 
■ Stage I. 

C. The two tubercles in Stage I on the suraual plate slender, papilliform, and approximate. 


1. The lateral pair of black transverse stripes on each uromere nearly or quite disappear in 
Stage II. 

2. The segments more convex and angular in Stage III. 

3. Appearance of a yellowish lateral oblique stripe connecting the lateral tubercles of the 
lower and upper row in Stage III. 

4. Appearance of the pale purplish edging of the suraual ])late and anal legs in Stage III. 

5. Appearance in Stage IV of the pearly spot on the outside of the dorsal tubercles. 
The generic characters are mostly assumed in Stage III. 



1. Setie tapering to a point, not bulbous, and finely barbed. (Stage I.) Most of them are 
three or four times as long as the tubercles. 

2. Some larvse iu Stage I with a very broad lateral dark band along the side of the body, 
some without it; no transverse stripes present, but the head in front is twice banded with dark 

3. The second and third dorsal thoracic tubercles differentiated in Stage I, being slightly 
larger than the abdominal ones. 

4. On the suraual ])late are two rudimentary tubercles, each bearing a tuft of bristles. 

.5. The dorsal median tubercle on uromere 8 does not show such marked traces of its double 
origin as Stage 1 of G, promelhea or T. pohjphemm, but it is more duplex than in P. cecropia. 

1 See Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts and Sciences. Boston, xsviii, p. 80. 1893. 



1. Dorsal tubercles in Stage II higher than before. 

2. The lateral dark band disapi^ears iu Stage II. 

3. In Stage III the dorsal thoracic tubercles become nearly twice as long and thick as, the 
abdominal ones. 

i. The head is not banded iu Stage IV. 

5. The tubercles brightest (pink or dark carmine) and most conspicuous in the last stage. 

0. A distinct iufraspiracular yellow line in Stage IV, and the suranal plate and anal legs lined 
with yellow, and the surface of the suranal plate and sides of the anal legs amber-colored. 

Family Cochliopodidw. — The slug like larv?e of the Bombycoid family Cochliopodid;?, so 
remai'kable from their snail-like mode of locomotion, their abdominal legs being entirely atroi)hied, 
in their life history offer strong circumstantial evidence in favor of tlie primitive rapid acquisition 
of striking characteristics at the first molt. These larvfe, as we have elsewhere stated, are born 
■without traces of abdominal legs, are nearly colorless, and with bodies more cylindrical than in the 
full grown caterpillar. In the more specialized tuberculated and spiny genera Adoneta and Empre- 
tia (and probably Euclea) the tubercles are already differentiated in Stage I, much as in the last 
stage, but otherwise the change from the first to the second stage is very great, so that the set of 
«07igenital characters is very different from the assemblage of acquired characters, especially the 
addition of great nnnibers of bristles on the tubercles, and the gay varied colors and markings of 
the body. This sudden change, after but a single molt, shows that these characters are suddenly 
acquired. The larv?e from being minute, pale-yellowish worms, hatching from almost invisible 
scale-like transparent eggs, after the first molt undergo a striking change, the result of feeding in 
a more exposed situation and of consequent successful adaptation to prevent recognition on the 
part of hostile insects and birds. The armature of poisonous glandular spines and the development 
of b/i'ight warning colors are evidently characters acquired late in larval life, when the creatures 
are large enough to attract notice. 

In illustration of the changes due to adaptation undergone by members of this family, I have 
selected the following examples, copied from a previous paper:' 



1. The tubercles on the second and third thoracic and the first, seventli, and eighth abdominal 
segments three times the size of those on abdominal segments 2-6, these tubercles being already 
differentiated at birth and more markedly so than in Adoneta. 

2. Head not capable of being withdrawn into and concealed by the prothoracic segment. 

3. The tubercles each bear only three two-forked glandular setie. 

4. The body is more cylindrical than in the later stages and colorless. 


1. In stage II the form and general colors of the full-fed larva are assumed. 

2. The tubercles are now armed with numerous poisonous spiuules. 

Note.— From what we now know of the congenital as compared with the later acciuired adaptational characters 
■of Cochliopods, it is evident that the latter are acquired at an earlier stage than in most other caterpillars. 



1. No tubercles on the prothoracic segment. 

2. The dorsal tubercles on the second and third thoracic and first, fourth, seventh, and eighth 
abdominal segments double the size of those on the other segments, the tubercles being already 
differentiated at birth. 

' Proceedings Amer. Philosophical Society, Phil, xxxi, pp. 83-108, 1893. 


3. The protlioracic segment not yet forming a liood, the head not retraeted withiu it so readily 
as in the last stages. 

4. The tubereles each bear only three three-forked glandular setae. 

5. The segments are more distinct than in the later stages. 

6. The body is pearly white, slightly inuplish on the bai^k. 


1. The body in Stage IT assumes nearly the form and colors of the last stage, the tubercles 
being armed with numerous spines aud some of them tinted with led. 

2. In Stage III the colors and appearance of the full-fed larva are assumed. 



1. The larva is hatched without any tubercles. 

2. The ghiudular hairs are of the same size and shape in the dorsal aud subdorsal rows, being 
short, with a tine at the middle and forked at the truncated end. 

3. The body is more cylindrical than in the last stages and not skiff-like, and the segments are 
distinct and simple. 

i. The body is at first colorless. 


1. The body becomes skiff'-like when 5.5 mm. in length. 

2. The color is pea green, like that of the leaf it feeds on, with straw- yellowish marks and spots. 

3. The skin becomes rough and granulated aud the plateau distinctly marked in Stage III 
or IV. 

i. In the last stage the minute spines disappear. 


MAPS i-x. 

The Lepidoptera are, as regards the higher groups, from the Bombyces to the butterflies, very 
largely tropical, the number of species diminishing as we pass from the e<piator to the poles. 

:\Ir. Wallace ' states that the distribution of butterflies corresponds generally with that of 
birds in showing a i)rimary division of the earth mto eastern and western rather than into 
northern and southern lands. From his studies on the ilistribntion of butterflies and " Sphingiua" 
(including, however, the .Egeriidie, Castiiiida", Agaristida', Zyga-nidie, Uraniidw), he concludes 
that "the neotropical region is by far the richest and most jjcculiar." 

The Zyga-nidiP or day-flying moths are usually restricted to the Tropics, as we have seen in a 
striking manner when descending from the temperate zone of Mexi(!0 to Cordova, which is 
situated in the tropical zone (tierra calientc), and it is easy to recognize the fact that our United. 
States species of this family have been derived from the tropical regions of Central and South 
America and the Antilles. 

It would be premature for us to enter into even a provisional account of the distribution 
of the Bombyces as a whole until we have completed our survey of the members of the entire 
superfamily, and our remarks at iiresent will be therefore confined to the Notodontidie. 

It may, however, b(^ well to bear in mind .some general results which are quite obvious to one 
who has paid even slight attention t(j the Hombycine moths. 

While the Notodontidie ai)pear to be both tropical and temperate forms, though it should be 
borne in mind that we know but little of the tropica! forms, and few si)ecies are known from India, 
or southern Asia in general, certain other families are largely tropical. 

' The Geographical Distribution of Animals, 1876, ii, p. 483. 


Upon the whole, the Ceratocampidm are tropical, many more species occurring in Brazil and 
Central America than in North America, and this may be said of the family Hemileucida'. 

The family iSaturniida- is a tro[)ical group, only a single genus occurring in Europe, while in 
North America north of Mexico there are six. In tropical America, Africa, and southeastern 
Asia, including Chiua, the species and genera are far more numerous and form a characteristic 
feature of tlie fauna. 

Another fiimily richly developed in the tropics of South America, Africa, and Asia is the 
extensive family of Lasiocampidn; many of them rivaling in size the colossal Attaci, and judging 
from a collection of Central African caterpillars of this group in the museum of Brown University, 
collected on the Upper Congo, their armature of spines is tlie most formidable of any of the 
Bombyces. And here it may be observed that the most spiny forms appear to be tropical, and 
this tends to prove that originally nearly all our spiny caterpillars appeared in warm regions, 
while the densely hairy forms, like Arctian larvif, predominate in cool temperate regions. 

The I'sychhlcv, though so richly developed in Europe, appear on the whole to be widely 
distributed over the tropical regions, including Australia. 

The group of CochUopodida' or slug caterpillars is richly developed in Central and South 
America, as well as in India, but is entirely wanting in western North America, while in Europe 
there are only two species, this paucity or absence of species being probably due to geological 
extinction iu the western«portious of the Old and New Worlds. 

The small family of Meyalopyyidcc (Lagoida^) is confined to the New World. One genus ( Lagoa) 
occurs iu the eastern United States, but the species are most, numerous in the forest regions of 
eastern South America. 

The family LipaHdw appears on the whole to exist in greater force in the Tropics of America 
and Asia than in the temperate regions to the northward. 

On the other hand, the extensive group of Arctiidw and Litlwsiidw predominate in the tem- 
perate regions, and its species, in rare cases — a few of Arctia — extend to the Polar Regions, only 
one other genus, Laria, a Liparid, sharing the regions of the Arctic Circle, a species of each genus, 
Arctia and Laria, also being Alpine in Europe and North America. 

We will proceed to analyze the Notodontian fauna of North America. 

The animals of our American continent south of the Polar Region may roughly be divided 
into three grand assemblages, i. e., (1) those inhabiting the northern moist and forest-clad regions; 
(2) those inhabiting the elevated, dry plateau region of the Cordillera mountain ranges, extending 
southward over the Mexican plateau, and which may be called the Plateau Piovince (it is Allen's 
Arid Province); (3) those inhabiting the tropical portions of southern Florida and the low tropical 
shores of southern Texas and of Central America. 

In our essay on the geographical distribution of the Geometrid moths,' published in 1870, 
we called attention to the elements from which our present insect fauna has Leeii formed, and 
claimed that the tropical elements iu our fauna originally migrated from Central America by 
three avenues, i. e., the Pacific Coast, the central plateau of the Cordilleras, and the Atlantic 
Coast, and we have always been of the. opinion that the Mexican fauna had strongly influenced 
the Pacilic Coast fauna, as well as the fauna of New Mexico, Utah, and Nevada. 

As to the Arid province, or Plateau province as it might also be designated, it may be observed 
that within the limits of the United States it comprises the Central province of Agassiz, together 
with the Pacific Coast or California province, and to which Dr. Allen gives the name of Campes- 
trian subprovince. The southern equivalent of the Campestrian is the Mexican subjjrovince. We 
very much prefer the word Mexican to the term "Sonoran" of Dr. Merriam.'' Originally the term 
"Sonoran" was applied by Cope to a restricted portion of northwestern Mexico known politically 
as Sonora. 

But Dr. Merriam has, somewhat unwarrantably it seems to us, extended the term "Sonoran" 
to include not only the elevated portions of Mexico, but also almost the whole of the United States 

'A nionograpli of the Geometrid moths or Phala'nicla' of the I'uited States. Report IJ. S. Geological Survey, 
F. V. Hayilen, geologist iu charge, Vol. X, 187(>. 

"The Geograjihlc Distiiliutiou of Life in North America, with special reference to the Mammalia. Proc. 
Biological Society of Washington, vii, pp. 1-64, April, 1892. With a map. 


south of the Great Lakes and New Englauil, liis Upper Souorau being the equivaleut of the 
Carolinian of other writers, and his Lower Souorau correspondiug to the Austroriparian snl)i)rovinL'e 
of Allen. Such au enormous extension of the term Souorau seems unfortunate, aud it is to bo 
hoped that it will not be generally adopted. 

The word Mexican, being far more general in its application, is obviously a more natural 
and general term, and means more to the general student than the restricted word "Souoran." 
Sonora is but a small district or portion of Mexico, and while we might perhaps retain the name 
Souorau for the fauna of northeastern Mexico in the sense origiually intended by Professor Cope, 
to give it the very gre-at extension now proposed is at least inadvisable.' 

Another consideration is the probable origin of the fauna of this Arid or Plateau Province. 
The region covered by the fauna and flora of the Great Plains of the United States (Canipestrian) 
and of the Mexican Plateau is entirely distinct from the northern or cold-humid and the southern 
warm-humid subregions of our continent. 

It is possible that it is in a large part made up of the remnants of the Pliocene fauna, which 
underwent great modifications during the process of desiccation of the treeless, elevated western 
portion of our continent (origiually the Mesozoic Pacifis of Clarence King). Doubtless during the 
period of elevation aud of drainage, resulting in the formation of the extensive desert tracts of the 
United States and Mexico, when the surface became deforested, owing to the lack of sufficient rain- 
fall, the present assemblage, or at least the immediate forerunners of the plants aud animals of 
this vast plateau region, formerly inhabitated by the lacustriau life of the Eocene, Miocene, aud 
Pliocene Tertiary epochs — times of tropical humidity aud heat — was gradually brought into 

The general name "Arid province" applied by Dr. Allen to this plateau region seems appro- 
priate, and for the two quite distinct subprovinces Dr. Allen's term Canipestrian is well selected, 
and for the southern we hope the term Mexican will be reserved, espeitially since the tropical 
portions of Mexico seem, so far as our present knowledge extends, scarcely distinguishable from 
that of Central America in general. We shall venture in this work to use the word Mexican in the 
sense in which the term Souorau has been employed by Dr. Merriam. 

The maps published by Dr. Allen in his most recent essay on the geographical distribution of 
North American mamuuils (Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, iv, pj). 109-243, 
1892) will, with a few minor changes, serve our purpose in illustrating the distribution of the insects 
and in a more restricted way of the Bombycine moths (see Map I). We uuiy have in our former 
essay contrasted too sharply the Central province and the Pacific Coast district. 

We will first contrast our North American assemblage of Notodontida- with that of Europe, 
including northwestern Asia (the "PaliBartic" region of Sclater) and inclusive of the tropical 
portions of southeastern Asia (Wallace's Oriental Region). We purposely omit any reference to 
the term Nearctic, believing it an unfortunate appellation, neither philosophical nor true to the 
fact that America is zoologically an older continent than Eurasia, its plants and animals having 
lagged behind in development that of the flora and fauna of tlie Old World, geological extinction 
having gone on more rapidly in Europe than in America, at least in northwestern America, while 
the ending Arctic is quite inapplicable to an assemblage of north temperate animals. 

The Notodontian fauna of America is naturally richer than that of I'^urasia, because of the 
greater extent and diversity of surface of the continent over which it is spread. 

In Staudinger's Catalogue of European Lepidoptera of Notodontida- there are enumerated 
1-4 genera and 42 species; in Ameripa, north of Mexico, we luive 21 genera and about 78 sjjecies. 

The following lists will present in a grajjhic way the resend)lances and diflerences between the^ 
Notodontian fauna of the two hemis))heres, it being understood that by Eurasia we mean Europe 
and Asia, without the Oriental .region; aud by North America, that continent less Mexico and 
Central America. 

' lu his valuable essay entitled "Laws of temperature coutrol of the geographic distribution of terrestrial 
animals and plants," Nat. Cieogr. Mag., vi, Dec, 1894, Dr. Mirriam divides the United States into three regions: the 
lioreal. Austral, and Tropical. The Austral region is divided into three zones: the Transition, Upper Austral, and 
Lower Austral. The Upper Austral zone eoni)irises two prineijial subdivisions: an eastern or Candinian area and a 
western or Upper .Souoran area. The Lower Austral zone coin[)rise3 two principal subdivisions: au eastern or Aus- 
troriparian area, and a western or Lower .Sonoran area (p. 1'77). 



The NotodontidtB of North America are iu this work divided into seven subfamilies; of these 
the Gltiphisiuo', rygcvrincc, Ichthyitrhuv, and Xotodont'ma' occur both in Eurasia and North America, 
while two of the seven, the Apatelodincv and Eeterocampimv^ are peculiar to North America, and 
extend through Central into the eastern forest-clad tropical region of South America. 






Genera common to Eurasia and North America. 



Nerice. '(China and Nepaul.) 








Genera peculiar to North America. 








Of this assemblage several genera extend into Central and South America (the Brazilian 
subregion), and, besides those enumerated, Nadata, Hyparpax, and Schizura will perhaps eventu- 
ally be found to exist in the Brazilian subregions. I have included Apatelodes, as it is so closely 
allied to Tarathyris, and may be found to be identical with it. Cerura is of doubtful occurrence 

in South America. 

Genera common to North and South America. 
Apatelodes. Heterocampa. 

Dasylophia. Macrurocampa. 

It appears from these facts that our Notodontians have originated iu North America, the 
species of those genera ranging into tropical South America having perhaps migrated from the 
northward, and their ancestors may have formed the Notodontiau fauna of Miocene and Pliocen e 

North America. 

Within the limits of the United States there are profound differences in the Arid Plateau 
province and the humid or eastern province. 

American genera not occurring in the Campestrian suhprovince, including the Pacific Coast district 

{south of Oregon). 

Apatelodes. Symmerista. 

Datana (only 1 species). Hyparpax. 

Lophodouta. Xylinodes. 

Drymonia (occurs iu Colorado). Seirodonta. 

j;]lj^j.^_ Heterocampa. (Except H.plumosa from 

Nerice'. Arizona.) 

Dasylophia. ' Macrurocampa. 

Excepting three species of Schizura and Euhyparpax, the entire group of HeterocampiniB 
is wanting in western America, and it is siguiftcant that the Heterocampinw are entirely wanting 
in the Old World, as is also the group Apatclodinw. 

Now, confining our attention to the United States and British America, we will give a tabular 
view of the species of the forest-clad, humid, northeastern portion of North America, adding in 
a parenthesis after the name of each species either (1) for the Appalachian subprovince or (2) 
showing its residence in the Austroripariau subprovince. Where a species ranges through both 
subprovinces both numbers are inserted. 


Species inhahitating the Cold Temperate sttbregion and Humid province {Allen) (/. e., the northern or 

boreal and the eastern or forest-clad prorinee). 

Subfamily I. — GLUriiisiN.K. 

(llunliisia scptcntrioiiis (1). (1. liiitueri (1). G. severa (1). 

Sublamily 1 1. — Apatelodin^. 

Apatelodes torrefacta (1,2). A. augelica (1). 

Subfamily III. — rYG.i^RiNyE. 

All the (13) species of tlie genus, except Dafana enliforniea. 

Subfamily I^^ — IcHTHYURlN^. 

Ichthyura apicalis (vau) (1). Icbthjnira albosigina (1). 

inclusa (1, 2). bnicei (1). 
strigosa (1). 

Subfamily T. — Xotodontin^. 

Nadata gibbosa (1,2), Notodonta stragula (1). 

Lopliodouta angulosa (1, 2). .simjilaria (1). 

ferruginea (2). Ellida caniplaga (1). 

'basitriens (1). Nerice bidentata (1). 

Drymouia georgica (1, 2). Dasylophia anguina (1, 2). 

Lopbopteryx elegans (1). interna (1). 

cameliua (1). Symmurista albifrons (1,2). 

Pheosia dimldiata (1). packardii (1). 

SubAimily YI. — HeterocampinvE. 

Hyparpax aurora (1. 2). Heterocampa mantco (1,2). 

peroj)boroides (2). biuudata (1,2). 

Xylinodes liguicolor (1, 2). guttivitta (1, 2). 

Schizura iponiea' (1, 2). * pulverea (1,2). 

leptinoides (1, 2). obliqua (1, 2). 

apicalis (1). astarte (2). 

unifornis (1, 2). belfragei (2). 

badia (1). subrotata (2). 

eximia (1). hydi-omeli (2). 

confiniia (1,2). unicolor (1). 

Seirodonta bilineata (1). Macrurocaiupa martbesia (1. 2). 

Subfamily YII. — Cerukin^. 
Cerura borealis (1. 2). Cerura cinerea (1,2). 

oecidentalis (1). scitiscrii)ta (1,2). 

scolopendrina (1). 

It \rill be seen from the foregoing list that out of 52 species 2.") are, so far as yet known, 
restricted to the Appalachian subprovitice, though extending westward in some cases to the 
Pacific Coast, a few, notably Gluphisia septentrionis, Jehthyura apiaalis (vau), and a species of 
Cerura, extending to the northern limits of the Hudsoniau district. None of the family are peculiar 
to the Alpine summits of this or any country. 

Species inhabitiHij the Arid prorince (Gumpcstrian) and Pacific Coast district. 

Those from the Great Basin and Itocky Mountain region (including Oregon and Washington) 
are marked (1); those from the Pacific Coast district (including California and Arizona), (2). 

Subfamily I. — GLUPnisiN^E. 

Gluphisia wrightii (2). Gluphisia albofascia (1). 
form ridenda (1). formosa (1). 

rupta (1). severa (2). 


Subfamily III.— Pyg^rin^. 
Datana califoriiica (2). 

Subfamily IV. — Ichthyurinje. 

Ichtbyura apicalis (1, 2). Icbtbyura brucei (1). 

var. oi-nata (1, 2). A-ar. multnoma (1). 

var. astoriie (1). albosigma (1). 

var. biflria (2). 
iuoniata (2). 

Subfamily Y. — Notodontin^i;. 

Nadata gibbosa (1, 2). Notodonta stragula var. pacifica (2). 

Plieosia diinidiata (1, 2). 

Subfamily VI. — Heterucampin^. 
Schizura ipomea^ (1, 2). Schizura coucinna (salicis) (2). 

peraiigulata (1). Heterocampa plumosa (1, 2). 

unicornis (2). 

Subfamily VII. — Cbrurin^. 
Cerura scolopendrina (1, 2). Cerura cinerea (1, 2). 

This list shows in a very striking way that not only is there not a genus of Notodontinaj as far 
■as we yet know peculiar to the vast Campestrian subprovince, but also, with perhaps the exception 
of one species {Heferocavipa plumosa), tliere is not throughout the whole of western North America 
any of the familj' widely distinct from eastern forms. All of the species and varieties of Gluphisia 
appear to be but climatic varieties of the eastern G. septcntrionis and sevcra; the single species 
of Datana (7). califontica) may prove to be a local variety of D. ministra. The only distinct 
species of Ichthyura is /. inornata, whose siiocific rank is quite doubtful, since I have been 
inclined to regard it as only a climatic variety of /. a2)icalis. Schizura perangulata is, however, 
quite distinct, and yet it is closely allied to S. crimia. 

In fact, the greater part of the number of Campestrian species are really inhabitants of the 
bumid, wooded mountains and elevated valleys which rise out of the dry, rainless jjlains and 
plateaus, and the species found there are truly members of the Appalachian fauna, the areas 
which tliej' inhabit being simple outliers on the western and Pacitic slojies of the Appalachian 
subprovince (Canadian and Alleghanian fauna), which extends southward along the elevated 
ranges of the Rocky Mountains of the Cascade Range and the Sierra Nevada. 

The Notodontians are peculiarly tree-inhabiting forms, and in a region so destitute of forests 
and of deciduous trees as the Plains, the Great Basin, and California we should not expect good 
material for characterizing faunae Hence the distribution of this restricted group of moths 
presents very different results from that of insects in general and of mammals and birds, and it is 
difiQcult to separate on sui'h slender evidence the Californian or Pacific Coast distiict fauna from 
the Campestrian, though when we take into account other groups of insects, especially Coleoi>tera, 
■we seem warranted in such a differentiation of the faunte of western North America. 

From what we know of the life histories of the Californian and Campestrian Notodontians 
their principle food plants in that region are the poplars and willows which tlourish along the 
river courses of that dry area, others feeding on the scrub oaks of the plains and foothills. 

This interdigitation of Campestrian (dry) and humid forest-clad mountain tracts, with the 
outliers from the Boreal (Arctic, Hudsonian, and Canadian) and Alleghanian ("Transition" 
Merriam) faunae is well shown ou Dr. Merriam's map.' 

' In our zoogeograpliical map publislied in 1883 (Vol. XII, Haydeu's Annual Report) we believe we were the first 
to represent on a colored map the southward extension along the Rocky Mountain range and Sierra Nevada, as 
well as along the Appalachians and Adirondacks of the Boreal (Canadian) province. Having visited those moun- 
tains and studied the Alpine fauna of those regions, and from general knowledge, it is somewhat surprising to read 
on page 226 of Dr. Allen's article the following statement: 

" Dr. Packard, in his otherwise excellent zoogeographical map of North America, failed, however, to recognize 
the southward extension of the Cold Temper.ate subregiiin along the principal mountain systems of the continent." 
On the contrary, as anyone will see on examining ray map, I have carried down along the Rocky Mountain range a 
long loop of the isotherm of 40^ as nearly far south as Santa Fi5, N. Mex,, and colored the mountain ranges and 
spurs within the loop pale blue, the same hue as that used iu coloring the Boreal province. 

S. Mis. 50 4 


The distribution of most of the genera and nearly each species of Notodontians is shown ou 
the nine phiin maps accompanying this memoir. It is believed that by having a number in con- 
spicuous type, representing a distinct species, the map will both show at a glance the known 
localities where they were found and also the distribution. When the entire group has been 
discussed, we liope to present a final colored map showing the general distribution of insect life 
in North America. 


Almost nothing has been done on this subject, except for the butterflies by Jlr. W. II. 
Edwards, whose able investigations are well known. The only facts known as regards the 
Bombyces are those stated to us by Mr. Beuteumiiller, who, in breeding Ichthyttra apicali.s, has 
found that the sulniner and winter broods of this species are different in hue, the pale individuals 
belonging to the summer brood and the darker ones to the earlier winter brood. 

Wc' have also called attention to the cases of Drcpdna urcuata and Dryopieris rosea, first 
noticed by the late S. Lowell Elliot. Mrs. Slossou tells us that in Franconia, N. H., the early May 
brood of the Geometrid moth, Seleiiea kentaria, is darker and richer in hue than those of the later 
or summer brood. 


In an essay on the general subject of climatic variation in our Monograph of Geometrid 
Moths (pp. 584—589) we called attention to the changes in the size of the body, in the shape of the 
wings, and in the coloration, observed in Colorado and on the Pacific Coast, in individuals of 
species ranging across the continent. We gave a list of 27 species of Geometrid moths which 
attain a larger size as we go west, and wliich in some cases have longer, more pointed wings than 
individuals from the Atlantic Coast. 

Our observations on individuals of the present family- have been very scanty from the lack of 
material, none of the collections I have been able to consult being rich in number of individuals; 
also from deficiency on the labels of exact localities, and of information as to whether captui'es 
were made on the plains or among the mountains in a State like Colorado, and whatever is 
stated here should be regarded as merely tentative and suggestive, rather than final and 

Notodontifhv which attain a larger size in the Campestrian suliprovimr, includiii;/ lite I'acijic Coast, 
than in the Atlantic or Appalachian and Austroriparian subprorinces. 

Ichthyura inornata. Schizura unicornis var. conspecta. 

Pheosia dimidiata. Cerura ciuera and var. cineroides. 

Species ichich have longer icings in the Campestrian suhprovinccs than in the Appnlachian and 

Schizura concinna (salicis). Cerura nivea. 

Species which tend to bleach out or to become paler than eastern imliridnals, and to lose their dark 
markings in the Arid or Campestrian subprovinces {including the lowlands of California). 

Gluphisia wrightii. Ichthyura apicalis. 

var. astori;t. 

var. formosa. Scliizura unicornis. 

var. conspecta. 
var. albofascia (Utah), Cerura cinerea. 

and var. nivea. 

It is not improbable that the Campestrian (Colorado and Utah) species of Ghiphisia, such as 
G. ridenda, G. rupta and albofascia are climatic varieties of 0. septentrionis. 

' Proc. Bo8t. Soc. Nat. Hist., xxiv, p. 491, 1800. 



Without at present entering into the discussion of the general causes of melanism, we will 
draw attention to such cases as have fallen under onr notice in the present group. 

It seeuis generally recognized, however, that nieUmism is due to elevation (not necessarily a^ 
high latitude) united with an excessively humid or wet climate. We have such elevated areas over 
which the rainfall is excessive in the White Mountains, in the Adirondacks, in the mountains of 
British America, the Cascade Range and its spurs in British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon, 
and in the elevated portions of the Sierra Nevada and of the Rocky Mountains, with their subordi- 
nate ranges and spurs. In such a cool and moist climate we also have much cloudy weather and 
far less direct sunlight than on the drier and more sunny lowlands. This does not exclude the 
fact that melanism may occur in a low and wet region, as the west coast of xVfrica. 

Mrs. Slosson, who has spent numerous summers iu Franconia, N. H., aud has had wide 
experience in collecting Lepidoptera in that region, as well as in Florida, informs me that it is 
almost invariably the case that the White Mountain moths are darker aud richer in hue than 
southern individuals of the same species. 

The following facts bear on this point: 

"But it is also a known fact that many species of animals, of insects, which are 
found at a high level on mountains have a darker coloring than their allies at a lower level. Thus 
there are remarkably dark species and varieties of beetles occurring at high levels." (Elmer's 
Organic^ Evolution, p. 9ti.) 

The late Dr. Weinland, who lived some years in the United States, remarks, as quoted by 
Eimer, " that darker pigment is always produced on mountains, as in Vqjera prester, the Black 
Mountain variety of Vijfera benis, as in the black rattlesnake of the White Mountains iu North 
America" (Ibid., p. 98). 

Eimer thinks only two causes, apart from moisture, aid iu the production of dark hues in Alpine 
animals, i. e., " either light or decreased atmospheric pressure." But is not the cloudiness and 
dullness of the skies about mountain summits, i. e., the absence of sunlight as compared with the 
bright sunny days of the lowlands, sufficient, with moisture, to account for the increase in dark 
pigment ? Though, to be sure, the heat and moisture of the west coast of Africa cause the greatest 
extreme of melanism iu the negro races. 

Cases of melanotic forms, both in the Eocly Mountains and on the humid, cool portions of the Pacific 

Coast, and on the Atlantic Coast regions. 

Gluphisia severa var. slossoniie (White Mountains). 

Ichthyura brueei var. multnoma (Oregon and Washington). 

Pheosia dimidiata var. portlandia (Oregon and Washington). 

Notodonta straguhi var. pacitica (California). 

Hetcrocampa guttivitta. Franconia, N. H. 

Cerura multiscripta. In the Northeastern States. 
It should be noted that Cerura seitiscripta is represented in New England by the dark form 
C. multiscripta. 

It is greatly to be desired that hereafter collectors working in the Eocky Mountain regions, as 
well as anywhere in the Campestrian region, including the Pacific Coast, should carefully state on 
their labels the exact locality, with date (at least' the month), of their ca^jtures. 


It hardly need be said that the classification of the Lepidoptera is in a very unsatisfactory 
state. This is due largely to the fact that the group is so homogeneous, that the habits and 
environment of the species are so uniform, and that the adaptive modern characters have hidden 
the slight primitive or ancestral characters which crop out in certain forms; hence the phj'logeny 
of the order is difficult to unravel. It is now perhaps generally supposed that the Lepidoptera 
have originated from the Trichoptera, or from forms very much like them, the most generalized 
Tineina being closely similar to the caddis flies, though we shall endeavor to show that this view 


is not well foiinded, since it is more probable that both Trichoptera and Lepidoptera have had a 
cotniuon parentage. On the other hand, all agree in plaeing the butterllies at the liead of the 
series as the most specialized modern gron]) of families. But as regards the natural se(]uenee of 
the groups between these two assemblages there are wide ditl'erences of opinion. Certainly the 
division of the order into ]fho])alocera and Ileterocera is amateurish and artificial, as is the 
sepai'ation of the order into the divisions of ."Macrolepidoptera and .Microlejiidoptera. 

The principles which it seems to us should be kept in view in working out the relations of the 
groups are the following: 

1. "We should keep constantly in mind that a true classification of the Lepidoptera is, like 
that of any other group ot organic beings, an expression of the i)hylogenetic development of the 
members of the group. 

2. The mouth-parts and particularly the highly modified and specialized maxilla>, being 
diagnostic of adult Lcpidoiitera, as also the abseiu'c of functional mandibles, these characters, 
together with the pupal ones, are of great phylogenetic importance and of i)rimary taxonomic 
value in the establishment of suborders. 

3. As in the case of the Dijitera, which were divided bj- Brauer into Dipfera cyi-lorliaplin and 
orthorhapha, the pupa serving for a division of the order into suborders, the larval and imaginal 
characters agreeing with those drawn from the pupa, so "the pupal characters of Lepidoptera, as 
first employed by Chapnmn, are, it seems to us, of fundanumtal importance in the classification 
of the order into subdivisioTis of suborders, i. e., of superfaniilies and families. Owing to the 
adaptive characters of the imago and also of the larva we have hitherto been very much in the 
dark as to the most fundamental features, such as will be of permanent value in the establishment 
of the minor groujjs named. Yet it will be seen that in general tlie inmgiual characters agree 
with the pupal ones. 

Thanks to the labors of Walter' on the mouth-parts of the imago of Eriocephala, and to 
Dr. T. A. Chapman's- paper on the pupa^ of Ileterocera, a truly epoch making one, mc now have 
■clews to the arrangement of the order which promise the most valuable results. Inspired by the 
labors and suggestions of these two authors, I have endeavored, after studying the structure of 
Eriocephala and Micropteryx and what pupa^ of other forms could be collected, to work along 
the lines laid out in these papers. 

Those entomologists who disbelieve in the importance of the transformations of insects iu 
taxonomy should bear in mind the value of larval as well as pupal characters in the Trichoptera, 
Mecoptera, Siphonaptera, Neuroi)tera, and Ilymenoptera. As regards the Colcoptcra, it is 
evident that their classilicatiou thus far as based on adult characters is quite unsatisfactory, the 
more generalized forms having been placed at the head of the order and the extremely modified 
weevils (Rliyncophora) regarded as the "lowest" group, and that we shall have to depend on the 
larva; for the clew which will lead to a revision based on scientific evolutional principles. In 1883^ 
the writer attempted to show that the campodea-form larva of the Meloida' and Stylopida; were the 
most generalized coleopterous larva?, that the primitive Coleoptera were carnivorous forms, and 
that the scavenger and phytophagous families were derived tVon) them; the weevils and Scolytida-, 
instead of being the lowest, proving to be really the most modified and, therefore, recent groups. 

4. The older, more generalized groups of moths are much less numerous in number of species 
than the more modern and .specialized groups; such are the generalized Tineina and the Bombyces 
as compared with the Geometrida; and Noctuidixj, as well as the butterflies, this being probably 
iu part due to geological extinction. 

5. While the i)eculiar shape of caterpillars, with their round heads, reduced cephalic append- 
ages, three pairs of jointed thoracic feet, and abdominal legs, not exceeding live pairs, is diagnostic 

I Zur Morj)li<)loj;ic diT ScbmetterfiugsmiuHUbcilo, Sitzuiifjsh. Jcua. Gcs. Mi-d. uiul Naturwissens., 1885. Beitriige 
zur Moriiliologic der Schniotterlinge, .Jena. Zeit., 1885, jip. 751-807. 

-On some neglected points in tlic structure of the pnpa^ of Heteroceroua Lopidoptera and their i>robable value 
in classitiration, etc. Trans. Ent. Soc. London, 1893, pp. 97-119. 

^Third Heport U. S. Entomological Commission, 1883, p. 299. This view has been adopted and extended by 
M. C. Houlbert, who has i)ublisbed a new classification of the Coleoptera. See Rapports naturel et phylogdnio 
des Col<<opti-res. Bulletin dcs Scieucts uat. de I'Association des EIcvcs de la Facultd des Sciences de I'aris, iv, 
May, 1894, pp. 02-171. 


of Lcpidoptera, only the larvre of the Tiicboptera, Pauorpid;?, and Tenthredinida; approaching- 
them, they do not seem to aflbrd salient features of value for subordinal characters. Yet there 
are some archaic features, such as the arrangement of the hooks on the abdominal legs, the 
presence of cvcrsibk' coxal glands on the under side or on the sides of the body; and in the larva 
of Eriocephala we have subordinal characters in the absence of a functional spinneret, also in the 
extraordinarily large size of the antenna^, and of the maxillary palpi of that genus. 

The process of specialization in the larva has effected not so much the general form of the 
body as the armature of the abdominal legs and of the body. Chambers, and also Dinimock, 
(Psyche, ill, 99, 1880) has shown in Lithocolletis and in Gracilaria, especially, the changes which 
take i)lace in the head and mouth parts as well as feet of the larva after the first molt, in adapta- 
tion from a mining to a free existence. But in free-feeding forms it is difficult to distinguish a 
normal Tineid larva from a Tortricid or Pyralid larva, and as yet no characters diagnostic of them 
and other I'amilics have been indicated. With the exce]itiou of the larv;e of certain Tineina, of 
the Cochliopodida' (Limacodid;e), of the Psychida', those of the Hesperians and the onisciform 
caterpillars of Lycaenida-, lepidopterous larvaj are remarkably homogeneous in form, as they are 
in habits. The only reliable larval characters for distinguishing families are the differences in the 
piliferous tubercles, the number of hairs or seta' arising from a tubercle, or the shape and size of 
the tubercles themselves, and even within the limits of anj- family there is great variation in 
these, as seen in the Saturniida', or the Ceratocampidaj, or Arctiidw, etc. 

The resemblance between the larva' of the Trichoptera and the Lcpidoptera is remarkably 
close, their internal and external anatomy being nearly the same, the Lcpidoptera differing chietiy 
in the presence of abdominal legs; these, however, being absent in ^licropteryx. 

Supposing that tiie Lcpidoptera did spring from some neuropterous group allied to the stem 
form of the Trichoptera, the type at once after the primitive lcpidoptera ceased to live in the water, 
if its ancestors were aquatic, assumed abdominal legs, hooks developed on them, at first a pair, then 
more until two complete rows appeared, and the larva was fitted to climb the stems of plants in 
order to feed on the leaves. Eventually Ave may imagine that the larva', owing to the attacks of 
insect parasites, sought shelter by mining leaves, seeds, twigs, stems, trunks, and even roots of 
]>lants. In adaptation to these novel surroundings, the mining forms by disuse lost their legs, 
their bodies became flattened and otherwise modified as in certain Tineina, or the sack bearers 
were modified in adaptation to their peculiar habits. Tliis great diversity in the mode of obtain- 
ing their vegetable food and their exposure to varying surroundings resulted in manifold special 
adaptations in ornamentation and armature, hence the groups most successful in the struggle for 
existence became very numerous in genera and species. 

The generalized forms may be detected by the larvie having one-haired warts, with minute 
tubercles without spines, but other primitive forms have large tubercles, warts, humps, or highly 
colored lines, bands, or spots. While the larval characters are useful in distinguishing genera 
or families, they do not appear to present salient subordinal characters, as they do in Coleoptera, 
Diptera, and Hymenoptera. 

0. The generalized pupal forms are those nearest to the pupa libera of Trichoptera and the 
Neuroptera, etc.; such is that of ^licroptcryx. Those pupa^ with more or less free abdominal 
segments, the Pnpw incompletce of Chapman, are plainly more archaic or generalized than those 
belonging to his division, Pujxe obtecta', which comprise the modern or specialized forms. Where 
the ends of the maxillary palpi appear externally under the eyes; where the labial palpi are 
visible; where what we call the paraclypeal pieces are present, we have survivals of the characters 
of the pupa libera of Micropteryx. When these features have been by modification lost, we have 
the uniform obtected pupa of the Neolepidoptera, and these characters are so persistent that they 
are of high taxonomic value. 

7. The pupa, then, is of the greatest importance in defining the larger groups of the haustellate 
Lepidoptera, and chiefly for the reason that the lepidopterous pupa, with its so-called wing and 
appendage cases, appears ti) represent not only wliat maybe called a subimaginal condition, but a 
still earlier, lost, or extinct imaginal type, a type perhaps midway between the ametabolous and 
metabolous series. This is suggested by the wing-cases which are as in ametabolous nymphs, 
such as those of Dermaptera, Termitida-, and Psocida', as well as of Hemiptera; and, as shown 
by Spuler, the venation of the lepidopterous i)upa is almost identical with that of the Blattidw 


and FulgoridiB. The wiugs of the lepidopterous \m\)a ni;iy be said to be in the nymph stage of 
the ametabolous insects mentioned, since they are direct outgrowths from the tergites of the 
segments from which they arise. If the wing-cases of any ]epi(h)]iterous i)ui)a, togetlier with the 
nieso- or metathorax, are, before its larval skin is molted, removed and spread out, they bear, as 
Spuler shows, a striking resemblance to those of a beetle, Termes, Psocus, or any Ileniipterons 
nymiih. Tiiere are no traces in the jmpa of any of the isolated <'hitinous pieces inihe membrane 
connecting the wings with the trunk, which are seen in the imago. If the wing of the immature 
imago is removed from the wing case, it will be seen to ditt'er greatly in shape and venation 
from that of the ])U|ia. The pui)al venation is ancestral and ijliylogenetic; that of the imago is 
more specialized, showing tlie results of a long ])rocess of adaptation and modilication. Wo it is 
with the ai>])endages; those of the maxilhe, labium, and of the legs differ greatly, as anyone has 
observed who lias studied fresh pupa', as coinjiarcd with those from which the imago is ready to 
emerge. Those of tiie jiupa show important dilferences; they are not simply cases, l)ut differ in 
structure, and jwssibly represent the appendages of an ametabolous ancestor, a progenitor which 
may have descended from the campodeiform ancestor of the class of insects. 

Tiie importan(!e of the pupa is also seen when we compare those of tlu^ genei alized Lepidoptera 
with the more primitive generalized dipterous families Bibionidne, Cecidomyiidjc, TipulidtB, 
Mycetophilida?, etc. The close resemblance between the orthoraphous Dipterous ])upa and Tineid 
pupa attbrds strong evidence that the two orders are not only closely allied, but even that they 
may have originated from a common ancestry, the loss of thoracic and of abdominal limbs and the 
reduction of the head and its appendages of dipterous larv;e, as well as the reduction of the 
hind wiugs, being due to modification from disuse. In the Dipterous i)U])a (Culex, etc.) the hind 
l)airs of wings are nearly as well developed as those of lepidopterous pujta'. 

s. The imagiual features in the haustellate Lepidoi)tera will in general be found to cori'espond 
with the pupal characters, though they are not so salient and striking as the latter after these 
have been once observed and appreciated. In the moths (Heterocera) especially, the adaptative 
characters have concealed the more fundamental or primitive characters. What we regard as 
adaptative or secondary characters are the absence of vestiges of mandibles and of maxillary 
paljji, coupled with the great development of the maxilhv themselves, the usually broad frenate 
wings, and the difference iu shape of the two pairs, besides the specialization of the s(-ales, not 
only of the wings, but of those forming the vestiture of the legs (in Noctuidie, etc.). 

0. What we regard as generalized or ancestral characters in the haustellate Lepidoptera are 
those which have proved of especial service in studying the phylogeny of the order. Tliese are 
the retention of neuropteroid characters, such as the square head, the small eyes, the vestigial 
mandibles; in the Eriocephalidie, the retention of the lacinia and galea, the rete:i':ion of the 
maxillary j)alpi; in the higher moths the elongated tliorax, tlie large metathorax, with separate 
S(!Uta, the exserted large male genital armature of Micropteryx and of the Psycliicbe, the small 
narrow wiugs of both pairs, and the trichopteriform venation of the more generalized Tineina 
and of the Eriocephalida: (Protolejiidoptera) ; also as respects the markings of tlie wings, the 
absence of highly colored spots, and even of bars crossing the wings. When, as in the highly 
colored Tineids, the wings are spotted, they are often barred, this style of markings seen in Adela, 
having been possibly handed down from or at least reminding us of certain beautifully orna- 
mented and barred trichopterous genera. 

It will be seen, then, as we pass up from tlie Protolepidojitera to the butterflies, that there 
lias been more or less extinction of neuro])teroid features and an increasing specialization of the 
parts of the thorax, of the maxilhe, of theshai)e of tlu^ wings, including their scales and inai'kings 
in general, spots succeeding bands and bars, brighter and more varied markings the dull uniform 
hues of many micros and Lombyces. 


It seems to us that in the discovery of two-lolx'd maxilhe in Eriocephala, and other anatomical 
features we liave new data for discussing this subject, or at least for critising the view i)erha])s 
quite generally held fhat the Lepidoptera have directly descended from the Trichoptera or from 
forms more closely resembling them than other neuropteroid orders. 


The first autbor to suggest the derivatiou of Lepidoptera and the Trlchoptera from a common 
stem form was A. Speyer.' He speaks of the great similarity of tlie venation of the trichopterous 
wings to those of the Hepialidie, Cossidre, Micropterygidte, and to the liind wings of the Psychidje, 
though allowing that there is no Trichopteron whose venation entirely agrees with that of any 
Lepidoptera. He points out the fact that there are certain moths whose pupa:^ have free limbs, as 
Heterogenea, Adela, and Micropteryx, and that members of both orders spin a cocoon. He refers 
to the dissimilarity in the mouth-parts of the two orders, the raaxillie and labium, but does not 
specially refer to the distinction in shape between the maxilhc of the two orders. Speyer does 
not believe that the Lepidoptera directly descended from the Trichoptera, but that they had a 
common origin, the latter being the earlier to appear, their remains occurring iu lower geological 
strata.^ He thinks this common stem-form in the imago state had through disuse slightly 
developed biting month parts; that they took little or no nourishment, like the moths. The 
duration in the adult life was probably short, and the ancestors of the Lepidoptera were in the 
larval state aquatic, like caseworms. He suggests that the outer lobe of the maxilhe were at 
first simple in shape, but in the course of time by adaptation to the slowly increasing depth of 
the corollas of flowers, became a hollow sucking organ. This view was also held by H. Miiller in 
18G9, who claimed that " There is the closest affinity between the Phryganeida^ and Lepidoptera, 
and the Phryganeidre have the buccal organs precisely in that rudimentary state which we 
should presuppose appropriate to the primordial race or type of Lepidoptera."' Miiller also claimed 
that both Lepidoptera and Phrygaueidiii proceeded from a common stock. (Amer. Nat., v. 288, 

In a review entitled "The position of the caddis flies" (Amer. Nat., v, 707, IS^l) we pointed 
out that in the trunk characters, especially the thoracic, these insects were fundamentally nuich 
less allied to the Lepidoptera than has been supposed. 

But in the mouth parts also we have a character of fundamental importance which still further 
separates the two orders, notwithstanding the fact that both orders iu the imago state lack 
mandibles. This is the presence in the maxilla of Eriocephala of a lacinia, and of a true galea, 
while the maxilla of Trichoptera entirely differs, having not only no lacinia, but a much reduced, 
almost vestigial, galea,'' the maxillary palpi being very large. 

In respect, then, to the maxilla', the Lepidoptera are nearer the ametabolous, mandibulate 
insects than the Trichoptera, while some genera of the former order (Eriocephala) have well- 
formed mandibles, and many others (Tineidne, Pyralidse, and CrambidiB) have vestigial ones. 

In fact the venation of Eriocephala and of Micropteryx is in general remarkably like that of 
Amphientomum, a generalized Psocid, and it is not altogether impossible that these insects 
with their reduced prothorax and concentrated or fused meso and metathorax, together with their 
maxillary fork, may have had some extinct allies which were related to the remote ametabolous 
ancestors of the Lejiidoptera. 

Here might be recalled the suggestion of Hermann Miiller iu the same address from which we 
have just quoted, that there is a close relationship between the Tipularia'. and the Lepidoptera, in 
the similar venation of the wings in many Tipularia; (Limuobia, Ctenophora) and tlie Phryganeidie, 
"and, finally, the circumstance that it is far easier to deduce morphologically the proboscis of the 
Tipuhie from the buccal organs of the PhryganeidiB than from those of any other order of insects." 
By this statement he probably jneans the strong resemblance of the haustellum (rather a lapping 
organ than a sucker) of the Trichoptera to the lapping organ or proboscis of the Diptera. This is 
a point which needs further examination. The close similarity of the pupa of the more generalized 
Diptera and of the more generalized Lepidoptera also needs to be emphasized, for it is suggestive 
of an early close relationship between the two orders. 

'Eut. Zeitung, Stettin, J:ihrg. 31, p. 202, 1870. 

-The cases of a trichopterous insect have recently been discovered by Dr. Anton Fritsch iu the Permian beds of 
Bohemia. K. bohm. Oesellschaft der Wissenschaften, November 23, 1894. The earliest Lepidopterous remains, 
referred to a sphinx and to Pterophorus, occur in Jurassic strata. 

'See our figure of the maxilla of Limnephilus, fig. 4, PI. LIX (lac should be galea), Third Report United States 
Entomological Commission. 1883; also the much more detailed figures of R. Lucas in his Beitriige zur Kenntniss der 
Muudwerkzeuge der Trichoptera, 1893. 



The conclusion seems to be with our proscut knowledge thiit the Lcpidoptera, Tricboptera,. 
and Diptei-ii may possibly have had a cominou ancestry, and tliat it may be found that the 
Lepidoptera was the first to be differentiated, and the Diptera the last, since they are more highly 
moditied. The line of descent of the metabolous orders might tentatively be thus expressed: 




(Exposed feeders.) Sphingen, 

(Coucealed focdors.) I'l/mles, 
( Epii/rapliiUhr, A liicUi<la\ ) 


The first step toward a scientific classificatipu of the Lepidoptera was taken by Dr. Chapman 
in his suggestive paper on neglected points in the pupa' of Heterocerous Lepidoptera. His 
division of the groups based on pupal characters is the following: 


A. Obtect.e. Pupa smooth .and rounded, externally solid, inner dissepiments flimsy. Free segments in both 

sexes fifth and sixth (abdominal). Never emerges from cocoon, or progresses in any way. 
Dehiscence by irregular fracture. 

1. Macros. Larva with honks of ventral prolegs on inner side only 

Jlombi/ces, Xolhhr, XijcteoMw, XocluUui, Geometru-. 

2. rijralouU. Larva with complete circle of hooks to ventral prolegs. 

I'hycidiv, JCiKhirithr, Crambitin; (leIechi(Jtr, riiiteUidir, (Ecoiihori(l(f. 
3- • • J >oubtful whether Pyraloids or of separate (classifioatory ) value. HijpoHijme.uUdiv. AryijieathkhF, 

(oUophorhU: (Perittia?), (Elachi8tida>?). 

B. Ixco.MPi.Kr.E. Pupa less solid and rounded, appendages often partially free. Free segments may extend 

upward to third (abdominal). Seventh always free in male, fixed in female. Dehiscence 
accompanied by freeing of segments and appendages previously fixed. (Except in 1) pupa 
juogresses and emerges from cocoon. 
1. Pupa attached l)y crcmastor. Free segments. 4 .5 (1 7. 4 .5 (!. rterophurimi. 
1'. Pupa free to move and emerge from cocoon. 
«. Larva concealed feeder, often a miner, and usually rather active when not cramped by the mine. 
L Free segments. .5 6. 5 6 7. IJthocoUctidu; Umcilanida: 

2. Free segments. 4 5 6. 4 5 6 7. 

'(. TlXB.E ( Tineidw, I'mjcliidu', Sesiidw). 

b. Toirrmc-ES (Tortriciiia, Cossim, Exapale, Simiiethh). (Castuia.) 

3. Free segments. .3 4 ."> ti. 3 4 5 6 7. 

a. ZEfZEHA and IIki' tend to lo.s<' third as a free segment (are gaining it as a fixed segment). 

b. TiscnEifiA. 

c. Adelid.e. Ovipositor (of im.ago) formed for piercing plant tissues. 

d. Nepticuud.e. Autennjc separate from head in dehiscence. 

b. Larva exposed feeder. Slug-like in form and movement, head verv retractile. Free segments 
3 4 5 6 7. 3 4 5 6. 

1. MlCHOPTEUYGiD.E.i Eight pairs abdominal legs, curious .iiipeudages, moss feeders. 

2. COCHI.IOPODID.E. Legs evanescent, but traces of extra pairs and of curious appondjiges. Ma.r. palps 

larye ill pupa, not in imago. 

3. ZvGAENiD.E. Legs of Macro type. Max. palps evanescent in pupa. 

' I have only seen .■! portion of a pupa of those and of Psychids. I have had none of my own. and h.ive not been. 
able to examine them freely. — T. A. C. 


Q_ j_ Pupa with no free segments, appendages adherent to all abdominal segments. Lyoiielia, 

Cemiostoma, Bedellia. 
Note.— Eriocephala (Jlicropteryx pnrpurella, etc.) appears by imaginal characters to belong to Adelida*. But 
the pupa ia truly incomplete, not semiiucomplete, as all the other lucompletie are; that is, the appendages are all 
absolutely distinct and free, and all the abdominal segments are "free;" moreover, it possesses working jaws. 

Appareutl.y a few moiitbs after the publication of Dr. Cliainuan'.s paper Professor Com.stock's' 
able aud sugge.stive paper appeared, iu which he uses the veuatiou of the wings as taxouomic 
characters, aud proposes to make the following divisions of the Lepidoptera: 

A. .Suborder , I IGAT.E. 

B. The ilacrojngntn- Family Hepialid.e 

Microju"-atii' Family Micropterygid^ 

A A. Suborder Fri;nat.e. 
B. The micfofreiialw. 

C. The Tine'uh Superfamily Tineina 

C C. The Tortririda Superfamily Tortkkixa 

C C C. The Piimlids Superfamily Pyralidina 

B B. The ilacrofrenala: 

Without entering into further details, we only add the succession of the fanulies of this 
division giveu by the author in ascending order, beginning with the most generalized: 

Megalopygidic. Cymatophorid.'e. Saturniina. 

Zygaenidic iu part. Noctuida?. Drepanida-. 

Psychidie. Liparida;. Lasiocampidaj. 

C'ossida>. Agaristidai. Hesperida-. 

Limacodidaj. Arctiidve. Papilionida;. 

Dioptida;. Sesiid*. Pieridie. 

NotodontidiB. Thyrididoe. Lycaenid;e. 

Brephida;. Zygaeniua. Nymphalidie. 

The objection we should make to this arrangement of the Lepidoptera into two suborders, 
Jugata' and Frenat;e, is that the characters used are too slight, and do not agree with the more 
fundamental pupal characters or with important imaginal features. The jugum is of slight if 
any functional value, and in Micropteryx, as in Trichoptera, occurs both in the hind and front 
wings,- a point apparently overlooked by Comstock. The Uepialida', as we shall hope to show, 
are much less generalized forms than the Eriocephalidie, or even the ^Micropterygidw ; the pupa^ of 
both these groups have free limbs and abdominal segments, belonging to what Speyer calls a group 
of Pupa libera. The Ilepialida^ also neither possess maxillary palpi nor vestigial mandibles; they 
are borers in the larval state, and the pupa has not free limbs, but is a pupa incompleta. They 
are scarcely ancestral, though very primitive, forms, but have already become modified, having 
no traces of mandibles aud no maxilhe, aud in our native species the labial palpi have already 
begun to degenerate. We tlierefore scarcely .see good reasons for placing the family at the 
very foot of tlie order below Micropteryx, but should regard the family as a side branch of the 
PaliPolepidoptera, which, very soon after the appearance of the order, became somewhat specialized. 

Comstock's Frenatie comprises a heterogeneous collection of families, some of which have no 
frenulum at all; and when present they offer secondary sexual characters. The absence or 
presence of a frenulum is hardly, then, a sufficiently fundamental character to be used in 
establishing a great primary division. Besides this there is a rather close alliance between the 
IlepialidiL' and Cossida-, the latter having a rudimentary frenulum. Chapman remarks that while 
Cossus and Hepialus are quite distinct iu pupal characters, there appear to exist iu Australia 
many forms uniting them with Zeuzera into one family. The venation is also quite similar, aud 
while the two families of Cossid;e aud Hepialida- are iu some most important respects quite far 
apart, one being, so to speak, tineid aiul the other tortricid in structure, yet it would, we think, 
be a forced and unsound taxonomy to assign them to different suborders. 

' Evolution and Taxonomy. An essay on the application of the theory of natural selection in the classification 
of animals and plants, illustrated by a study of the wings of insects and by a contribution to the classification of 
the Leiddoptera. Ithaca, N. Y., 1893. 

■ In his drawing of the wings of Micropteryx Comstock has not represented the jugum-like flap ou the 
hind wing, which is present iu Micropteryx piirjyiircUd, though not apparently iu Eriocephala caltheUa. Since it 
occurs on the hind as well as foi'o wings, I doubt that it is of much use iu keeping the wings spread. 





"The taxoiiomic importance of Walter's most i!itc're.stiii<;' discovery, tluit Erioccphntu vdlthdla 
has inaxilhe constructed on tbe type of tbose of biting or mandibulate insects, i. e.. Mitli an inner 
(galea) and outer lobe (lacinia) besides tlio ])aliii (fig. 2), w;is ai)i)!irently overlooked by liim as 
well as others, tliough its bearings on tbe i)liyli>geny of Tbe Lepidoptera, insisted on by \V;dter. are, 
it seems to us, of tbe highest interest. The presence of two maxillary lobes, homologous with the 
galea and lacinia of the ]\Iecoptera (Panorpida') and Xeuioi)tera (Corydalus, ]\Iym('le()n. as well 
as the lower onlers, Dermapteru, Orthoptera, (!oleoptera, etc.j in what in other important respects 
also is the ''lowest" or most primitive genus of Lepidoptera, the lacinia being a rudimental, 
scarcely functional, haustellum or tongue, and not merely a vestigial structure, is of great 
signiticance from a i)hylogenetiu point of \ iew, besides affording a basis for <a 
division of the Lepidoi)tera into two grand divisions or suborders, for which 
we would propose the names Lepidoptera laciniatn and Lepidoplcra liansirUala. 
Walter thus writes of the first i)air of maxilhe: 

The otlier iiioiith jiarts .ilso of tlu' lower AlicroiitrrygiiKi' have a most pi'iiiiitivc char- 
acteristic. In the fust pair of maxilla' of Micfojili'i'i/x calthdlu, iiruiicella, aiideracliiUa, au<l 
aureahlla, cardo and stipes are present as two clearly separate i)iece8. The former ju M. 
calthella and aruncella, in comparison with the latter, is larger than in anclcrschella and 
uiireatilhi. In the last two species the cardo is still tolerably liroad, hut reduced. The stipes 
is considerably longer than the cardo in the last two sjiecies, while it is of the same thickness. 
From the stipes arises the large six-jointed pal]ins maxillaris, making two or three bends 
and concealing the entire front of the head and all the month parts. At its base, and this 
is uni(]ue among all tUe Lepidoptera, two entirely separate maxillary lobes arise from tlie 
stipes. The external represents the most primitive rudiment' (anlage) of a lejiidoptcroiis 
tongue. (Fig. 2.) 

It is evident from Walter's figures and description th:if this strn(;ture is not 
a case of reduction by disuse, but that it represents the primitive condition of 
this lobe, the galea of the maxilla, and this is confirmed by the ])resence of the 
lacinia, a lobe of the maxilla not known to exist iu any other adult lepidopterous 
insect, it being the two galeae which become elongated, united, and highly 
specialized to form the so-called tongue, haustellum, or glossa of all Lepidoptera 
above the Eriocei)halida', which we nmy therefore regard as the tyjies of the 
Lepidoptera Inciniata.'- 

Auother most important feature correlated with this, and not known to exist 
in Lepidoptera haustellata, is the presence of two lobes of the second maxilhv, besides the three- 
jointed labial palpi, and which corres])ond to the viahi exterior and maJa interior of tlie second 
maxillaj of Dermaptera, Orthoptera, I'latyptera, I'erlida-, Termitida-, and Odonata, and also, as 
Walter states, to the ligula and paraglossa^ of Hymeuoptera. In this respect the liiciniate 
Lepidoptera are more generalized in.sects than the Trichojitera or Mecoi)tera. 

Walter thus describes the two lobes or outer and inner mahi of the second maxilla-: 

Within and at the base of the labial p.alpi is a pair of cliitinous leaves ))rovideil witli stiff bristles, being the 
external second lobi\s of theunderlip, formed by the consolidation of the second i)air of maxilhe anil which reach when 
-extended to about the second third of the length of the second palpal joint. Its inner edge is directly connected with 
the inner lobe (mala interna). The latterare coalesced into a short wide tube which, by the gri'ater size of the hinder 
•wall, opens externally on the point, also appearing as if at the same time cut off obliijuely from within outward. 

FlO. 2.— Maxilla of 
Eriocephala calthella; 
I, lacinia; g. galea; 
vix.p, maxillary pal- 
pus; sty stiiics; c, 
cardo After Walter. 

' In accordance ■with an English author, I think, but whose name escapes me, I use the term rudiment in the 
sense of the Germtin word Anlage, and vestige for an organ which has or is undergoing reduction, degcneratiim, or 
atrophy. I am aware that the word Anlage has no English etiuivalent, but can scarcely accept the word 
"fundament" as better than rudiment. We may, then, speak of germs or rudiments, and of rudimentary when 
referring to the incipient organs of the young or adult, regarding vestigial organs as those on the jioiut of atrojihy 
from disuse. The term blast for Anlage I should accept for embryonic structures in their incii>ient or germinal 

- In his paper on the larva of Eriocephala, etc. (Trans. lOut. Soc. London, 1891, ji. :«.">), Dr. Chapman sejiarates 
the old genus Microptcryx into two families: KnocepliulUhv and Mkroplcri/iiidir. His group i:riocei>halid;e I have 
regarded as comprising the type of the suborder Lepidupiera hiriiiiata or PruldlepidopUra. 



The outer exk'ridr edfje of the tube forms a stron;rly chitiuous seuiieirele which, becouiiug thiuuer. finally passes 
into tlio delicate niemliranous hinder wall. Also anteriorly a delicate membrane appeal's to cover the chitiuous 

AVb have hero in opposition to the weak naked underlip represented by a triangular chitiuous plate in other 
I.epidopti'ra a true lignla formed by the coalescence of the inner lobes of the second niaxilhe into a tube, as in 
many llymcuoptera, and with free external lobes ■which correspond to tlie paraglossse of Hymenoptera. 

Walter lias also detected a paireil .structure which he regards as the hypopharyux. As he 
states : 

A portion of the inner surface of the tube-like ligula is covered by a furrow-like band which, close to the 
inner side, is coalesced with it, and in position, shape, as well .as its appendages or teeth on the edge, may be 
regarded as nothing else than the hypopharyux. 

While he refers to Burgess's discovery of a hypoiiharyux in Thinnis arciiijipiis, he remarks that 
this organ iu the lower Micropterygiute (Eriocephalidiu) exhibits a great similarity to the relations 
observable iu the lower insects, adding: 

The furrow is here within ooalcsced with the inner side of the labium, and though I see in the entire structure 
. of the head the inner edge of the ligula tube extended under the epipharynx as far as 
the mandible, 1 must also accept the fact that here atso the hypopharyux extends to the 
inouth-openiug as in all other sucking insects with a well-developed underlip, viz, the 
Dijitera and Hymenoptera. 

Another feature of importance diagnostic of this suborder is the 
mandibles (fig. .'>), which, in form, size, and the presence of teeth, are 
closely related to those of the lower mandibulate orders, being, as Walter 
states, in the form of true gnawing jaws, like those of the biting insects. 
They ]iossess powerful chitiuous teeth on the opposed cutting edge, twelve 
to fifteen on each mandible, and also the typical articulating hook-like 
processes by which they are Joined to the geua, and fit in corresponding 
cavities in the latter. In Micropteryx and other of the more generalized 
moths the mandibles iu a very reduced form have survived as functionless 
vestiges of the condition in Eriocephala. 

Turning now to the head and trunk, we find other primitive characters 
•correlated with those just mentioned. 

The head is of moderate size, as well as the body, with small compound 
eyes, and with two ocelli. The occipittd region is well develox^ed, as is the 
■epicranium; the clypeus and labrum are of moderate size. 

The generalized nature of the thorax is especially noteworthy. The 
lirothorax is seen to be very much reduced, the two tergites being separate 
and minute, not readily seen from above. The rest of the thorax is very 
long, exhibiting but little concentration. 

The mesothorax is but slightly larger than the metathorax. The mesoscutuni is very short; 
the scutellum ratiier triangular than scutellate. 

The metathorax is but little shorter and smaller than the mesothorax and reuuirkable for the 
widely separated halves of the scutum, a neuropterous character (compare Ascalaphus and 
Corydalus), iu which it differs from Micropteryx. The shape of the scutellum is that of a low 
flattened triangle. 

As regards the abdomen, attention should be called to the disparity in size and shape between 
the sexes; also to the male genital armature, which is very large and completely exserted, 
and reminds us of that of Corydalus, in which, however, the lateral claspers are much reduced; 
and also of that of certain Trichoptera (Sericostoma, Tinodes, Stenophylax, Hydropsyche, etc.). 
The venation of both pairs of wings is much as in Micropteiyx. 

The larval characters of this suborder it would be difticult to give, for iu the remarkable larva 
of Eriocephala calthella, as described and figured in Dr. Chapman's elaborate account, we appear to 
have a highly modified form, entirely unlike the simple apodous larva of Micropteryx and perhaps 
quite unlike the primitive stem- forms of lepidopterous larva'. Chapman well represents its form, as 
we can testify from mounted specimens in a slide kindly given us by him. The body is broad 

Fig. ^. — irandiblo of Erioce- 
phala calfhdUi; a. a', iuner and 
outer articulation ; «, cavity of 
the joint {acetabulum) ; A, end 
seen from side of llie rutting 
edire. — After Waiter. 



ami tiatteiied, the .seyineiits very short in proportion to their width, tlie prothoracie sej;'iiieiit, 
however, very long in proportion to the others, but the surlaee rou^h and cunugatcd, not with a 
hard smooth dorsal plate, as in many Tineida-, Tortrieida-, Oossida-, etc., since it is not a boring 
insect. The eight pairs of abdominal prop-like tubercles, which we should hardly regard as 
homolognes of the abdominal legs, are, like those of the Panorpidie, simple tubercles armed 
with a spine. Tlie tenth or last abdominal segment is armed witli a pair of dorsal spines, each 
arising from a tubercle. The singular flattened and fluted set;e represented by Chapman are 
imniue in lepidopterous larviv. He also describes a trefoil shaped sucker on the under side of 
the innth and tenth abdominal segments, "very unusual," though as it api)ears to be paired it 
does not seem to me, as Cliapman thinks, to indicate " a further jioint of relationship to Limacodids." 
Dr. Chapman states tliat " tlie liead is retractile so far that it may occupy the interior of tlie 
second thoracic segment," and ho says that " the antenniu are remarkably long for a lepidopterous 
larva." He remarlcs that ''there are two strong mandibles, with four brown teeth," and adds: 

Two pairs of palpi are also visible — two and three-jointed — apparently those usual in Icpidopteious lar\M', hut 
I have not defined their relations. There is also a central point (spinneret). 

I add rough sketches of the mouth parts, as far as I could draw them with the camera from 
specimens mounted in balsam by Dr. Chapman. The labrnm (tig. 4, D Ibr.) is less divided than 

Fig. 4.— Head 111' larvii ol' Eriucephala calthella. A, anterior region enlarged; wd, mandible; 
mx. niaxill:!; nul, ;intennii- ; sp. apiuncret .'; B. lat inaxilto ami 2d maxilla- Ip; C, the same; 
D. lalirum Ulir). 

usual 111 lepidopterous larva', but is not, except in this respect, mucii uiilii<e that of Tineids eg. 
Gracilaria (see Dimmock's fig. li, ]). 100, Psyche, iii). The four-jointed antenna' (tig. 4, ant.), 
ending in two uneiiual seta', are of very unusual size and length, and so are tlie maxillary palpi 
(fig. 4, m.v. }).), which are mucli larger tlian in any caterpilhir known to me, and are greatly 
in disproportion to tlie maxillary lobes; the maxilla itself differs notably from that of other 
caterpillars; what appears to be the lacinia is palpiform and two jointed. Tlie labium and its 
palpi are much as in Oracilaria, but the palpi appear to be tliree-Joiiited, with a terminal bristle 
(it is possible that there are but two joints). Unlike the larva of Micropteryx, that of Eriocephala 
does not appear to possess a well-marked spinneret, while it is easy to see it in the former genus. 
In Eriocephala I can only detect a lobe, whicii appears to be simply the rudiment (Anlage) of a 
spinneret (unless the latter is in my specimens bent under the head); but this organ needs 
further examination on fresh specimens. It would be interesting if it should be found that the 
spinneret is in a generalized condition, as compared with that of Micropteryx, 


The pupa. — Unfortunately we are as yet ignorant of tbe i)upa form. Dr. Chapman has only 
found the headpiece of tlie pupa, but refers it to the " Incompleta;," and thinks it probable that 
the pupa has the " third and folio ning abdominal segments free." 

The c(j(j. — The e'^g, according to Cha])man, is " large and spherical," in confinement deposited 
in little groups, to the number of I'o in all. 

Diagnostic characters of the Lepidoptera Jaciniata: — I add the characters of this suborder. 
Imago : Maxilla, with a well-developed lacinia and galea, arising, as in maudibulate insects, from a 
definite stipes and cardo; the galea^ not elongated, nor united and differentiated into a haustellum, 
each being separate from its fellow. The maxillary palpi enormous, six-jointed; mandibles large, 
scarcely vestigial, with a broad-toothed cutting edge, and with three apiiarently functional hinge 
processes at the base, as usual in mandibulate insects. Hypopharynx well developed, somewhat 
as in Diptera and Hymeuoptera. The second maxillpe divided into a mala exterior, recalling 
those of mandibulate insects; palpi three jointed. Thorax with prothor ax very much reduced; 
metathorax very large, with the two halves of the scutum widely separate. Venation highly 
generalized; both fore and hind wings with the internal lobe or "jugum," as in Trichoptera; 
veins as in Micropteryx and showing no notable distinction compared with those of that genus; 
scales generalized; tine, scattered setie present on costal edge and on the veins; abdomen 
elongated, with the male genital armature neuropteroid, exserted; the dorsal, lateral, and sternal 
appendages very large. 

Egg spherical. Larva in form highly modified, compared with that of Micropteryx, with large 
four-jointed antenuii; and very large three-jointed maxillary polpi; no spinneretl No abdominal 
legs, their place supplied by a pair of tubercles ending in a curved spine on segments 1-8; a sternal 
sucker at the end of the body. Pupa libera"?. 

Suborder II. — Lepidoptera haustellata.' 

This gronp may be defined thus: Maxillfe with no lacinia, the galeaj being highly specialized 
and united with each other to form a true tubular haustellum or glossa, coiled up between the labial 
palpi. The maxillary ])alpi large, and five or six-jointed in the more generalized forms, usually 
vestigial or entirely wanting in the more modern specialized families. Mandibles absent as a rule, 
only minute vestiges occurring in the same generalized forms. Wings both jugate and frenulate, 
mostly the latter; tending to become broad and with highly specialized scales, often ornamented 
with spots as well as bars, the colors and ornamentation often highly specialized; the thorax 
highly concentrated, the metathorax becoming more and more reduced and fitsed with the 
mesothorax; the abdomen in the generalized forms elongated and with a large exserted abdominal 
male genital armature. 

Pupa incomplete, the abdominal segments 3 to C or 7 free; in the more generalized primitive 
forms the end of each maxillary palpus forming a visible subocular jjiece or "eye collar" or a 
tlap-lilce ])iece on the outside of the maxilhv; the labial palpi often visible; clypeus and labrum 
distimt; i>araclypeal pieces distinct; no cremaster, or only a rudimentary one, in the generalized 
jnimitive forms. 

Larva? with usually a prothoracic dorsal chitinous jjlate; the armature consisting in the 
primitive fin-ms of minute one haired tubercles, the four dorsal ones arranged in a trapezoid on 
abdominal segments 1-8, becoming specialized in various ways in the later families into fleshy 
tubercles or spines of various shapes ; five pairs of abdominal legs, with booklets or crochets forming 
a complete circle in the more generalized forms (in Hepialid;? several complete circles), the booklets 
in the later, more speciahzed groups usually forming a semicircle situated on the inner side of the 

This suborder maj' be subdivided into two series of superfamilies and families, the 
ruJcolepidopiera and tbe NeoJcpiditptera. 

'If the term Lepidoptera liaiistellata should be thought inapplicable from the use of the word. Haustellata for 
haiistflhiti' insects by foruier authors, the term Lepidoptera glossata could be used instead. 



I. PALEOIiEPIDOPTERA (I'ujxv libero). 

Tlio characters of the group arc tliose of Micropteryx, as this is the only genus yet known.. 

Its hirva has a well developed spinneret; though it has no abdominal legs, the other features 

are so truly lepidopterous that the absence of legs may 
be the result of redaction by disuse rather than a primitive 

The pui)a (fig. '>) has entirely free antenna-, mouth- 
parts, and limbs, and bears considerable resemblance to 
that of a caddis fiy. It is a, pupa libera. 

The mandibles (fig. 5 md.) are enormous and, as 
described by Cha])man, are adapted for cutting through the 
dense cocoon. The maxilhc are separate and curled up 
on each side and jiartly concealed by the second maxil- 
lary (labial) palpi (tig. 5 mx. p.), not extending straight 
down, as in the Pkjxv hicomplctw and obfectw ; the maxil- 
lary palpi are situated just in front of the mandibles 
and extend outward and forward, reaching to the antenna'. 
The labrum is deeply cleft and strongly setose, as is the 
epicraniuu); the clypeus is Sfpiare, with a singular white 
delicate membrane projecting from it, the use of which is 
unknown. The hind legs extend beyond the end of the 
abdomen, which is simple, not terndnating in a cremaster^ 
the sides of the segments bear a single large seta. 

The trunk characters of the imago are much as in 
Eriocephala. The head is larger and squarer; the eyes 
very small; there are two ocelli present; the clypeus and 
labrum arc short and small. 

The prothorax is very much reducdd, much as in Erio- 
cephala; the metathoracic scuta show an advance over those 
of Eriocephala iu being united on the median line instead of 

separated; the metascutelluni is very large, longer and more scutellate than that of Eriocephala. 
The shape and venation 

of the wings (fig. 0) are nearly 

identical with those of Erio- 

cei)hala, being long, narrow, 

and pointed, both pairs nearly 

alike in size, and except that 

on the hinder pair there is a 

'•jugum '' or angular anal fold ; 

the scales are of generalized 

shape all over the wings. 


This series may be divided 
into two sections, correspond- 
ing in the main to the Piipcc 
iitcompletw of Chapman (the 
Eri()ce])halida' and Microp- 
terygiche included by Chap- 
man being removed) and his 
J'lipa- ohtfctd', for the first of which we would suggest the name TiiicoiilN, and for the second, 
compiising the large broad-winged fornjs, .Macrolepiiloptcra or I'latylepidoptera. 

Flo. 5. — Pupa of Micropteryx puvpurclla, frout 
view; tnd, niaudibk's; mx. p, maxillary palpiLS; 
vix'. p, labial palpus ; lb, labraiu, with its long setff . 

Fig. 6.— Venation of fore and hind vrinRS of ilicropteryx purpureUa; j, juguin, on caebwing; 
t/. disral vein. I,co8ta; Il.subcosta; III, media; IV, cubitus, etc. 



1. Tineoids or Stenopteri/gia. 

These are Tineoid forms with many vestige.s of archaic features, nsually with narrow wings, 
of dull hues or with metallic bars, or with liii;hly specialized scales, and spot", and the venation 
generalized in the earlier forms. The maxilhe are sometimes aborted (wholly so in Hepialida?); 
palpi either well developed, more or less reduced, or wanting; mandibles rarely occurring as 
minute vestiges; the thorax ueuropteroid; in the more primitive forms, becoming shorter, and the 
segments fused together in the later or more specialized groups. 

The pupic are inconii)lete; the more primitive forms with the eye collar; labial palpi visible; 
paraclypeal pieces distinct; abdomen often in the most primitive forms with no cremaster. 

Larvie with one haired tubercles, the four dorsal ones arranged in a trapezoid on abdominal 
segments 1-S; usually a prothoracic dorsal plate; the abdominal legs sometimes wanting in certain 
nnning forms and Cochliopodida' ; larvte often case-bearers or borers; crochets on the abdominal 

Fig. 7 Larva of 

Adela .iriddla; en- 

FiQ. 8.— Larvaot 
Ncmatois vioh'UiiS; 

FlQ. 9. — Larva of Sitniethis oxymnthai A. side view. 

legs in the primitive types arranged in two or more complete circles; in the lowest forms a well- 
marked spinneret. 

From the generalized types many offshoots or lines of descent arose whose position isdiflicult 
to assign until we know more about the pupa?, as well as the venation, so that the following 
grouping is entirely provisional; the more generalized forms are evidently archaic and very 
primitive, and the members of the groups may be briefly called for convenience Tineoids, from 
their general resemblance to the Tineiua. 

liemarJi's on the Tineinu. — It nmst now be very obvious that we need to reexamine and revise 
the Tineiua, and especially their i)uii;e and inuigines, particularly those of the more genei'alized 
forms, such as the Tineid;e (Tinea and Blabophaues) and the Tala>pori(he, comprising all those 
ancestral forms with broad wings and generalized venation, which may have given rise to the 
ueolepidopterous families. 

Then careful studies should be made on the Adelidit, Choreutida?, and Nepticulid;?, and other 
families and genera in which the mandibles have persisted (though in a vestigial condition). 




riG. 10 Head of 

pu]taof Grac'ilaria; ci, 
clylnMls: I, laUruin. 

ami also those with riiiK'tional or vestijii;il maxillary palpi, sucli as Tiiieidie, GracilaiiidiE, 
Elachistidie, etc. 

It is evident that the elassifleatiou ol' the Tiiieiiia will have to he entirely recast. Instead of 
placing the Tineida', with their broad wings and generalized venation, at the head oltlie Tineina, 
as done in our catalojiues and general works, they should go to the base of the series, not far 
from the Microi)terygi(la'. On looking over the venation of the Tineida' rei)re- 
sented on Spuler's IM. XW'l, it is evident that the very narrow-winged genera 
such as Coleophora, Ornix, Lithocolletis, Nepticula, (Jelechia, Cemiostoina. and 
CEcophora, are highly modified recent forms when compared with Tinea and 
Blabophanes, as well as the Adelidiu (Adela, fig. 7), Nematois (fig. 8), and Choreu. 
tida' (Sinnvthis, fig. 0, larva, and Choreutis), and justify Chapman in associating 
them with the Pyraloids in his group of Pitpcc ubtecta: 

The pupa of Gracilaria (flg. 10) and of Bucculatrix (tig. 11) shows the eye- 
collar, the paraclypeal tubercles, as well as the labial palpi. On the other 
hand, the pupa of the pyraloid genus Cryptolechia (figs. 22, 23, C. quercicelln, C. 
schh(fiiiiicUa) shows no traces of the maxillary palpi (eye-collar). 

Famil!/ Proiloxlda'. — Uaving already discussed the chief characteristics of 
the Palsolepidoptera, represcuted by the family Micropterygidie, we may next 
call attention to tlu' most primitive of the Neolepidoptera. These we believe 
to be the very remarkable genera Tegeticula (Pronuba) and I'rodoxus, repre- 
senting the family Prodoxida'. The structure of the imagines and their larval 
and pupal forms have been described at length and figured by Dr. C. Y. IJiley,' 
who has de.-<-ribed the egg as being very long, cylindrical, soft, and flexible: 
the boring larva; as being either without abdominal legs, but with thoracic 
ones (Tegeticula), or entirely apodous (Pronuba). Dr. IJiley gives a careful and 
detailed account of the male and female pupa of Tegeticula- (Pronuba), but does 
nat mention the "eye-ct)llar" or case of the end of the maxillary ]}a\\)i (figs. 12, 13, ww. p.)^ which 
is very large, especially in Tegeticula, much more so than in the rest of the Tineina or in any 
of the other Neolepidoptera. It is thus in a degree intermediate between that of the Neo- and 
Paleolepido[)tera. The maxilla- {m.x:) are well developed, but there are no traces, so far as 1 can 

see, of the ''maxillary tentacles'' so greatly develojjed, 
according to Eiley, in the imago; but the si)ecimens kindly 
lent me by Dr. Riley for examination are 
the cast shells, and further examiinition 
and search for them should be made on 
living or alcoholii- s|)ecimens. The labial 
palpi [mx. p.) and the paraclypeal pieces, 
as well as the eye-suture sei)arating the 
•'glazed eye" from the rest of the eye, are 
well developed. ^\bdominal segments 2-9 
are free and armed with the enormous 
dorsal spines well described and figured 
by Riley. Figs. 11 and 15 represent the 
cast i)upa skin of Trodoxus decipiens 

The venation is almost exactly as in 
Tineida?, but the structure of the maxilhe, 
as des(;ribed and figured by Riley, jtrescnts an extraordinary feature, in which this family, and 
es])ecially the present genus, differs from all the other insects. I refer to the remarkable 
" maxillary tentacles." Riley thus describes them : 

TIr' male jiosscsaes no very iiiaiked iharacters, liiit tlie female is most anomalous; first, in possessing a jiair of 
picbensile, spinous, nuixillar.v tentacles (fig. 16), found, so fur as wo now know, in no other genus of Lepidojitera. 

Fl(i. 11. — Puj>a "f Jluccutntrix 'ixtiiiqunintella ; ,1, oblitjiu-; J?, side view of 
bead ; ch, coc-nou-buratcT; (\ sidti view of licad of C. canadensella. 

' Proc. Amer. Assoc. Adv. Sc, xxix, 1880. 



Fig. 12 Head of pupa of 

Ti'ffeticida ynccasella. 

"With her maxillary tentacle, so wonderfully modified for the purpose, she collects the pollen in large pellets and 
holds it under the neck and against the front trochanters. In this manner she sometimes carries a mass thrice the 
size of her head (fig. a, 7b, mt.). 

Ill Eiley's figure of Tcf/eticula (Pronuba) maculata this organ i.s repre- 
sented as arisiug from tlie same Joint (pal- 
pifer) as tlie maxillary palpi; it i.s jointed 
and bears stout bri.stles, and would naturally 
be regarded as the maxilla itself, but Riley, 
in Ids diagnosis of the family Prodoxidie, 
says: "Maxillary palpi long, elbowed, five- 
jointed, the basal joint either protuberant 
(Prodoxus) or modified into a prehensile 
tentacle'' (Tegeticula). It is evident that 
this structure needs further examination 
to establish its real nature or homology. 

Indeed, I am disposed to regard the so-called "maxillary tentacle" 
as the maxilla itself, and perhaps the "maxilla" of Riley is the 
lacinia or inner lobe of the maxilla, but have had no material for 
examination to settle tliis point. If this should prove to be the case 
it would carry the family down among the Lep'ulopiera laciniata. 

Another striking feature of the imagines of this family is the 
long ovipositor, which is very " extensile, the terminal joint 
horny, in one piece, and adapted 
to piercing and sawing." (Riley.) 
The family evidently is a 
more primitive one than the 
HepialidiC, although the larva 
in one genus is entirely apodous 
and thus much modified. 
Fumihj Tineidce. — This group comprises generalized forms of 
Tineina. The larvic are sack-bearers, but 
have five pairs of abdominal legs ; the wings 
are rather broad and the venation is gener- 
alized, that of Tinea hiseUidla showing no 
reduction in the number of veins. The max- 
illary palpi are five and six-jointed. The 
pupa (fig. 10, Tinea tapeizeUa) has well-devel- 
oped maxillary jjalpi {mx. p.); the maxillre 
are short, indeed not so long as the labial 
palpi (mx.2)-); the abdominal segments 4-7 
are free; there is no true cremaster, though 

a pair of terminal plates. As regards Blabophanes (fig. 17), Spuler' (p. G27) 
remarks that the differences in venation between this and Tinea are so 
much greater than usual within the limits of a single family that a more 
isolated position should perhaps be assigned to this genus. 

The succeeding families of genuine Tineina may provisionally be arranged 
in the following ascending order, beginning with A. the more generalized, 
and ending with B, the most modified forms. 

Fig. 13.— Cast pupal skin <if Tfrjeticnla 
•yuccaseUa; mx. p., maxillary palpus. 

Fig. 14 — Cast pupal skiu of Prodoxus deci- 
jnens; A, another specimen ; p. paraclypeal 
piece ; »i.r, p. maxillary palpus ; mx, maxilla ; 
mx', labial palpus. 

Fig. 15— rupa of Pro- 
doxus dccipiens, side view ; 
*;*, prntlioracic spiracle. • 

Adelida: — Maxillary palpi five-jointed in Nemophora, in Adela no maxil- 
lary palpi in moth. Larva of Adela with numerous dorsal piliferous plates, 
those of Simaethis being similar; those of Nematois (fig. S) being confined to the thoracic segment. 
Gracilariida'.—^InxiWary palpi present. Pupa with maxillary palpi well developed (fig. 10). 

' Zur Phylogenie und Ontogenie des Fliigelgeaders der Schmetterlinge. Zeits. \yisseu8. Zoolon-ie, 1S92. 
S. Mis. 50 5 




Lithocolletidce.—^o maxillary palpi iu moth. Pupa of Tischeria (figs. 19,20) with no traces 
of maxillary palpi, but the labial palpi well developed ; no cremaster. 


Fm. 16.— Cast skin of pupa of Tinea tapetzella; 
A, head; B, end of abdomtii; V, last three seg- 
ments of same enlarged ; i>, another view of C 

Fio. 17.— Pupa of Blabophanee /erruginella, head; 
J, fore; IT, middle leg; A, liook on end of abdomen. 

Fio. 18.— Heiid of pupa n( Ackltt cafirdla; A, side view 
of part of head, allowing maxillary palpi (mj;.p.), etc. 

Lyo),etida:—lu Bucculatri.x (fig. 11, B.) maxillary palpi present in the pupa, but iiiimite; labial 

palpi large. 

Cliorn(tida:—Tho pupa' (fig. 21) i.s like that of Ti.scheria in wanting maxillary palpi. As to 

the true positiou of the family from other c-haracters 1 have no knowledge. 

1 For the pupa of this and other rare Tineids I am indebted to M. P. Chrdtien, of Paris. 



Elachistidcv. — Maxillary palpi of imago minute. Wiugs narrow ami the veins reduced in 
number of branches. 
G lyph ip terygklce. 

Oecophorida: • 


Gali'chida: — In the pupa of Cnjptoh'chia (figs. 22, 23) we have an example of the modern Pvpa 
ohtecta, there being no eyepiece (^maxillary palpi) and no labial palpi visible, while a cremaster 
is well developed. Both in its larval, pupal, and imaginal characters 
the transition to the I'terophoiida', Crambida', Phycida', and I'yralida; 
is not great, and we can thus see that these families may liave 
descended from the Tiueina. 

Family Tahvporlda'. — This group, comprising the genera Solenobia 
and Taheporia, has evidently either directly descended from the case- 
bearing Tiueida; or the two families have had a common origin. They 

form a side branch by themselves and 
are the direct ancestors of the broad - 
winged, more recent Psychida-. Their 
relations are shown in the genealogical 
tree at the end of this chapter. 

The imagines have, according to 
Stainton, no maxillary paljii, and the 
tongue is wanting, while the females are 
wingless. The head is broad, and in 
fact in this group we have, so to speak, 
Tineid Bombyces. The venation (fig. 
50) is generalized Tineid, and it is evi- 
dent from a long abode iu cases that the 
features which separate the family so 
widely from the Tineidiv are the result 
of disuse and resulting adaptation. The 
family had diverged considerably from 
the Tineid source aloug a path which 
unmistakably ends in the Psychida^. 
Without specimens of tlie wingless 

female we are unable at present to compare them with those of 
the Psychid;^; and we still need examples of the larv.i? (living 
and in alcohol) to compare with those of the Tineids on the one 
hand and those of the Psychid;^ on the other. 

The pupa of Talaporia pfieiidobombycelld ' (tig. 24) has a broad 
head, with distinct paraclypeal pieces and glazed-eye- sutures. 
The maxillary palpi {mx. p.) are large and well developed, extending under the eye from the 
antenuie to the labial palpi, which are large, but short and very broad. The maxillie are present, 
but small. The abdomeu bears no cremaster, but there are two terminal small spines which 
may be the homologues of the anal-leg hooks of the pupa' of Psycliida;. The scars of the four 
pairs of anterior abdominal legs are present, as in PsychidiV. 

In T. conspurcateUa (flg. 25) the maxillae are much more rudimentary, and before exuviati<in 
concealed by the long labial palpi (mx. p.); the maxillary palpi {mx.p.) are large and triangular. 


Fk;. \SS. — Pupa of Tincheria tine- 
torella, 9 . 

Fig. 20. — Pupa of Tischtria marginea.- 
A\ end of body, showing -spines; A, the 
same, aide view. 

'I am greatly iiulel)tod to ]->r. T. Algernon Chapman for kindly sending me the pnpa- of Ihe European 
T. psimdohcmhyceUa, and pup;!-, with imago, of T. conmpurcaidla. For the loan of Solenobia pin eti and w<(lsheUa, pupiC 
and. other specimens, I am indebted to the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard Tniversity. 



In tbe pupa of Solenohia icalshclla Clemens (fig. 20), the niaxilhe (mx.) liave undergone less 
reduction than in Taheporia, as tbey are well developed, but the European species S. pineti 

I'll). 21. — Pupa of Chorcutes hjerk- 
andella; oiiter eyepiece and maxil- 
lary palpi not drawn; mx', labium. 

Fig. 22. — Cast sliuU of puna ai' 
Cryi'tolechia schlafjinU'lla ; 21, para- 
clypeal piece; 7/ia:', labium. 

Fia. 23.— Pupa of Crypto- 
lechia ijurrccUa, $ ; I — III, 


3'"[(). 24.— Pu)ia it( Talitpuria 2>seudnhomtiiicella: .1, bend eular^ed; B. end of boily. 

Zeller, has outstripped the American one in the process of 
degeneration and modification, and the maxilhe (fig. 27, mx.) 
are very much shorter and smaller, though the maxillary palpi 
are of the same shape and size. In this 
genus the abdomen has no eremaster and no 
terminal hooked spines, the pupa in exuvia- 
tion being fastened to tlie sides of the cocoon 
by numerous hooked seta^ (fig. 20, A). 

Family rmjchirliv. — The transition from 
the Talu'poridie to the Psychida' is a most 
imtural one, whether we compare the pupa 
or inmgo. In I'^umea the wingless females 
have legs and antenna', 
wliilc in Psyche they 
are wanting and they 
never leave their case, 
or when the female of 
I'^umea "escapes from 
tlu' ])ui)a, it emerges 
from the case and sits 
on the outside" (Stain- 
ton). On reading the 
views of Simler we dis- 
covered, by comparing 

tbe pupa' of the two groups, their evident relationsbip. Indeed, Spuler appears to place 
Tala'poria in the Psychidse, thougb at present tbey are universally referied to tbe Tineina, 




remarking- tliat its venation is typically Tineinan. He adds tliat in shape and mode of life the 
females of manj- species of Funiea, and those of Epichnopteryx and of the Taheporidse, are much 
more nearly related to each other than those of other species of Fumea and Psyche the species 
of the latter genus falling into two groups, 
judging' by their A'enation, and be states that 
Fsyche febretta is '-tlie nearest relation of 
the type from which on the one side the 
Zyga'nidiB and on the other the ArctiidiC and 
Liparida^ have descended. The Lithosiidie 
are also perhaps to be added, and indeed 
belong to a branch which extends from the 
Tala'porid;e to the Orambidai and Phycidic.'' 
From an examination of the pupa, and also 
the statements of Chapman and of Com. 
stock, it is evident that the Psychid;e should 

be removed from 
the liombyces and 
placed among the 
Tineoid moths. 

the line of develop- 
ment from the nar- 
row tiueid-winged 
Taheporidffi to the 
broad ■ winged Psy- 
chid;e was nearly 
direct. Perhapsthe 
slight changes in 
venation and much 
greater breadth of 
the wings and the 
pectinated antennie 
are the result of 

adaptation to the stationary mode of life of the females, the males 
acquiring greater power of extended flight and a more acute sense of 
smell ill order to discover the presence of the females. 

In comparing the pupa' of different genera ofPsychid;ie with those 
of the Tala'p()rid;e, the resemblance is most striking 
and naturally suggests the direct evolution of the 
Psychids from the latter group. The head is broad 
and has the same general shape as in the Tala'])Oii(he, 
including the form of the eyes, of the clypeus and of the labrum, which, 
however, in the Psychidiie is more distinct from the clypeus, though in 
Soleiiobiit iralshclla it is nearly as separate. 

The shape of the cases of the maxillary palpi of Psyche (/rnminclld, 
(GSceticus abbotii, fig. 28), and Metriia elonflata is as in Soleiiobia icalshella 
and 8. pineti. The maxilhe {m.r.}, fairly well developed in the PsychidiP, are 
much as in Soleiiobia icalsIicUo. The labial palpi (ww'.jj.), though varying 
much in the different genera of Psychid:T», are essentially as in the Tahrporida: 
Compare those of Psyche, QSceticus, and Entometa with those of TaUvporia 
pscndobombyceUa. Those of Platfeceticus are longer than in the other Psy- 
chidie, but still more rudimentary than in Solenobia. In regard to the shape of the maxillary 
palpi, AFhich unite, forming a continuous bar or piece in front of the labrum, Thyridopteryx (fig, 
29, m.r. p.) differs from other Psychid;e and approximates to certain Ilepialida' (fig. 33).. 

mx. p 

Fig. 25. — Pupa of Ta'tejwria conspurcatella ,- A, liead enlarged; B, the 
same, seen from "within; 7»a:. p., maxillary palpi. 

Fig. 26 — Hf-ail of pupa of .v.*-. 
nobia ivaUhHla; A, end of body. 

Fig. 27. — Head of pupa 
of Solenohia pineti. 



Fig. 29 represents the jjupa of Thyridopteryx ephemeraformis, and its close resemblance to that 
of Oncopera intricata (fig. 33) will be seen iu the presence of the large iiiece betwoon the base of 
the iiiaxillarv palj)!. Iu n^rcticiis alihof i i (fiff. l2.S) the niaxillaiy palpi arc separated by the second 
maxillary (labial) palpi. Tlie former (w.r. 7>.) is subdivided 
into an inner and an outer small lobe. Iu the Psychida' the 
paraclypcal pieces, or tubercles, as we might call thcui, are 
always present. They are convex and ^■ery rugose. The 
labial or second maxillary piece in the Australian Jjumetopa 
ignohilis is of the same shape and sculpturing as iu rxyclie 
graminella, but the large, round, rugose i)ieces on each side, 
or first maxillary palpi, are single, not divided into two 
parts, unless tlie irregularly trapezoidal jueces between the 
maxillary i)alpi and the eyepiece be the homologue of the 
outer portion. 

In the Australiau Metura ilonyata (fig. ;>0) the short 
reduced labial i)alpi are much as 
in Pftyche (jramhuUa, but are more 
deei)ly divided. The two divisions 
I am iucliued to consider as the 
second nuixillary (labial) palpi. In 
this genus the first maxillary palpi 
are also as in I'syche gramineUa. 

It will then be seen that in the 
pui)a of this family the first and 
second maxillary palpi varj- \ery 
much iu form, as they probably do 
iu the imagiues, being more or less 
atroiihied iu the latter, where they 
need to be carefully examined. On 
the other hand, the maxil]:e tliem- 
selves (for iu their pujial condition 
iuhaustel]ateLe])idoptera they have 
retained the separated condition of 

those of the laciniate Lepidoptera), though short, are (|uite i)ersistent in 

The pupa of Platmceticus ghrerii differs from that of (Eceiicus uhhotii 
in the undivided first maxillary i)alpus (eyepiece) and the elongated 
second maxillie, as well as the narrower clypeal region, and the lack of 
a cocoon or case-opener. 

By an examination of the figures it will be seen that 
the outer division of the eyepiece varies much iu size. 
This is due to the varying width of the male auteunie, 
which, when wide, as in Pinara (Entometa), ]\Ietrua, Tliy- 
lidopteryx, and I'ysche overlap and nearly conceal it, 
while it is entirely hidden in Platceceticus. On the other 
hand, in male ])ui)a' of llepialus and Oneojiera, where the 
antenna' are small, narrow, and not pectinated, these 
pieces are large. The end of the body has no cremaster, 
but, what is unique, a hook arising from each vestigial 
anal leg. 

Finally,itwi]lbereaddy seen that from an examination 
of the pui)a' the views of S])eyer, of Chapman, and of Comstock, as to the position of the I'sychida;. 
is fully confirmed, while I sliould go a little fnither and i)lace them still nearer the IIepialid;e. 
They are, however, still more modified than this last-named gi'ou]), since the females are wingless 

h. cocoon- 

Fig. 29. — Vup•^^)i Thyndoptcnjx eiihenn'rtvfnrniis, / ; 
A, nU\c view of end of body, showiiis; one of tim (wo 
termiual hooka ; vestiges of 3 pairs of ubdoniinal legs. 



and limbless. It is very plain that tliey are au offshoot from the Tiueoids, and especially from 
the Tala'poridu', which luive no tongue and whose females are wingless and sack-bearers. 

Remarks on tliv Family llepiaJida'. — This group is assigned bj^ Comstock, from the venation 
alone, to a position at the bottom of the lepidoiiterons scale, even below the Micropterygidae. 
By Chapman it is more correctly placed above the latter group. He even i)laces it above 
the Nepticulida-, Adelida", and Tisclieria. The family evidently branched off from tineid like 

Since receiving and studying Cliapman's paper it has become very plain to me that Ilepialus 
and its allies are simply colossal Tineoids, and that 
Speyer was right in 1870 in suggesting that the 
Hepialidaj stand very near to the tineids.' 

These views, arrived at iudejiendently by these 
authors, are confirmed by the trunlc characters and 
also by the larval characters, as pointed out by Dyar,-' 
and which I have been able to confirm by an examina- 
tion of the freshly hatched larva o{ Ilepialus musfe- 
linus and fully grown larva^ of the Australian Oncopeni 
iniricata Walk., as M'ell as those of Ilepialus liumuli 
and H. hcvtus of Europe. 

In 18G3 ' I pointed out tlie similarity in the head 
and thorax of Hepialus {Stlienopis) argenteo-maculatiis to 
those of the neuroi)terous Polystoechotes, and referred 
to the elongated thorax of Hepialus, especially "the 
iiunatural length of the metathorax, accompanying 
which is the enlarged i)air of wings, a character 
essentially ueuropterons." Eeference was also made 
to the metascutum, whicli is divided into two halves, 
being' separated widely bj^ the very large triangular 
scutellum. I also drew attention to the transverse 
venule or spur of the costal vein and to the great 
irregularity in the arrangement of the branches of 
the cubital nervnre, also to the elongated abdomen, 
and finally I remarked, -'the Hepiali are the lowest 
subfamily of the Bombyces." But in those days I did 
not fully i>erceive the taxonomic value of these gen- 
eralized characters, which have so well been proved 
by Chapman from imaginal and ]iupal characters to 
be such as to place the Hepialida' at or near the base 
of the Tiueoid series. Chapman, unaware of the 
existence of mine and of Speyer's paper, says: 

The metathoracic structure of Ilepialus came as a very 
unexpected confirmation of the idea that of the Tortricoid group 
it was the nearest to the lower Adclids. and despite its special- 
ization was near the line by which Tortrix was derived from 
some Adelid form (p. 11.3). 

Fig. 30.— Pupil of i£etrua elonjatc; mx', labial palpi. 

' In his suggestive paper (Ent. Zeit. Stettin. 1870), Speyer refers to the similarity of the venation of HepialidiB 
and Cossidse, and remarks that they resemble the Trichoptera no less than the Jlicroptorygid.T, though the Hepialida 
exhibit other close analogies to the Trichoptera. He adds that the middle cell of the wing in the Phryganeid.e is 
not fundamentally diftVrent from that of the Hepialida>, Cossida-, and Microptcryx, also the hind wings of Psychidie. 
On i)age221he.associ.atps the Zygaeniibe with the Cossidfc, C'ochliopodid:e, Heterogynida', Psychid;e, and Hepialidie, 
and remarks that all these families .are isolated among the Macros; the Cochliopodida^ and Zygaenid* alike in the 
pupa state by the delicate integument and the partially loose sheath, these groups standing nearest to the TiueidjB 
with complete maxillary palpi, forming the oldest branch of the Icpidopterous stem, and having been developed 
earlier than the Macros. 

"A classification of lepidopterous l.arva'. Ann.als N. Y. Acad. Sci., viii, 1894, p. 196. 

' On "Synthetic types in insects," Boston Jour, of Nat. Hist., 1863, pp. 590-603. 



I will now refer to some cliaracters of the llepialid:e which further show that they are 
colossial Tineoids, and sliould be ph\ced very near the base of the order, though .still proving, iu 
their boring larval habits and iu the reduced maxillary aud labial palpi, the entire absence of a 
haustellum and of maudibles, that the family (at least Hepialus and Stheuopis) has undergone a 
considerable degree of modification, compared with the Micropterygida;. 

Fio. 31. — Larva and pupa of Hepialidtf. 1, Hepialus miLstelimts. — Freshly liatclied 
larva; .-1, thoracic segments; J?, terminal alMloiuiiial segments. 2. ncpial\ishuiiiuli.—^n\i 
of body of pupa ; a. I., anal legs; JX, male genital organs. 3. ainotul>,vire»cfnit.—\leM\ 
of pupa; inxp^ maxillary palpi; mx'. p, labial palpi. 4. U. humuli. — Head of pupa. 
(Cut lo;ine(l by the Xew Yorii Entuniologieal Society.) 

Beginning with the larva, that of the Australian Oncopcrii iii1ric<it<t, when compared with 
the larva of the colossal Tiueoid moth, Maro;/a nnipunctaria, of South Austi-alia, is the same iu 
structure, though less specialized iu the colors of the tubercles and in the sculpturing of the 
head, but it has the same shape of the body, the same arrangement of the one-haired tubercles, 
though the .set;e are smaller and shorter, and the same complete circles of crochets on all the 
abdominal legs. 



Fig. 31i represents the freshly hatched larva of Hepialiis mtistelinus, 1.3 mm. lu length. The 
head is no wider than the prothoracic segment, whose dorsal plate is well developed. The month- 
parts are qnite large, especially the spinneret, while the hairs, which are acnte at the end, are in 
this stage as long as the body is broad. Fig. 31i, A shows the arrangement of the one-haired 
tubercles on the thoracic and first abdominal segment, and fig. 31i, B those on the four terminal 
segments. The abdominal legs appear to have at this stage only ten crochets, or at least 
very few. 

FlQ. 32 1, 2, FiiU-fed larva of Stpialus humuU; 3, 4. H. hectus. 

(Cut loaned by the Ne^v York Entomological Society.) 

Fig. 33.— Pupa of Oncopera intricata,- 
A, end of body enlarged; sp, .spiracle. 

Fig. 32i.2 repi-esents the larva of the European Sepialus hiimuU ^.und the arrangement of the 
one-haired tubercles; the prothoracic plate is thin and slight. In R. hectus (fig. 323,4), which is more 
specialized, the prothoracic plate is more developed, and the piliferous tubercles (except one) are 
mnch larger, forming plates. Yet this larva will be seen to be much less specialized than that of 

' For blown specimens of this and Hepialus hectus, and numerous other rare specimens of other larvae and pupaa, 
I am greatly indebted to the kindness of Dr. O. Staudinger, who presented them to me from the immense collectioa 
of Lejiidoptera and other insects in his establishment at Blasewitz-Dresden, Germany. 




the sack-bearing ^rie/a riridella (fig. 7), which has siiiiilar enlarged dorsal and lateral plates, not 
only on the thoracic but also on tlie abdoniiiial si'iiinent (lij;'. SI;). 

The i)ui»a of ilepialus is said by Chapman to ditler liom that of Tortrix, 
"in having the third abdominal segment free, but in a ])eculiar and modi- 
fied uiauncr," etc. lie does not refer to the inoiirh-parts. I also add a 
tignre of tlie front of tiie head of the pu|)a of llipinlKs humuli, which, with 
that of O'Jnotits vlrescens, from New Zealand, 1 owe to the l<iudness of 
Dr. T. xVlgernon Chapman. The structure of the head is very iteculiar. 
On the vertex are prominent callosities, giving strength to the head in 
breaking out of the cell. The eye is large, divided by a distinct line, the 
outer part of the eye more or less corrugated. Directly under the eye are the 
large triangular maxillaiy ])ali)i (fig. 31,4 ni.r.p.). The maxilla' themselves 
are short, but not shown in the figure. The clypeal region is narrow, with 
tubercles and rugosities; the labrum is scarcely 
differentiated from the front edge of the clypeus, 
but is slightly bilobate on the base. On each side 
are what I call the paraclypeal i)ieces or sdcrites 
ij).), of the homology of which I am not sure, unless 
tliey are identical with the tubercles seen in most 
I.epidoptera on each side of the labrum, and for- 
merly regarded as the mandibles. It is ])resont, 
though small and reduced, in llejiialus. Tlie labial 
palpi {mx.' jj.) are large and wide, and divided at 
the end. 

Fig. .3I3 rejjresents the head of (Eiiofus rircsrfus 
Doubh'ilay. The paraclypeal pieces are not ditferen- 
tiated ; while the labrum appears to be slightly dis- 
tinct from the clypeus, and excavated in the middle 
of the front edge, the labial palpi {iii.v.' p.) are very 
short; the maxillary palpi are as in Hepiahis. 

The underside of the end of the body of this 
pupa, including abdominal segments 8 to 10, is represented by fig. 31..; on the eighth segment is 
the well-developed toothed ridge, while each side of the segment is irregularly dentate. On tlie 
ninth segment (IX) are the rudiments of the male genital opening of the moth, a longitudinal 
.scar situated between the usual two tubercles, while the vestiges of the anal legs of tlie larva 
in. /.) are represented by the longitudinal flattened tubercles inclosing the scar or vestige of the 

I have examined the pupa of the Australian Oncopera intricafa (fig. .">3) (in the specimen 
figured the right antenna- was nearly ob.solete) and of the INFexican PIiatiSK.s triitnf/uhtriti II. hklw., 
all of which present some remarkable generalized features. In Oncojnra the labial palpi (iiur.') 
are visible; the entire piece is very wide at the base, and is divided at the middle into the two 
l)ali)al cases. Between it and the deeply lobed labrum is a piece, unless the two lobes iire the 
paraclypeal pieces, of the nature of which I am uncertain. Is it the honiologue of the eye collar; 
and if so, are the two lateral portions the maxillary palpi! The maxilhe themselves {mx) are well 
develoi)ed, but at their base are divided by an impressed line, representing a portion which I am 
unable to name. The three pairs of feet are easily identified. Tlie outer division of the eye is 
large, and the cocoon -breaker, consisting of two solid tliick ridges 011 the vertex, adai)ted for 
breaking out of its cell in the tree it inhabits, are well marlu'd. Abdominal segments 3-7 are 
free in the S , and on 3 to (> is a row of spines at each end; on segments 7 and S there are four 
transverse rows of stout spines, and on !) two rows of small spines. There is no cremaster. On 
the underside of segment 8 is a row of about fifteen stout spines, and vestiges of three ])airs of 
abdominal legs are distinct. Tlie pupa is ])i'ovided on the abdomen with a few long seta-. 

The jmpa of Phassns (fig. 34) is lemarkable. Tiie larva boi-es into a very hard tree, according 
to the late Mr. II. Edwards, who kindly gave me a specimen of the iiuj) 1. The head is remarkably 

Fig. 34.-1*111)0 nl' Phassvs frianinilaris; A, end of Imdy. 



Fui. 35.— Head nf Parana chlons. 

adapted for its life in a cell, being broad, obliquely truncated, tlie small autennae being protected 

by tbe flaring sides of the head, which is very solid, with numerous rugosities and small tubercles. 

The region about the mouth is remarkable. The clypeus and labruiu are very narrow, the eye 

transversely elongated, with an impressed line in the middle. 

The eye-eollar (mr. j)-) is distinctly separated from the max- 

illiB (vix.). 

The two pieces {Ip.) at the base of the maxilla^ may pos- 
sibly prove to be the labial palpi; if so, is the piece marked /. 

the labium! The two paraclypeal pieces or tubercles (jj.) appear 

to be the homologues of those in the Psychidic. 

The pup* of this family are very extraordinary, but it will 

be seen that they are Piq)(v incompletw, not Ptipce libene, and 

l)rove that the family should stand much above the Microptery- 

gidie rather than below tliein, so far as regards pupal characters. 
The shape of the head of Hepudus mustelinus and the 

reduced labium, with its 
two-jointed palpi and the 

still more atrophied maxillary palpi, are intei'esting. In H. 
tacomce the palpi of both pairs are larger, showing that the 
process of reduction in Hepialus is a rather late one. 

The very primitive, generalized shape of the thorax of 
the Hepialidte is notew(U'thy. In Hepialus musteliutis the 
collar or x^rothorax is very much reduced, while in B. tacomce 
it is very long and generalized, as in Sthenopis and the Aus- 
tralian Ahantiadcs argeiiteus. The mesoscutum is consider- 
ably shorter than in R. taconuv. In the latter species the 
metascutum is entirely divided by the large scutellum, while 
in H. mustelinus it is only partly divided, the apex of the 
scutellum passing a little beyond the middle of the scutum. 
It is tlius quite evident that Sthenopis is an earlier form 
than H. taeoma', and that the latter is more geueralized, 
having undergone less modification than H. mustelinus. 
The genus Hepialus occurs in Australia, and that continent appears to be the original home 

of the family. In Abantiades aryenteus the antenna^ are triiiectiiiate, and the labial palpi are very 

large ; in Hectomanes fusca the antennae are 

bipectinated, but the labial palpi are much 

reduced, being scai'cely visible, while On- 

copera intricata is remarkably modified; 

though the antennaj are simide, the eyes 

are very large, nearly meeting on the front, 

■while the three-jointed labial palpi are 

remarkably long and slender, extending 

upward, and the hind legs have a remark- 
able broad, flattened, curved pencil of hairs. 
It thus appears that on the Australian 

continent this interesting family, which may 

be a survival of Jurassic times and coeval 

with the marsupials, has branched out along 

several lines of specialization, tlie most 

degenerate form being Hepialus, which has 

survived also in Europe and in North 

America, especially on the Pacific Coast. On the whole, however, as we have seen, it is not so 

geueralized a group as the Micropterygidw, a group common to Europe and North America. 

Fig. 36. — Head of pupa of Megalopyge (Lagoa) 
from Florida. 

Fig. 37.— Head of pupa of Lagoa, from Jalapa. llL-xioo; mx\ labial 
palpi; p, paraclypeal piece ; mx., maxill.'e; mx. p. maxillary palpi. 



Its relations to the Cossidic, including the Zeuzerina', remain still to be elaborated; tliey are 
rather close, yet the Tortricoid affinities are very ai)i)arent, and need liutlier examination. The 
pajju of Zi'iccra pyrina (fig. 40) is of the same cliaracter as in Prionoxystus, but the maxillary 
paljii are larger, the lateral \y<\\\ii niore reduced, while the cell-breaker is very long, being niuch 
more developed. 

Fig. 3!) shows the front of the head and maxilhe of the Oossid, Prionoxi/stHf: robiuia; which is 
more Tortricid than Hepialid; j>., paraclypeal pieces; mjc. p., maxillary palpi; /., labial palpi; 
W.V., maxilla". Fig. 40 represents the head and end of the l)ody()f Zeiizcra 2>y>'iiKi- 

Iii'iiiarkfs on the Cocltiiojjudidiv. — Chapman removes tliis gronj) from 
the Bombyces after a study of their larval and pupal characters. We 
shonld, after studying the pupa- of five or six genera, agree with his 
suggestion that this and the family ^legalopygida' (Lagoi(he) slionld be 
removed from the Bombyces and placed near the Tineoids, from wliich 
they have undoubtedly descended. Tlnit the line of descent, however, 
was directly, as Chapman suggests, from the Eriocephalida' seems to us 
a matter of doubt. The larva' of the Cochliopodids present some 
notable differences from that of Erioeephala, whose so-called "eight 
pairs of abdominal legs" appear to be merely spine-bearing tubercles. 
Although the head of Erioeephala is partially retractile, this adaptation 
may have no i)hylogenetic significance. 

Fig. 35 represents the front of the head of chloris, showing 
the maxillary palpi, and a lateral process (p ) connected with it, which 

I have not seen in anj' other pupa', and 
may be internal. I have also observed 
it in the cast pupal skin of TortrUidea 
testacea. The maxilhe are either shorter 
or no longer than the large labial palpi. 
The paraclypeal tubercles are well devel- 
oped in this group. If we compai-e the 
hea<l of the puna of I'arasa and of other 
genera, especially Limacodes and Iletero- 
genea, with that of Tinea, there will be 
observed a close resemblance, especially 
in the maxilla', maxillary palpi, and labial 
palpi, indicating the more or less direct 
descent of the family from some tineid 
form, perhaps an extinct ally of Nepticula, 
since Cliapman s])ealvs of "a resemblance 
that is almost identity in the pupa" of Nejjticula as compared with that of Linnicodes. 

liemarls on the Meyalopi/nida: — The genus iIcgalo])yge (Lagoa) is remarkable for the shape of 
the pupa, which is somewhat as in Cochliopodida', confirming the view that the two families are 
allied, though still presenting some notable differences in larval characters. Fig. 30 represents the 
pajtal features as seen in the front of the head of a Megalopyge from Florida (probably J7.cri.s;;>«/(( 
ov opercKhinn). The maxilhii seem to be aborted; on each side of the secoinl maxillary (labial) 
palpi, under the eye, are the first maxillary ])alpi, whose structure needs further examination. 

Very dilferent is the head of an allied Mexican species, Lagoa supcrba (fig. 37), in which the 
second maxilhe (labium) are well marked, though the palpi are only represented by two short 
lobes. Ilere the maxilhe arc present, and the maxillary palpi are represented by a large lateral 
irregular round piece. 

The next series of families begins with the Tortricida; from which may have desceinlcd the 
Cossida-. As will be seen by c()m|)aring fig. 38 of the pupa of Torlri.v rilryaiia with that of the 
Cossidie (fig. 30, head and moutii parts of the [)iii)a of Prionoxystus roltinia'), Dr. Chaimian's 
opinion that Cossus has "no character at any stage to distinguish it from Tortrices" is well 
sustained. The pupal characters of Zcnzera pyrina (tig. 40) also show that it liehrngs to the same 


Fig. 38 Pupil of Tiii-trlz rilei/aiM, S ; A, J, eml of biuly, with crt'muster. 



family as Cossus and its allies. In the Cossidiu there are no separate pupal maxillary palpi, the 
lateral flap {m.r. p.) not beiiiff separate. The labium and its palpi are long and narrow, as in 
Tortrix. The paraclypeal pieces are distinct. 

mjc. p 

Fig. 40. — Pupa of Zeuzera py- 
rina; cb^ cocoon-burster; A, end 
of body of 9 

Fig. 39. — Front of bead of pujKi of Prionoxy- 
Jtus robinife; mx. p, labiiil paljii. 

The point of departure ofTor- 

triciihi- from the Tiueina has still 

to be worked out: it must have 

been some generalized genus in 

the pupa of which tlie eye-collar (maxillary palpi) and labial palpi 

were well developed. 

Here might be placed the two families Thyridida' and Sesiida'. 

After a I'econ.sideration of the transformations of these groups we 

agree with Dr. Chapman that as regards the latter ''it is Tineoid 

in spite of some Tortricid characters." We should, however, not 

absolutely place these families in the Tineina, but should rather 

regard them as immediate descendants from some Tineoid genus 

with a well-developed eye-collar (fig. 41, Trochilium fraxini, mx. p.) 

.and with a well-developed labrum. The generalized nature of the 

pu])a of Trochilium is also shown in the large distinct paraclypeal 
l)ieces. The two families have evidently directly 
descended from some Tineoids, but they may 
have become much modified and specialized, 
especially in the venation, and form a side branch 
of the Tineoid series, with absolutely no relation 
to the Sphingida', near which they are usually 
I>laced. We have been unable to obtain the pupa of Thyris for examination. 

Fain Hi; Zi/gwnidn: — Another gi'oup supposed by Spuler (venation) and 
also Chapman (pupa) to be closely related to the Tineoids is the ZygiienidiTe, 
from which I should separate the Syntomid:c. The pupa of Zyg^eua is said 
l)y Dr. Chapman to possess " ill-develojied eye-collars (maxillary palpi)," and 
the dehiscence is typically incomplete. I have been unable in the specimens 
kindly given me by Dr. Chapman to detect the vestiges of the "eye-collar," 
but the cast pupa skins examined are not well preserved, and these pieces 
may be more easily detected in living and alcoholic siiecimens. Comstock 
places the Zyga^nidai high up, remote from the Tineina, but at present I am 
disi)osed to regard the Syntomida^ as a distinct group, with a different origin, 
and more nearly related to the Arctiidre. I fully agree with Chapman that 

Zygiena is near tlie Tineina; and I also agree with Comstock tliat Tripocris and Tyromorpha 

have '• a remarkably generalized condition of wing structure." 

Fig. 41 Pupa of Trochilium frax- 
ini, irT : lb, bibium and p.alpi; tnx.p., 
iiiaxilbiry ]ialpi ; ?tr, labrum. 

F.o. 4*J. — Pupa of Ra 
rittina atnericana, $ . 



I should rejraid Ino (Tripiocris) as a more generalized genus than Zyga-ua. Judging- 
from the venation, Harrisina has undergone a little more modification than Ino; Tyroniorpha 
also seems rather more primitive than Zyga'ua. I see no reason for regarding Pyromorpha as 
the type of a distinct family. 

1 have only the i)ui)a of Harrisina americana (tig. 42) and of two 
species of Zyga'ua to examine, but with this scanty material, that of 
Harrisina seems to be the more generalized form, that of Zygsena the 
more specialized. As Zyga-na does not occur in America, hut is an 
Eurasian and African genus, it is possible that in its generalized Zyga-nid 
fauna America, as in other groups of animals, has lagged behind Europe, 
Zygania, with its numerous sjiecies, being a more advanced or specialized 
type brought into existence by more favorable conditions. 

Origin of the Lithosiida: — It seems to me that the group of forms 
usually referred to the Lithosiida-, but which are nearest to the Tineina, 
is that represented by Enicmia- (Eustixis, ]\Iieza), CEta, and Tantura 
(Penthetria), as the imagines of these genera, whether we consider the shape 
of the head and body, antennte, and legs, or the venation and shape of 
the wings, are the nearest to the Tineidse and appear to form a family 
of Tineoid moths. Indeed, 
Euivmia is now referred to the 
Tineiinx of the family Hypo- 
nomeutida', and possibly the 
LithosiidiL' originated from that 
family or from a grou]) stand- 
ing between it and the Pro- 

The pupa; have the long, 
narrow head and eyes of Tine- 
ina. The eye-collar is wanting, 
but vestiges of the labial palpi 
are present, and also vestiges of 
the paraclypeal pieces. Judg- 
ing by the venation, Ena^mia 
is the more generalized and 
Tantura the more moditii'd 
genus. The ijupa of Q'^ta anrea 
(tig. -43) in the head characters 
is rather more generalized than that of Tantura, the 
labial palpi being a little larger and the base of the 
maxilhe more flaring, as if forming rudimentary eye- 
collars or palpi; but the abdomen and its end is 
much more specialized than in Tantura, as it is 
long, slender, conical, and ends in a well devel(ii)C(l 
cremaster, provided with curved seta-, adapting it for 
retaining its hold in its slight cocoon. In general 
appearance and structure it is like a deometrid pupa, 
resembling one also in its markings, having longitu- 
dinal stripes. In Tantura (fig. 44) the shape of the 
alxlomen is moie generalized, there being no cremaster, but hooked seta^ enabling it to retain its 
hold witliin its beautiful loose basket- like cocoon. 

It is probable that these genera descended from some broad-winged Tineina, and possibly 
from the Prodoxida;; Hyponomeuta, and especially Argyresthia, appear to be later, more .specialized 

Fio. 43. — Pupa of (Eta aurca 
drawn from a cast skin. 

Fio. 44.— Pupa of Tantura parvula, slinwiiig the labial 
jpalpi on the insidi*. ^l, view of head ami hooked selic; 
A c". end of liody of J ; iJ, another pnjta. 



Fig. 45.— Pupa of Xola ovilla; A, end of body of 9 : />', 
head; p, paraclypeal piece; mx.' p, labial or second max- 
illary palpi. 

This group (Euietnia, lEta, and Taiitiiia) almost directly iutergrade, judging by tlie venation, 

with the Lithosiida"; Byssophaga, Cistheiie, and Crocota conneeting them with Lithosia, though the 

larva- of the latter are uuich more specialized and Arctiitorni. Hence the line of descent from 

the generalized Tineiua to the group represented by Eui^mia, OEta, and Tantura to the Lithosiidie 

and from these to the Arctiidie is more or less direct. 
It is interesting to note the gradual widening of the 
wings, especially the fore wings, as we pass from Lithosia 
to Aretia; also to notice the gradual change in the 
larval and pup;e characters, those of the Arctiian 
pup;e being slightly less primitive than in the more 
generalized Lithosiidie. 

It is also interesting to note that in ascending from 
the Tiueoid precursors of the Lithosiid;e to the mem- 
bers of the latter family 
we pass from incomplete 
to obtected jinpa', show- 
ing that the division into 
pupa' iucompleta' nuApupm 
ohfectfc may be at times 
artificial, tliese divisions 
placing arbitiarv metes 
and l)ounds to series pass- 
ing from the more gener- 
alized to the more special- 
ized forms, and perhai).s. 
representing n n br o k e n 
lines of descent. 
Fiimili/ Xolidw. — The structure of the pupa of Nola (fig. -to, y. 

oviU(i), besides its larval and adnlt characters, convinces me that 

the genus is the type of a distinct family, and forms a line of descent 

somewhat parallel with and near to the LithosiidiV. The pnpa has 

the labial p;'lpi well developed and the paraclypeal pieces large- 

The end of tl.o abdi>men is rounded and uncovered, in adaptation 

to its inclosure in a dense cocoon. 

Family Si/ntomichv. — The position of the Syntomidtt is difiBcult 

to determine. The pujja is obtected, though it has 

in Sce^isis retained the labial palpi. Judging by 

the larval and pupal characters, the family stands 

much nearer the Arctiida' than the Zygienida^ but 

yet is more generalized than the former. In the 

venation the group stands near the Arctiida-, i. e., 

the venation of the generalized Ctenucha approxi- 
mates that of Epic((llia rirf/inalis, whilt' in Didasys 

and Syntomis the venation is more aberrant and 

modified; so also are the long-tufted larva^ of 

Syntomis and Cosmosoma, comjiared with that of 

Ctenucha, in which the tufts are shorter, less 

developed, and less specialized. 

A clew to the orujin of the (/eomctrid moths. — In 

examining the pupa of Pliri/fjaiiidid culifonrica, and 

finding the more essential features to be as much like those of the geometrid moths as any other 

group, I came upon results entirely nnexpected to myself and which givt- a clue to the origin of this 

great group of moths. It has become evident that Phryganidia can neitlicr be placed among the 

Zyga-nida- or Syntomida% though possessing some pterogostic features like those of the latter group. 

Fig. 46. — Pupa of Vhryfjauidia californk-a: 
of body, side view, with creniaster. 

o, anus: A, end 


Another fact considered was tbat the hirva of Mrlanchroin (.1/. ccphhe and M. geometroides), 
formerly associated with the Litliosiid:e, has been shown by Dewitz to be geometrids. Auotlier is 
the absence of a pair of legs in the Nolidas which I find mnst, by their pupal and otlier characters, 
be regarded as a distinct family from the Lithosiida". Still another fact is the conclusion I have 
arrived at that the Lithosiida' have almost directly descended from the TiueidaMir from an extinct 
group closely allied to them, and that from the Lithosiida' have arisen not only the Dioptida^, 
perhaps including Thryganidia, the CyllopodidiE, and Hypsidie, but also the SyutoinidcP and 
Nyctemerida', as well as the Arctiida-. 

On reexamining the larva, pupa, and imago of Phryganidia (we have no knowledge of the 
transformations of the genuine DioptidiB as at present limited), it has seemed to me that the 
genus has little of fundamental value to separate it from the gcometrid moths. 

First, as to the larva of Thryganidia, while in the shape of the head atul the slender cylindrical 
body it diflers little from the larva of Melanchroia and that of geometrids in general, if the two 
anterior pairs of abdominal legs were atrophied there would be no essential difference. That this 
is probable is seen in the larva of Nola, which has but four pairs of abdominal legs, one pair being 

The end of the body (eighth abdominal segment) is humped, but the larv* of the East Indian 
Euseniia and Uypsa are also humped at the end of the body. Phryganidia only differs in being 
slenderer and without hairs, and seems more closely allied to the larvae of the Hypsidae than to 
that of any of the allied groups. It does not spin a cocoon. 

The pupa is obtected, and in its essential features more like those of geometrids than those of 
Lithosiida' or any Zyga'uid or Syntomid genera. It is naked and suspended by a remarkably long 
cremaster; the end of the abdomen is otherwise peculiar. The head presents no vestigial 
characters, there being no traces of maxillary palpi, of paraclypeal pieces, or apparently of Inbial 
palpi (fig. -16). With a complete knowledge of all its stages, it is still difficult to assign it a definite 
position. When we know more about the Dioptida', where it probably belongs, the problem may 
-approach a solution, but that its affinities are closely with the Geometridae is shown by comparing 
the ]iupa with that of Cleora. In the general shape of the head, of the eyes, of the front, and 
especially of the abdomen, the resemblance is close; the peculiar shai)e and markings of the last 
three abdominal segments are nearly identical in both genera, though the cremaster of Cleora is 
much shortei'. 

In this connection reference should be made to the striking resemblance between the pupae 
of (Eta aurea and Cleora pulchraria. To my great astonishment I find the pupa of Cleora has 
the same vestigial head-characters as CEta; the general shape of the pupa is the same; the mode 
of dehiscence the same, the shape of the vertex and its mode of separating when the moth issues 
from the pupa case ; also the same shape of the eyes, of the peculiar clyjieus and labrura, while the 
more pronounced vestigial characters are the labial palpi, forming a triangular area, and the large 
semidetached paraclypeal pieces. Cleora shows that it is a more modern form in having no 
traces of a vestigial eye-collar (maxillary palpi) such as occur (though very slightly developed) in 
CEta. The sha])e of the end of the body, with the cremaster, is much the same, the shorter 
cremaster of Cleora being an adaptation to its life in a slight ojienwork cocoon. In the peculiar 
markings of the eighth and ninth abdominal segments Cleora is more like Phryganidia. 

Judging by the pu])al characters, then, the (leometrida^ have directly descended from the 
Lithosiida', the latter, as I have satisfied myself, having directly originated from the generalized 

The imago of Phryganidia appears not to differ much from those of the Dioptida', to which it 
has been referred by Butler. I am unable to see any important differences between the Dioi)tid;e 
and Cyllopodida', though my material is scanty. In the slender body, sliapc of the head, and 
proportions of the clyjiens, sliape of antenna' and palpi, both of these families do not essentially 
differ from Melanchroia, which is now known to be a geometrid, nor from the geometrids 

In its venation Phryganidia is nearly identical with tbat of a Josia from Jalapa, Mexico, in 
my collection; the peculiarity is the origin of veins IIj and Illri from a common stem, in which 
Phryganidia apparently differs from some if not all other Dioptida'. But the venation of the 


Dioptidre (including Phryganidia) and of tlie CyllopodidiB is nearly identical with that of 
Melancbroia, and the latter is a true geometrid in its venation, and in the shape of its larva, being 
u looper. Of its jmpa we know nothing. The venation of the geonietrids is very jiersistent 
Hence I conclude that the day-flying, nsually bright-colored Dioptidie and Cyllopodida", as well 
as the Hypsidir, are direct offshoots from the Lithosian stem, and that their general resemblance 
to snch Lithosians as Crocota and Eudule, as well as Anieria, is based on real affinity. The day- 
flying habits of some geoinetrids is also well known. The larva of Euphanessa is a geometrid, 
but its moth has been usually associated with the Lithosiid;e, though its venation is geometrid. 
Rileydescribesthelarvaof ffiiaflfo-ert as having ''extremely small" anterior abdominal legs, the 
anal ones being much longer. Probaijly when we learn more of the transformations of the fiiniilies 
we have mentioned it will be found that the presence or absence of certain abdominal legs will 
be found to be a secondary adaptational character. It is noticeable that the dull-colored 
rhryganidia, with only incipient clouds instead of bars and spots, is a primitive form as regards 

After au examination of the pupal and imaginal characters of Geonietrids, Dioptids, Hypsids 
and Syntomids, it seems to me that all these groups rei)resent more or less parallel lines of 
•development which originated from the generalized Lithosiida', the latter, with the Zygj^nida;, 
having sprung from generalized Tineina. The Nolidaj represent a side branch, which evolved 
from a Lithosian perhaps like Clemensia. The Arctiid;ie have also apparently directly descended 
from the Lithosiida'. The Syntomicbe and Xyctemerida', which seem closely allied by larval 
characters, have also directly descended from the Lithosiidre. 

Finally, it appears that the Geometrid* are a rather more primitive type, and have no 
relationship to the Xoctuida', the latter having more or less directly descended from the Agaristidiv, 
the latter from the Hypsida- or an allied-group. The fact that the young larva' of many Xoctuidte 
have only two pairs of legs seems to have no phylogenetic significance. 

In this preliminary abstract space has prevented my giving details and figures'to prove the 
truth of the assertions and conclusions here presented. 

Hints on the origin of the Noetuiila: — The Noctuidie may have descended from the Agaristidi^, 
.since the pupae of several genera I have examined are of the same type as those of Alypia and 
Eudryas, having a similar lanceolate labium (second maxillary palpi). It is possible that the 
Agaristid;!^ are the direct offshoots of the Hypsida^ or came from au extinct group closely allied 
to them. Of this I can, from the want of specimens, only judge from the figures in Horsfield and 
Moore's Catalogue of Lepidopterous Insects, etc., Part II. The cateri)inars of Hypsa, Eusemia, 
particularly _B. basalis, are not only much like ordinary Noctuida?, but are also closely similar to 
those of Eudryas and Alypia, that of JH. basalis being humped on the eighth abdominal segment, 
and with the dark bars and spots of the larvie of these Agaristids. Hence, (piite contrary to onr 
former prepossessions, it appears probable that the Noctuid;e may be the descendants of th.e 
Agaristida^ instead of being connected by the Deltoids with the Pyralids. That the ISToctuidae, 
as well as the Geometrida', are a modern group is shown not only by the pupal and other 
characters, but by the fact that they comprise so many closely allied genera and species, the pup;i3 
as well as imagines possessing no vestigial characters. 

Tlie following tabular view will exju-ess in a tentative way my present views as to the 
phylogenv of the Lepidoptera, or, in other words, the relationship of the suborders and of the 
principal families, and will thus serve temporarily as a genealogical tree of the order. 

It will be seen by this scheme that the genera of the Protolepidoptera, Palaeolepidoptera, 
and those Neolepidoptera with incomplete pupai (including all the families up to Lithosiidte) have 
narrow wings, the internal border of the wings, or "folded portion" of Spuler, being slightly 
developed. The flight of these genera is a fluttering one and, in general, of short duration. 

In the later Lithosiidte we see a rapid enlargement of the folded portion or a widening of 
the wings, and with this widening of the wings, with an increase in wing-power and the ability 
to take longer and higher flights, we seem to have had a great increase in the numbw- of genera 
and families, until in the butterflies, with their very broad wings, we have not only a fluttering 
,aud direct long flight, but also the power of soaring high in the air. On the other hand, the 
S. Miss. 50 C 


Sphinges, with their peculiar swift, powerful lliglit, met with success in life nmcli l>eyiPii<l th;it of 
the Cer;itoc;iiupi(l;i', from wliicli they probably <iriginated. 

We ha\e, from time to time, for thirty years past, insisted on the generalized and primitive 
features of the Bombycine moths or those families generally included under this head, and iu)w it 
seems very clear that they have retained many more vestigial characters, and are thus more 
generalized and ancient groups than the Noetuida', Geonietrida', and Spliingida. 

Space has prevented our speaking of the vestigial cliaracters of tin' imagines < f the 
Bombycine moths, such as the vestigial maxillary palpi of the Saturniida-. 

It is hoped that hereafter more attention will be paid to <i study of tlie pupal structures 
of Lepidoptera, particularly of the Tineoid moths. And it need scarcely be urged that it is 
most desirable that the authors of future catalogues of Lepidoptera will begin with the most 
generalized forms, the tineids, and end with the butterflies, as being in better accord with the 
results of recent studies and with the principles of evolution. lu that way there will gradually 
be infused among collectors and beginners more scientific conceptions of the origin of tlie 
Lepidoptera, and thus 'the collection and examination of these insects will have an educational • 
value which at present seems in some quarters entirely lacking. 






Papilionidai Pieiidie 







•Saturn iida! 


CeratocampidiC Platvpteiiiid;u 

I ' i 

Notodoiitidif Endromidae 










Nyctemerida! I 




Psych id as 


(10-15 families! 

Arcti idif 




SeslidiB Pteroplioridae 

Thyi'idid:!' Aiucitida- 

Coseida' ! TineolidiB 

Prodoxida> I Tortricid;B 

2. Neolepidoptera (PupiB incomplBtiP and Pup;i' obtect*.) 

1. PalaoleiMoptera (Micropierijgida: Pupie liber*). 


Suborder II. Lepidoptera haiisleUattt. 
Suborder 1. Lepidoptera Jaciniala (Protolepidoptera. Eriocephalidse). 



Hitherto there lias been au unfortunate lack of uniformity in the nomenclature of the veins 
of the wings, dift'ereut names having- been applied to the veins of difl'ereut orders of insects. 

In his paper on the pliylogeny and ontogeny of the veins of the wings of Lepidojjfera, Spnler 
Las, however, given us a simple scheme and a numbering of the veins which will, we think, apply 
in general to the wings of insects of all orders. 

Kedtenbacher hud previously p )inted out that '-the geologically older Orthoptera and 
Neuroptera have a much richer and moi-e complicated venation than the C(jlei)ptera, Lepidoptera, 
Hymenoptera, and Diptera; thus a;uong the Ithyuchota the oldest forms, the Cicadida- aud 
Eulgoridic, have a much greater number of veins than tlu^ Ilemipteia. There is no doubt Jbi'.t 
that the oldest insects were provided with an excess of veins ; that, on the other hand, in the course 
of development tiiis superfluity has disappeared by a process of reduction, aud iu this way a simpler 
system of venation has resulted. It is also to be observed that the size of the wings has had a 
considerable iuduence on the luimber of the veins, since small forms almost without excei)tiou 
have fewer veins than insects with large wings." Kedtenbacher also believes "that the normal 
type of a differentiated wing may be found iu those insects whose fore and hind wings are most 
similar in size and shai)e," and states that the venation is uot useful as an ordinal character, but 
is of more service in separating suborders and families. 

We agree with Spuler iu rejecting Kedteubacher's system, wliich is partly based on Adolph's 
untenable theory of convex aud concave veins, but. more especially for the reason that 
liedteubacher assumes that the primitive form of venation is that of the Epliemerid;e. lie 
j-emarks: "There is scarcely another group of insects whose wings show the primitive type, the 
Jan-shaped form, as the May flies." It may be obj^'cted to this that the Ephemerida', though iu 
.most respects generalized and primitive insects, yet are, as regards the wings, highly niodilicd or 
.si)ecialized. That this is the case is also suggested by tbe reduction or atrophy of the mouth 
parts. On the other hand, the retention of sexual organs paired throughout, the ducts remaining 
separate, with open, paired outlets, shows that the May flies are, in this respect, more primitive 
than any other winged insects. But as regards the thorax and the wings, we observe tliat iu 
them a high degree of modirtcation has takeu place. Thus the two pairs of wings are very unlike 
in size and shape, and this feature is a secoiulary one. Ilence the large number of niaiu 
longitudinal veins in the wings of Ephemera is a case of irrelative repetitiou of parts mostly 
situated in the fan-like field, due to a process of specialization, a process which is manifested in 
quite another way in the wings of the Dernuiptera, also a primitive type. 

Kedtenbacher regards the eleven longitudinal veins (I-XI) of Ei)hemerids as the normal 
number, and considers that the Trichoptera, Lepidoptera, etc., have lost certain of the veins by a 
l)ro(!ess of reduction. This view has been adopted by Oomstock in his suggestive paper, 
"Evolution and taxonomy," but it seems to us to be xmtenable, the anal field ("falteutheil" of 
Spuler) uot being of primaiy importance. On the other hand, Kedtenbaclier's use of Konuiu 
numerals for the main veins, and of a combination of Roman and Arabic numerals for their 
branches, is very convenient. 

Spuler divides the wings of each pair into an outspread portion {Spreitciithcil) and a folded 
part (Falteutheil). The veins of the former area he numbers in the same manner as Kedtenbacher, 
beginning on the costal edge of the wing, while those of the folded area (the submediau and 
internal or first and second anal veins of other authors) he does not name, but simply nundiers 
with the Greek letters cy fi. lie considers that Uagen was right in believing the I'hryganida', 
Tipulariie, and some Microlepidoptera to be forms with a schematic, i. e., jirimitivo venation 
(Stettin. Ent. Zeit., p. :nv,, ISTO). 

Spuler shares the opinion of Fritz Midler (Termitida'), IJrauer and Kedtenbacher (Libellulida-), 
iind Haase (Papilionid*), that the costa is only a hypo'lcrinal structure, a thickening of the edge, 
which does not have a tracdiea as its origin (Anlage), and wliicli tliercfore has nothing to do with 
ithe veins. 



Fig. 47.— Venatiou of fore "wing of Ful- 
gora.— Alter Spuler. 

Spuler also shows that the venatiou of the Ortlioptera, especially their most generalized form 
Blatta, is faiulamentally nearly identical with that of the Lepidoptera, veins I-V being readily 
homologized with those of the latter group; so also with the most gene ralizcd Heuiiptera (Fulgora, 
fig. 47). We imiy also draw attention to the remarkable resemblance in the venation of the 
generalized Psocid genus Amphientonium, which at first sight, 
from the shape and size of the wings, reminds one of a Micro- 
pteryx or Eriocephala, while it also has a few 
scales like those of these moths. 

But tbat the system of venation of Spuler 
is morphologically the correct oute is fully 
and satisfactorily proved by the ontogenetic 
development of the veins. Fritz Midler 
(Kosnios, i, p. 390) was the first to examine 

the incipient venation of two semipnpal moths (Castnia ardalus). He 
observed that in the immature pupa the cross veins were wanting, and that 
different longitudinal veins, which afterwards more or less completely disap- 
peared, were present, and heuce he regarded the pupal venation as the primi- 
tive one. This view Spuler has adopted 
and extended, and it plainly enough, 
supported by the researches of Brauer and Eedtenbacher on 
the venation of the nymph of Odonata, solves the problem 

of the venation of insects in general 
and especially for ]S"europtera, Tri- 
choptera, Mecoptera (Panorpidfc), 
Lepidoptera, and Di^jtera. 

Spuler's melhcd was to strip off 
the loose skin of a caterpillar just beginning to pupate, and examine the 
incipient venation of the wings of the young pupa on the living insect. He 
placed the living pupa in water and then, since the process of thickening 
and resulting concealment of the veins of the wing is retarded, the tra- 
cheal branches become slightly enlarged, filled with air, and thus are more 
easily seen. Hence 


Fig. 48.— Venati.iu of 
seluipupa of Cerura li, 
nula. — After Spuler. 

/ft -Ol J A 

Fio. 40. — Venation of Oracitaria syriji'jella; A 
motli; B, of aemipupa. — After Spuler. 

Fig. 50. — Venation of Taicepo- 
ria pbeudoboinbyceUa. — A fter 

small pupu' from which 
the larval skin has just been cast, and are trans- 

parent, are the fittest objects for examination. 

The primitive and generalized condition of 
the semipnpal wing is shown in Spuler's figure 
of Centr(( viiiuhi (fig. 48), to which we have 
added the numbering of all the veins. He shows 
that the fundamental ])upal venation of Lepi- 
doptera will also apply to Orthopteia (Blatta), 
Hemiptera, Trichoptera, etc. He proves that 
the cross veins are of quite secondary and subor- 
dinate importance. The results of Spuler's in- 
vestigations, extended tiirough difierent groui>s 
from Tineina to Ehopalocera, and illustrated by 
many figures, are both interesting and convinc- 
ing. The compari.-^on of the venation of the 
fore wing of the adult of Gracilarta KyrinijcUa 
(fig. 49, A), compared with that of its semipupa 
(fig. 49, B). shows that the generalized venation of the latter is similar to that of Micropteryx, 
veins IVi IV., not being connected by a cross vein with III and its branches; and veins II and 
III with their branches, being separate. The veins and tlicir numbering are indicated by Spuler's. 
figure of Tahvporia pseudulxniihiii-i-Jhi and one we have drawn of HcpiaJus miistelinus (fig. 51 ). 

Fig. 51.— Venatiou of Hepialus muetelimts; d, anterior ; rf'. posterior 
discal veiu : j. jui:um. 



It may be remaikeil that Spiiler agrees with Brauer and Ketlteiibacher, as well as Ilaase, that 
Adoljili's system of convex and concave veins is entirely erroneous. 

We adoi)t, tiien, Spuler's system of venation, and earnestly trust tliat it may be generally 
accejited as simple, iutelligible, and applicable to all orders of insects, based as it is on 
ontogenetic, as well as anatomical, gronmls. 

The following system ai)|>lies to the Lei)idoptera as well as all other orders. Fig. 52 
represents the venation of a Notodontiau (llctcrocampa oblitiua). We merely deviate, from 
motives of couvenieuee and for the sake of uniformity, from Spuler's numeration of the two anal 
veins, by numbering them VI ami VII, instead of designating them by the Greek letters « /3. 

Fig. 52. — Vfuation of Heterocampa obliqiui; the namos of (lie veins as (losi^^naicd below; d, 
anterior; d', posterior discal vein ; /, frenulum ; tc. subeostal rell. 

The following table will show the numbers and names of the Hve veins of the outspread 
portion of the wing and two (rarely three) of the fan like or inner i)orti()n. Instead of denoting 
the veins by the noun and adjective as, for exainide, the median vein, we may, with Comstock, 
call it in descriptions or diagnoses, niniia, or refer to it as Vein III. 

I. Costa. V. First anal (subiiiediaii). 

II. Subcosta (radius). VI. Second anal (internal). 

III. Media. . VII. Tliird anal. 

IV. Cubitus (median vein of some autliors). 

Miiller, Fritz, Beitrlige znr Keniitiiiss der Termitou. .loiiaiscli. ZeiUchr. f. N:itiii\v., 1875. 

llrauer, F. Ansicliteii iiber die paliiozoischeu IiisuktiMi uiid dercii ULMitniij;. Aiinnl K. K. iintnili. Hdfiiius. 
Wien, i, i>p. 86-126. 2 PI. 1886. 

Itedtcnbacher, Joseph. Vcrglcichfiide Stiidien iiber das Fliigelgeiider der lus'^ctcn. {Aunalcji dcs K. K. Natiirh. 
Hofmus., I!d. i, pp. 1.5S-L'31.) 12 I'ls. Wien, imi. Abstr. l).v ,1. II. Com.stocli in Aiiier. Nut., xxi, i>p. !)32-;«4. 1887. 

Iliaiiir, /•'., II. Haitcnhacher, J. Eiii Beitr.ig znr Entwiekliuig dcs I'"lii{relgi'iidi-rs der Insekten. Zonl. Anz., 1888, 
pp. M:i-l.|7. 

IIkusv, Erich. Znr I'.ntwicklnni; di'r Fliigelriiipcn der .Seliin(^tt('rlinge. Zool. Auz., xiv, 18!U. ])p. 116-117. 

Spiihr, A. Znr I'livlcigenic iind (Intogi'nie des Fliigelgcliders der Sebiuetterliiige. Zeits. wi.s8ens. Zoologio, liii, 
pp. 597-646. 2 I'l. 18ii2. 

Comatock, J. H. Kvolntion and Taxononiv, etc. Ithaca, X. Y. l>!t.3. 




Family NOTODONTID^ Stephens. 

BombyciteK Viv. Leiiilimir (in part) Latreille, Gen. Crnst. et Insect, iv, ]i. 217, 180it. 
Dimvi-plKr (in part), J'lilodoiilis, Aiidrur, et Melnhipluv lliibn., Vevi., pp. 145, 1-17, 102, 1816. 
NulocloiitUla: Steph., 111. Brit. Ins. Hanst. ii, p. 10, 1828. 
Nolodontiv (in part) Newman, Sphinx vespiformis, p. 42, 1832. 

(in part) Dnucan, in Brewster's Ediu. Encycl., ix, p. 131, 1833. 
Notodontites (in part) Newm., Entomologist, May, ii, p. 383, 1834. 
Notodontides (in part) Hoisd. Ind.Mf^th. Lep. Eur., p. 84, 1840. 

Vicraiiuridiv Notodoutidtr, et l'ij(j(vrida; Dnponch., Cat. M6th. Lep. Eur., pp. 8G, 89, 95, 1846. 
DicrunurUH Stepli., Cat. Brit. Lep. Br. Mns., p. 38, 18.50. 
riilodontes Pack., Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., iii, p. 351, 1864. 

Grote, New Check List N. Amer. Sloths, p. 18, 1882. 
Kotodontidw Smith, List Le]>. Bor. .\mer., p. 29, 1891. 

Kirby, Syn. Cat. Lep. Het., i, p. 559, 1892. 

Dyar. Can. Knt., xxv, p. 121, May, 1893. 

Neumoegen and Dyar, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. xxi, June, 1894, pp. 179-208. 
Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Sept., 1894, pp. 112-117. 

Family characters. — Head squarish in trout (when denuded), but in nature densely scaled, 
■often crested between the antenna'. Clypeus large, subscutellate in shape, suddenly narrowing 
toward the labral region, which is slightly bent down; above, the clypeus is bioad, the margin or 
base being straight transversely, not hollowed out on each side for the reception of the antennfe, 
the hole for the insertion of the latter being very shallow; the surface of the clypeus either 
somewhat convex or with a slight median elevation, terminating in tlie labral region. The 
epicranium and occiput both very short, occupying a very short (in a longitudinal sense) region 
behind the antenna' and eyes. 

Base of epicranium ridged. Autenuai usually either wholly pectinated or pectinate on the 
basal two-thirds; the joints scaled above, the branches generally six times as long as the joints; 
in the 9 the antenna' are .simide, rarely with short pectinations. Maxilhe well developed; the 
maxillary palpi forming small papilla at the of the maxilla. Labium indistinct, subtriangular, 
small; the labial palpi well developed, either porrect and reaching the front, or ascending and 
passing beyond the front (longest in Sijmtnerista). 

Thorax with a definite collar; the edge of the patagia distinct, often edged with dark scales, 
and often a dorsal tuft. When denuded the prothorax is seen to be small, much reduced in size; 
the me.sonotum shorter than broad; the mesoscutellum transversely subovate or lozenge-shaped; 
the inetathora.^ above very narrow, linear (in a transverse sense); metathoracic Hanks narrow, 
half as wide as of the mesothorax. 

Wings: Fore wings narrow, noctuiform, about half as long as wide; costa either .straight or 
slightly convex; apex either pointed or much rounded; outer margin very oblique; inner margin 
full near the base, with often a median tuft, the subcostal vein passing very near the costa 
toward the apex; a subcostal cell often present; the discoidal or discal veins situated in the 
middle of the wing. The last subcostal vein(IIl2) forms the Independent vein. There are three 
branches of the cubital vein, and these features will enable one in difficult cases to determine 
whether the moth is a Notodontian oi a Noctuid. 

Hind wings reaching two-thirds of the way to the end of the abdomen, attached to the fore 
wings by a frenulum confined by a '•frenulum hook" or loop, situated on the vein; costa straight; 
apex much rounded (compared with the Xoctuida); outer edge long, rounded, the costal vein 
passing very near the subcostal, turning from it to the costa near the origin of the discal venules; 
three branches of the cul)ital vein; two subcostal venules (II, IIIi). 

Legs rather short ; femora and tibia' usually densely pilose ; fore tibiai sometimes (Lophopteryx) 
armed with a spur; hind tibia' with two pairs of stout spurs. 


Abdoiueii cylindrical, sometimes (llehrocampa pulvetea) with a row of dorsal tufts, besides- 
the oue often present at the base on the first abdominal segment. 

The Notodontidte are associateil with theCeratocauipida', Saturniida', and Jlciuiieucida', both 
as regards their larval and adult characters. In the moths the. head characters are soinewliat like 
those of tlie ISaturiiians, tlie clypeus being larj;e and lonj;er than wide, while there are but three 
branches of the cubital vein in either pair of wings. 

Lufval rharactvrs. — The body is noctuiform, and either smooth and unarmed, or with simple 
subdorsal lines, or gaily banded and spotted, and armed either with double or simple tubercles, 
situated either on the eighth" abdominal segment alone or ou other abdominal segments. These 
tubercles may be double at the end and nutant, or the single one on the eighth abdominal segnuMit 
may bear a horn and the larva become si)hinx-like. Often the body is hairy and banded, but not 
usually (except in Datana) both hairy and banded. The eggs low, hemispherical, usually reticulated. 

The pupa obtected, with no vestigial characters; either unarmed or with a well-develoi)ed 
crenuister. It is either subterranean or more usually protected by a thin, rarely dense, sdkeu 

There are seven well-marked groups of the family which may be regarded as of the rank of 
subfamilies. The most generalized of these groups ajjpear to be the Pyganina-, the Gluphisime 
seeming to be a side branch, which has undergone reduction and modilicatiou in each stage. 


Head small, auteuiia- short; \ni\\n iVeble; wings short. Larva uoctuiform ; body plain green, baudeJ with yellow, 
soiuetinifS with pink dorsal patches GliqiliisiiKH 

Head broad in front; fore wings broad and fakate; antenme heavily pectinated to the tips; abdomen threo-tufted 
at tip. Larva with the body hidden by long wool like hair with short sparse hairs, likeGastrop.icha. Apalelodinni 

Antenna? ciliated; body and wings reddish ocherous, fore wings crossed by from four to five straight parallel lines. 
Larvrj brightly banded and very hairy ; no warts except in stage I Pyijivriiiai 

Antcnn:e densely pectinated; wings short and hard. Larva banded, either with small warts or with two large 
dorsal tubercles Ich th\jnri>HV 

Antenn:e usually but slightly pectinated; rarely plumose; fore wings more or less rounded at apes; internal edge 
with a tult. Larva either smooth or with two to eigbt abdominal humps Xotodontiiiai- 

Head tufted on the vertex; ^antenna- tilit'orni on the distal fourth; vestiture of end of abdomen often forked. Larva 
either smooth or with high nutant dorsal humps; end of body elevated; anal legs more or less slender and 
rarely (ilaeriirocanipa) lormiug steniapoda Jlclerovanqiiiiw 

Head large, front broad, triangular; auteun;e pectinated to the tips in both sexes. Larva" with the anal legs con- 
verted into stemapoda or long tilaments; the thoracic legs in the Eurasian Utaiirojxis very long CiruriiKX- 

Subfamily I.— Glupiiisin.e. 

Motli. — Head small, not prominent, broad in front; eyes hairy; anteumt shorter than usual, 
with long pectinations extending to the tips. Palpi small, feeble, slender, not reaching the front. 
Thorax either smooth or well crested. 

Fore wings shorter and broader than usual; apex of hind wings moderately produced. No- 
subcostal cell; the first subcostal venule of the hind wings varying much in length, usually very 
short. Legs densely scaled, the scales spreading out on each side. Abdomen short, tapering in 
S rapidly to the end. 

The species are ash-gray, varying in being whiter or darker iu hue. But a single genus yet 

K(/(j. — Low, tlatteued, hemispherical, of smaller size than in the other subfamilies; surface, 
of sliell smooth. 

Larra. — Body noctuiform, tapering toward each end, smooth, entirely unarmed; green, with 
two subdorsal yellow lines, and either plain green or with dorsal pink-red spots. Freshly hatched 
lar\ a with a large round head wider than the body, which is long and slender, tapering toward 
the end, entirely unarnu'd, with the sutures dee]), segments not wrinkled. 

Cocoon. — Very thin and slight, spun between the leaves. 

I'upa. — Of unusual shape, being Hatteued, oval cylindrical; end of abdomen round and blunt; 
cremaster obsolete, with no spines. Darker iu color than usual. 


Although this is mentioned as the first subfamily of tlie group, it is, contrary to my former 
opinion, probably a side branch, rather than a primitive group. The smooth larva may be a case 
of reduction. The absence of a cremaster, and the simplicity of form in the pupa, and the small, 
feeble palpi aud small head of the imago may be due to reduction of these parts. 

Gluphisia Boisduval. 

PI. XXXVIII, figs. 1-4 (venation). 
nomhi/x auctorum. 

Dnjiiionia (in part) Huebner, Verz. Sclimett., p. 144, 1816. 
Xolodonia (lu part) Ochs., Schmett. Eur., iii, p. 79, 1810. 
Xotodonta (in pait) Goilart, Hist. Nat. LiSp. France, iv, 20, 4, 1822. 
PerUlea (in part) .Stephens, Cat. Brit. In.s., 1829. 

111. Brit. Ins., Haiist., ii, 32, 1829. 
Gluphisia Boisd., Ind. M(5tli., 8S, 1840. 

Westwootl, British Moths, 1841. 

Dupouchel, Cat. Jlcth. Lop. Eur., p. 94, 1844. 
Gbiphidia Herrieh-Sch., Syst. Bearb. Schmett. Eur., ii, p. 124, 1845. 
Gluphisia Staudiuger, Cat. Lep. Eur., p. 74, 1871. 

Grote, Check List, p. 18, 1882. 

Smith, List Lep. Bor. America, p. 30, 1891. 
Melia Xeumoegen, Can. Eut., xxi%-, p. 225, 1892. 
Eiimelia Neunioegeu, Can. Ent., xsv, p. 25, 1892. 
Gluphisia and Eumelia, Nenra. and Dyar, Revis. Notod., Trans. Amor. Ent. Soc, xxi, pp. 193, 194, June, 1894. 

Head rather small, not prominent; front broad in $ , narrower in 9 , rather full, with loose, 
uneven, long scales; no tufts at the base of the antenuii?; eyes with long, rather dense, hairs in i 
and 9 . Antenna^ shorter than usual, curved inward, with long pectinations extending to tlie 
tip; in 9 the pectiuations short, increasing in length to the middle; the upjier side, including the 
pectinations, densely scaled. Palpi small, feeble, slender, cylindrical, witli rather long hairs, not 
very distinct from those of the front; tlie end of tlie palpi themselves depressed, not reaching 
the front. 

Thorax smooth, the scales of the jirotliorax not forming a "collar," but continuous with those 
behind or with a well maiked median crest. 

Wings: Primaries rather short and broad, a little more than one-half as broad as long; costa 
straight, a little convex toward the somewhat pointed apex; outer margin oblique, a little shorter 
than the internal. Hind wings reaching, wlien spread out, to near the end of the abdomen; costa 
straight; apex produced and slightly pointed; outer margin bent a little in the middle and so as 
to be parallel with the costa of the fore wings. 

Venation: Fore wings, first subcostal venule not uniting with the main vein at the origin of 
the fifth venule to form a subcostal cell; tbe third subcostal venule very short, arising very near 
the apex, at or near the outer third of the fourth venule. 

Hind wings with the first subcostal venule varying much in length, usually very short. 

Legs: Femora and tibiie clothed with long dense hairs, spreading out on each side. 

Abdomen short, tapering in i rapidly to tlie end; in 9 thick, heavy, and obtuse at the end. 

In coloration the species somewhat recall those of Cerura, being whitish gray, and often 
having a straight broad median band on the fore wings, of which the outer side is somewhat wavy, 
and bent just before the fourth median venule. The hind wings are nearly white. The style of 
markings is substantially the same in the two sections of the genus, and is more persistent than 
even the structural characters. 

The genus is readily identified by the short, small, feeble palpi, the hairy eyes, the well 
pectinated antenuse, and the short, broad fore wings. 

Structurally Gluphisia is in many respects the simi^lest genus of the group, its larva being 
noctuiform and without any projections. The larvae are often, jierhaps usually, even, without any 
red spots. G. septentrionin (trilincata Pack.) is the typical, and appears to be the more 
generalized, species, 

Efjf/. — Low, flattened, hemisiiherical, much smaller than in any other known genus of the 
family; surface of the shell smooth; green. 


Larva. — Body noetuifoini, tapering toward each end; smooth, entirely uiiarincd. ITcad 
rounded, snioolli, \vi:h :i bhiek strijie on eacli sside. Body with a suhdor.sal yellow line on eat'h 
side of back, otherwise i)ale green, or with several dorsal pink patches. 

Freshly hatched larva with a large round head, wider than the elongated body, which tajiers 
toward the end; segments smooth, sutures deeply impressed; glandular hairs short, minute, 
ending in three prongs; no lines or spots. 

Cocoon. — Slight and thin, spun between leaves. 

Pupa. — Flattened, oval, rounded obtusely at each end; creniaster obsolete, with no traces of 
spiues. Color darker than usual. 

Geonrapliical (lisiribittiou. — The species range throughout the Appalachian Subprovince into 
the Hudsonian fauna, and westward occur in the Campestriau Subprovince. None have yet been 
found south of the thirty-second parallel of latitude, cither on the Atlantic or Pacitic slopes of the 
continent. The genus also extends over Europe, being represented by a single si)ecies ( (1. crciuila) 
which inhabits England and Europe, extending eastward into central Russia and doubtfully into 
^jjain. One si)ecies {C. liturata Walk.) inhabits Silliet and India (Madras). 

It is divided into two sections, as follows: 


I. Thorax with no tuft: in Iiiiul wings the two blanches of the vein short, dark ash-gray, witli a 

tluU luteous median hand ou fore wings (i. ieptentiionis 

Paler gray, median baud on fore wings clearer an<l jiakr clay-yellow (!. irrifilitii 

II. Thorax usually with a tuft; head rather small; palpi feeble; the two branches of the snbco.stal vein of 
hind wings long. 

Mouse color; no discal spots; anteun.Te plumose G. Jintncri 

A dorsal thoracic tuft, aud a bright, distinct basal and discal sjiot G. screra. 

Section I. 

The differences between this section and the second are brought out in the descriiition of the 

Gluphisia septentrioiiis Wallccr. 
(PI. I, figs. 1, 2, 3. 4; VII, lig. 1; VIII, tig. 0.) 

Gliiphiaia ' sepleiitiiouis Walker, Cat. Lep. Het. Br. Mus., v, p. 1038, 1855. 
Gluphisia trilineata Pack., Proc. Eut. Soc. Phil., iii, p. 35.5, 18&I. 

Grote, Check List Lep. N. A., Moths, p. 18, 1882. 

Smith, List Lep. Bor. Amer., p. 30, 1891. 
Dasiichiia claiidesliiia Walk., Can. Nat. and Geol., vi, p. 36, 1861. 
Ghipliwia ihiiutislhia Orote, Can. Ent., ix, p. 27, .Jan., 1877. 
Not GUiphiMit triliiiealK Pack., 5tli Hep. V. S. Ent. Com., 270. 1890. ' 
Gluphisia arptinlri.iualis Dy;ir, Can. Ent., xxv, p. 303, Dec. 18'J3. 
Kirby, Syn. Cat. Lep. Het., p. 593, 1892. 

Xeuni. and Dyar, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, xxi, p. 193, .June, 1894. 
Race (jiiiiKiucViued, Iiyar, Eut. News, iii, p. 158, 1892. 


(PI. viir, ligs. 1-5.) 

JCdwunh and Eliol, Papilio, iii, p. 129, ISS3. (Brief description.) 

Dyar, Psyche, vi, 146, Sept., 1891. (Describes egg aud last stage, also cocoon .uid jjujia.) 

Eduards, Bibl. Cat. Transf. N. Amer. Lep., p. 68, 1889. 

IkuleumiiUer, Bull. Amer. Mns. Nat. Hist., iv, p. 67, 1892. (Last stage dcscrilicd.) 

Moth {i\$, 2 9). — Head, thorax, aud abdomen ash-gray, varying in being darker or paler. 

Fore wings usiially lighter than the thorax, with a short basal dark line composed of two scallops, 

one on the subcostal vein, the other situated in the median interspace, inclosing and bordered 

■ with whitish gray, beyond which is a broad dark dift'use band crossing the wing; the third or 

'The larva referred to as living on the elm is Seirodonla Inlinrala. See also pp. 4.52, ()65. 


•estradiscal line not always distinct, forming an oblique wedge shaped costal mark, wliieh is bent 
outward on the subcostal vein and irregularly scalloi)e<l between all the venules, the space 
inclosed by these two lines forming a broad obscurely luteous or clay-yellow band which is about 
two or tlnee times as wide on the costal as on the inner edge of the wings. This broad band is, 
especially in the 9. clouded with blackish scales toward the middle and hind edge, or in some 
i S grayish near the costal edge. A submarginal twice-bent line ol)tusely bent in the second 
median interspace, and again toward the apex of the wings. Fringe concolorous with the wings 
and spotted with dark on the ends of the venules. 

Hind wings slightly paler than the fore wings, usually nearly as dark as the fore wings, 
becoming darker toward and at the outer edge, sometimes with a dark cloud on the inner angle. 
The wings beneath uniformly light ashen, with a distinct black costal spot on the outer third of 
the fore wings, and on the hind wings just beyond the middle of the costal edge a dark blotch, 
from which in some specimens a broad diffuse line passes in toward the middle of the wing. 

Length of body, c? , 1» to 12 mm.; 9 , 11 mm.; expanse of wings, S , L'7-30 mm.; 9 , 33 mm. 

The species will be recognized by the uniform cinereous tinge, by the three transverse lines 
on the fore wings, by the broad clay-yellowish band, limited within by the slight inwardly curved 
inner or second line and externally by the scalloped extradiscal line, and by the plain outer half 
(if the wing, interrupted near the margin by the rather obscure twice waved darker line, and by 
the plain hind wings. 

My original type, formerly in the museum of the Peabodv Academy of Science, Salem, is now 
in my own collection. 

Having obtained a colored drawing of Walker's type in the British Museum (PI. VII. fig. 1), 
there seems no reasonable doubt but that his name has priority. 

Efi!/. — Hemispherical m shape, though unusually low, shell smooth, shining greenish Avhen 
fresh or the embryo is within, as the shell is unusually thin and transparent. Under a Tolles 
trii)let the shell is seen to be very minutely pitted; under a half inch objective the shell is seen to 
be ornamented with closely crowded, convex swellings or blebs, with a distinct swollen or thickened 
hexagonal edge and a moderately sized central boss or low pajiilla. The egg is unusually small 
compared with those of other Notodontians, especially those of Phronid dimldiatit, being only half 
as large. Diameter, It mm. They are laid singly on the underside of the leaf of the aspen, and 
from their greenish color and small size are difficult to detect. The larva emerges from the egg 
through a bean shaped hole on one side of the egg, as in Pheosia. 

Liirra, Stage I. — Length when first hatched, before feeding, 2. .5 to 3 mm.: length when 
described, soon after hatching, 4 mm. Head round, smooth, large, or twice wider than the body; 
pale whitish green, nearly of the color of the body, which is whitish green, with no stripes, spots, 
or markings of any kind; the body long and slender, rather flattened, with the sutures deeply 
impressed, the segments being unusually convex, but entirely smooth, not wrinkled. The 
glandular hairs (PI. YIII, fig. .'>) are very short, minute, moderately thick, and slightly swollen at 
the end, which is divided into three rather slender i)rocesses or forks. Body tapering to the end, 
which is not uplifted; in fact, the attitude of the young larva is singular, the body being curved 
laterally so that the head nearly touches the tail. The larva feeds on the underside of the leaf 

The eggs and young larva were found July 2, on Birch Island, Casco Bay, Maine; some 
freshly hatched larvae also occurred July (J. 

They had already spun on the underside of the leaf a roundish, white mat of silk, on which 
the caterpillar rested preparatoiy to exuviation. 

When 7 mm. in length Just before molting (July 4) the head is still much wider than the 
body, and now there are two liiiut dark dots on the head (on the vertex) and two subdorsal straw- 
yellow lines extending from the front edge of the prothoracic segment to the suranal plate. The 
sutures are also yellow. The body tapers from the prothoracic segment to the end. 

One molted July 5, and is described as follows: 

Larva, Staf/e II. — I/cngth at first, 7 mm: differs from Stage I in the two conspicuous black 
dividing short bands on the head, ending above the eyes. The two yellow subdorsal lines and 
the transverse linear bars formed by the yellow sutures are as at the end of Stage I. The body 
is still rather flattened. The glandular hairs are retained in this stage, and are very short and of 
the same shape as in Stage I. 



Larva, Sfagr IIT. — Li'iigtli, 10 mm. The liead is still large, imu-li wider tliaii tlie body, aiuT 
green, with a purple stripe on each side. Tlie yellow lines are more distinct iLan before, and the 
body lias a purplisli tinge. (Described from Bridgham's figure (PI. VIII, fig. — ) observed July 8. 
I.arrd. Staf/c I V. — Length, 20 mm. In one oliscrvcd .Inly 20, and neai ly full grown, tlic head 
is still without the lateral black stripe, and the two subdorsal yellow stripes arc very distinct, but 
there are no pink spots anywhere on the body. The small spiracles are pale orange. 

In another drawn by "Sir. Briilgham (PI. VIII, fig. 4), and also 20 nmi. in length, the head is 
not banded, but tlie body is i)rcttily sjiotted witli pinkisli red, in the following manner: Two round 
dorsal spots on the first thoracic segment; a broad jjink-ied transverse baud on the seci nd and 
third thoracic segments, each broken into two by a transveise median whitish line; on al>dominal 
segments 3-0 is a jtair of dorsal red, rounded spots, growing larger and more distinct toward the 
end of the body, there being four spots on the ninth segment. The subdorsal yellow lines are 
well marked. 

Larva, last (fifth) titajje. — Length, 30 nnn. One found on the aspen August 0, was jtale green, 
near the color of the underside of the leaf. Head ' smooth, i)olished, darker green than the 
body, with two black stripes on each side, not meeting above on the vertex. Body green, tajjcring 
at each end, smooth, nearly hairless, with no pilifei'ous warts, the scattered hairs being minute; 
two fine subdorsal yellow lines, and Dyar has observed a faint whitish substignmtal line on 
second and third thoracic segments. Thoracic segments 1-3 each with dorsal pink-red blotches 
or spot.s, two on tlie prothoracic segment, while those behind are not .so divided. Abdominal 
segments 3 to 9 each with a consi)icnous pinkred dorsal stpnire spot, the sjjace between the spots 
more or less yellow; nine on the suranal plate, which is smooth and rounded, while the two 
subdorsal yellow lines do not meet on it: no .spots or dots on the side of the body below the 

subdorsal lines. Thoracic and abdominal legs of the same color 
as the body. 

Dyar remarks that it is often associated with Baphia frater, 
which it much resembles in general structure, though it is more 
slender. (Psyche, vi, 14<!, September IS.) 

Cocoon. — A Aery slight web of silk spun between two leaves, 
simply enough silk spun around the edge of the inclosuie to hold 
the leaves together, the silk mostly confined to the edge of the 
cocoon, which measures about 22 by 20 mm. The pupa lies very 
loosely in its cocoon. 

Of very unusual shape, being flattened oval cylindrical; posterior 
end of the body (fig. .53) much rounded and blunt, smooth, with no distinct traces of a cremaster, 
much less than in other puj)a> inclosed in cocoons; surface of the body rather smooth, less 
pitted, and the minute pits or punctuations more distinct and numerous on the dorsal thiin on the 
ventral surface. In color dark brown, much darker than usual in Notodontinns or other moths. 

Uahit-s. — The eggs are laid the last of June and during the first week in July in Maine, 
and probably two weeks earlier in southern New England. There are apparently five stages, 
and the duration of Stage I is about three days, as is that of Stage II, and that of Stage III 
about five days. 

One larva July 2(1 spun a very slight cocoon between two leaves, and jiupated July 2S. On 
this caterpillar there were no red spots. 

The moth appeared in the breeding box at Providence May 30, having been brought from 
Maine in the pupa state; another one appeared June 1, also from Maine, in the larva state. 

Mr. Howard I;. Clark has reared this moth from catori)illars found on the Balm of (Jilead at 
Warwick, Pt. I. The moth appeared July 22, having been in the cliiysalis state about ten days. 

Hiley states (MS. notes) that the moths occur in May, .June, and .Inly. :Mr. (i. H. Hudson 
give*< the following dates of capture of the moths at Plattsburg, X. Y.: May 22. 1; May 2!», I; 
June 3, 1; June .5, 1 ; June 7 to 24, 22; July 10, 1; July 10, 1; .Uily 17, 1; July 20, 1, July 27 to 
August 13, 30. 

Fi(i. 53. — End of pupa of tHuphisia sejttrn- 
trioiiii; 9, vestige of <;euital outlt-t t>t' 

Pupa. — Length, l.VK! mm 

''s ineasurciiieiits of the width of tho head for the four stages nrv 
1 11. 1.75, 2.7 mm. Katio, 0.65. 1"oiiih1, 0.7, l.J, 1.7, 2.7 ram. (Psyche, vi, 147.) 

fullows: Calriilatcd, 0.18. 0.74, 


Dyar states that there are two broods each year, and 1 suspect this is the case, though I liave 
not observed tliis for myself. Mr. G. 11. Hudson also thinks there are two broods, and writes me 
that this is the flrst boiubycid to tly. 

Food j)lants. — Usually occurring on the aspen ov I'opulus treiiudoides. I have also found it 
on the yellow birch, one from this tree beginning to pupate August 14. Mr. H. S. Clark has bred 
it from the Ualm of Gilead, and S. L. I'^lliot found it on the willow and sweet gum. 

(Icor/i-Kphical diatribution. — This is a species of wide range, and so far as yet known is more 
common in northern New England, especially in cool, elevated mountain stations, than in the 
]\Iiddle States. Mrs. Fernald has collected it at Orono, Me. I have found the larva- commonly 
at Ihuiiswick, Me., and INIrs. Slossou has collected the moths commonly from year to year at 
I'ranconia, N. H., a very cool, elevated valley about 1,200 to 1,300 feet above the sea. The 
locality of Walker's ty])e is "St. Martin's Falls, Albany lliver, Hudson's Bay, Dr. Barnston." It 
has occurred at Candjridge, Mass. (Harris Coll. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist.); Detroit, 3Iich.; Lawrence, 
Mass. (Mr. Treat, Mus. Comp. Zool.); Eastern New York (H. Edwards, Elliot, Dyar); New York 
and ^Middle States (Grote, and Coll. Amer. Eut. Soc. Philadelphia); Tlattsburg, N. Y. (Hudson); 
Carbondalc. III.: ^ViscoIlsin, Ohio, Maine, Middle States, New York (G. H. French); Eacine, Wis.; 
Chicago, 111. (Westcott); Fort Collins, Colo., June 21 (C. F. Baker); Pennsylvania' (Strecker); 
Manhattan, Kans., June 20, just like New England examples, but a little larger than any except 
a bred one from Maine (Popenoe); New Y'^ork and Nebraska (U. S. Nat. Mus.), race quinquelinea 
(PI. I, p. 4), Pacific Coast, northwest (Dyar). Of its distribution southward we as yet know 
nothing, and so far as is known the species is restricted to the Appalachian subprovince (or the 
humid province of the cold temperate subregion of the North American region, of Allen). 

Gluphisia •wrightii H. K<lwaitls. 
(PI. I, figs. 5, G, 7,8, 9, 1(1-13.) 

Glnplihia wriiihtii H. Edwards, Ent. Amer., ii, p. 11, April, 1886. 
Gluphinia ridvnda H. Edwards, Eut. Amer., ii, p. 11, April, 1886. 

Pack., Psyche, vi, p. 499, Aug., 1S93. 
Gluphisia riipta H. Edw., Ent. Amer., ii, p. 12, April, 1886. 

Pack., Psyche, vi, p. 499, Aug., 1893. 
Gliiphiaiii alhofascia H. Edw., Ent. Amer., li, p. 12, April. 1886. 
Pack., Psyche, p. 499, Aug., 1893. 
Dyar, Trans. Auier. Ent. Soc, xxi, p. 196, 1894. 
Gluphisia formosa Ii. Edw., E:it. Amer., ii, p. 12, April, 1886. 
Kirby, Syn. Cat. Lep. Het., p. 593, 1892. 
Pack., Psyche, vi, p. 500, Aug., 1893. 
Neum. and Dyar, Revis. Notod., Traus. Amer. Ent. 8oc.. xxi, pp. 193, 191. .Tune, V^\H. 

The following description of the single female example forming the type of Edwards's irrhjhtH 
is copied from his paper in Entomologica Americana (ii. p. 11) : 

Gluphisia u-riyhlii (n. sp.). — Head, thorax, and abdomen very dark gray, thickly speckled with black scales, 
but lighter on the underside; the primaries are also very heavily covered with black scales. A little above the 
basal half of wing runs a waved liue of pale gray, and from internal angle another waved line more oblique. The 
space between them is closely scaled with black, but toward the inner margin is an almost square butf patch, 
across which runs a black line. Space behind the middle band blackish, shading into pale gray at the submarginal 
dentate line. Margin and fringe pale gray, spotted with black. Secondaries sordid white, with a dusky sulmiar- 
ginal shade, conuectnig with the blackish anal spot. Beneath smoky white, with faint indications of a double 
median band. Expanse of wings, 42 mm., 1 $, San Bernardino, Cal. 

I have been led to reconsider my view as to the affinities of G. irrightii, and agree for the 
present with JMr. Dyar that it is very near G. rupta ; we need more examples and a better knowl- 
edge of the venation than we now pos.sess to settle the question of its exact relationship. 

As these forms have already been described by Mr. Edwards, I cojiy his descriptions, adding 
mj- own views as to their .synonymy: 

Head, thorax, and abdomen dark gray, plentifully sprinkled with l>lack, especially on the upper side. Feet 
and legs also gray nu)ttled with black. Antenuic with the shaft white, pectinations blackish. Primaries with a 
buff patch at the base, in which are a few black scales. Behind this a gray band, edged before and behind with 


black, and spriiiUlod with hlack scales. TUni a rather wide butt' in- fawn-color shade, throvigli which ruus a wavsd 
rather indistinct blackish hand. liehind this fawn-color band is another of white or silver-gray, oilged with a 
consiiicnoiis dentate black line, witii some black scales toward the apex. The space behind the di'ntate line is pale 
gray. Fringe whitish, decked with black. Sfcouilaries yellowish gray, shading into dark smoky toward the 
margins. IJndersiile sordid white, dark on the apex of the primaries, with faint tracis of the median b.niil. 

Expanse of wings, 30 mm. ; length of body, 12 mm. ; 3 (J , 1 5 . 

Denver, Colo., Hy. Edwards. 1 ^, Montana, Coll. Nenmoegen. 

California (French) ; (1. riilendu, Colorado, Montana (French); (i. rupla, Colorado (French) ; G. alhufascia, Utah 

G. ridcniht (dgs. ."), C, PI. YI[I, fij;-. 7) Edw. is very clo.sely allied, ivin-e.'^eiitiiig O. irilineiifa in 
Coloi'ado. The Edwards collection contains '■'>$. I have a V from Colorado which 1 coniparcd 
with Mr. Edwards's type specimen before his death. Its venation is the same as in G. frilineata; 
its body and wings are paler gray, the broad median band on the lore wings is clearer, and pale 
tawny yellowish. It is not improbable that V. riilcnda will ultimately i)rove to be merely a climatic 
variety of the Eastern trilineatu. 

G. rupta Edw. (PI. I, tig. 9) 1 2 , Colorado, I regard as a variety which shonld be niiited with 
G. ridenda. The single (tyi)e) specimen is a 9 , without antenna' or abdomen. 

It is of the same size and with the same shape of wings as in G. ridenda. Head and prothorax 
paler than in G. ridenda. Fore wings pale gray, as pale as in ridenda anil whiter tlian in frilineata; 
base of wings pale, with a black longitudinal streak, a little oblique on the costa, and behind is a 
dili'use black irregular band; the inner line is black, and as in ridenda. The inner black line 
forming the inner border of the luteous or tawny yellowish median band is very distinct, obliipie, 
not bent outward, as in ridenda. The band is much narrower tiian in ridenda, the outer and inner 
black lines nearly meeting on the inner edge of the wing. Tlie outer line is not so nnich bent on 
the costa. No middle line present. The space beyond the nariow i)ale line Just beyoiul the outer 
line is dusky, much as in trilineata, -where it is pale in ridenda. Submarginal scalloped line not so 
near the edge of the wing as in ridenda. Fringe clieckered as in ridenda and trilineata. The hind 
wings are as in ridenda, with no transverse line. Beneath as in G. ridenda, but with a broad dusky 
cloud on the outer fourth of the fore wings, not reaching the edge. 

G. allio/aseia Edwards (PI. I, figs. 7, 8). — The 2 S type specimens are from Utah, and seem 
to be oidy a pale form of G. ridenda, probably due to its living in a drier, less rainj% more sunny 
region." It is to be noted that the Western varieties named have no longer fore wings than in the 
Eastern trilineata. It seems to be identical with (f . formosa, but scarcely separable from G. ridenda, 
being, with little doubt, a climatic variety of the latter sjjccies. The 2 <5 marked albo/aseia 
resemble G. formosa, only the nearly clear sjiaces of the latter in albo/aseia form dark, broad, 
very distinct bands. There are two dark dusky patches on the hind wings. The exami)lcs 
of G. albo/aseia are more typical of the species (if it be regarded as distinct from ridenda) than 
those iilaced under G. /ormosa. 

The fore wings somewhat luteous-gray at base; on the inner third is a broad black band 
widening on the costa and still wider on the internal edge, wliere it reaches a little beyond the 
middle of the wing. A clear luteous-gray median space, beyond which on tlie outer third of the 
wing is a broad black baud, between which and the submarginal scalloped line is a gray band. 
Hind wings with a diffuse broad band on the outer fourth, forming a dark patch on the internal 
angle, and another in the independent interspace. On the undcrsiilc of the wings the dark bands 
show through, as do the two dusky spots on the hind wings. — Utah and (.'olorado (June, l^. S. 
Nat. Mus.). 

G. /ormosa Edwards (PI. I, tigs. 10-12). — Fcmr S , all from T'tah. As already stated, I regard 
this as a synonym of (^V. ((^//q/'m, both si)ecies being witli little doubt climatic varieties of G^. 

The antennae are well pectinated, rather more so than in G. ridenda. The wings are much 
paler gray than m ridenda, the hind wings being almost white, but the thorax and abdomen are 
as in ridenda. Fore wings with black scales at the base, but with no definite lines sudi as are to 
be seen in trilineata and ridenda, but Just T)eyond the base the wing is more or less luteous, as' in 
ridenda. .Middle of the wing with a l)road, pale, flesh colored or luteous baml, bordered on the 
inside by a very distinct black line, like that of ridenda, becoming wider on the costa. In the 


middle of the baud is a dark line nearly parallel with tbe inner one, dilatiuy on the veins and all 
the lines forming distinct dark costal spots. The outer third of the wing gray, with dark scales 
and with an irregular blackish wavy line, much as in ridenda and yupla. Hind wings whitish, 
with no lines, and with three dark dots on the Iringe of the internal angle. The outer third of 
the wing faintly dusted more or less with line dark scales. Wings pale whitish beneath; two 
blackish costal spots beyond the middle, and costa of both wings S])cckled with dark scales. A 
faint diffuse band i)asses across the hind wings just beyond the middle, and tlie margin of both 
wings is speckled with dark scales. Body beneath pale, and the legs (tarsi) ringed with dark 

After preparing the preceding descriptions I find that Mr. Edwards adds to his description 
of G. formosa the fbllowing remark: 

It is jiossible that (I. riilotda aiiil C. rupta are forms of oue sjiecies, and that (!. nibofascia and G. formosa are 
forms of anotbor, but I prefer to consider them as distinct until future investigation shall determine their true 

Mr. Dyar tells me that he has a specimen of G.formosa from El Paso, Tex. Professor French 
reports it from Utah. G. var. ridenda occurred at Fort Collins, Colo., Jlay -3, Juue 11, and at 
Denver July 2o (C. P. Gillette). 

Section II (Eumelia Nenm.). 

This section corresponds to the genus (sic) Melia or Etimelia of JNIessrs. Neunioegeu and Dyar. 
At first, with only a single specimen of var. dossonhv to judge by, I thought it was the type of a 
distinct genus, as the head, antenna', palpi, and venation seemed so different, but after careful 
and repeated examinations of specimens, labeled avimaciila, lintneri, icrighUi, and severa, and 
observing the general identity of form of body, wings, and especially of markings, as well as 
the larval characters. Dr. Dyar stating that the larva of the Califoruian severa does not 
differ generally from that of E. triUneata, I think with our present knowledge it would be quite 
unnecessary to recognize Eumelia as a distinct genus. 

The structural differences between G. tritineata aud G. severa, var. slossoniw, and which at 
first led me to think them gcnerically distinct, are the following: 

A ? . The head is remarkably small, much more so than in G. trilincaUi, and is loosely scaled 
in front. The antenaaj are pectinated, the branches a little longer than in 9 trilineata. The palpi 
are short, small, depressed, with loose scales; and they are not quite so large and long as in 
trilineata. The thorax differs from that of Glaphisia trilineata in having a median dorsal tuft. 
The legs are hairy, and much as in trilineata, the tarsi being ringed with gray aud darker scales. 
The fore wings are uariow, but with the costa unusually convex, much more so than in trilineata; 
the apex is somewhat rounded, but much as in trilineata; the outer edge is very faintly excavated 
below the apex. The hind wings are of the same shape as in trilineata. There are six branches 
of the subcostal vein; bianch 1 is longer than in trilineata and ends half way between the end of 
costal veiu and end of branch 2 of the subcostal; the costal area is wider toward apex thau in 
trilineata. The fifth and sixth branches are nearly as in trilineata. The lower discal vein is not 
so much bent as in the last-named species. The three cubital veins are nearly as in trilineata, 
but the second median space is wider than in that genus. The submedian vein ( V ) is represented by 
a simple fold. In the hind wings the two branches of the subcostal are much longer thau in 
trilineata, the space between them long and narrow, in trilineata short and broad triangular. 
The discal veins are, taken together, slightly curved, where in trilineata they make a decided 
angle at the origin of the indei)endent vein; and there is a common origin of the lower discal and 
of the two median veinlets. The second median interspace is much wider than in the species of 
the other section of the genus. Vein VI is represented by a simple fold. 


Gluphisia liutueri ((irote.) 

(PI. 1,11-. 18.) 

Daai/chira Undien Grote, Can. Ent., is, p. 85, 1877. 
Gluj)hi«hi Ihitiitii Myar, Can. Ent. xxiii, p. 159, 1891. 

Smith, List Lep. Ainer., p. 30, 1891. 

Kirby, Cat. Lep. Het., i, p. 59.3, 1892. 

Pack., Psyche, vi., p. 5(X), Au^., 1893. 

\cuni. and Uyar, Amer. ICnt. Soc, .\xi. ]>. 191, 1894; Jonru. N. Y. Ent. Soc. ii.p. 115, 
Sept., 1H9L 

Origiually described as a Dasycliiia, this is a true (ilupliisia, but, with G. scrcra aud 
avimaciihi, beloujiiiii;' to a distinct section of the yenus. Tlie antenna- are ]iiovided with long, 
close pectinations; the body is stout and hairy, and there is not a well niarlced dorsal tutt i)resent; 
the costii of the fore wiugs is much more convex than in (1. nrjilcntrionis. and the ajiex sonuMvliat 
jn-oduced as in (i.xcvvni. lUxly stout and hairy: antenna' almost ii]nnio>f. having long, dense 
branches, white, tlie branches dusky. 

Body and wiugs ash or mouse gray. Head nearly as large in proportion as in 0. sepientrionis; 
])alpi feeble, snndl, not distiiu;t from the hairs of the front. Fore wings with the costa much more 
CDUvex than in (/. ncplciitrioiiis, and tin; ajjex somewhat prodnce(l, of the same color as the 
body; a basal black line bent outward at a right angle on the costal vein, and again sending out 
a distinct long loop on the cubical vein; the middle or intradiscal black line firm, straight, not 
curved inward as in scptcntrionis, sliglitly bent outward on the cubi(;al vein; extradiscal line 
slightly scalloi)ed, bent inward on the costal edge. A very faint, linear, dark, discal spot. A 
tawny or clay-yellow (luteous) i)atch at base of wing in the median space and passing a little 
beyond the basal line. The space between the inner and the outer (extradiscal) line is lilled in 
with clay-yellow, forming a broad median luteous band wliich is nearly as wide on the inner edge 
.as on the costal edge. There is also a series of snbnmrginul lunate faint luteous patches or 
blotches, with some black scales intermingled. The costal edge is entirely free from luteous 
scales. Hind wings daik, like the fore wings, with a distinct dark line on the outer third, which 
is most distinct on the inner edge of the wing, succeeded by a light siiade. Beneath the wings 
are dusky and both crossed by a common dark diffuse line. No diseal sjjot, as in wriglifii and var. 

Exi)anse of wings, S 40 nun.; length of body, S J.") mm. 

(Icogmphival dintribittioii. — I'lattsbnrg, N. Y., Ai)ril 23, flying to light April 12, 20, 23, 30, 
May 11 (G. H. Hudson) (U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 0217); Franwmia, N. H. (Mrs. Slosson); New 
York?, April (U. S. Nat. Mus.); New York (French). 

Gluphisia severa ICil wards. 

(PI. 1, \\ii%. 14-1(3.) 
Gluphisia ervcrn H. Edwards, Ent. Amer., ii, p. 167, Dec, 1886. 
Gluphisia avintKcula Hudson, Ent. News, ii, No. 8, p. 155, Oct., 1891. 
Kirby, Syn. Cat. Lep. Het., p. 593, 189L'. 
Dyar, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, xxi, p. 194, 1894. 
Gluphisia nevcra var. «/«ss«h id-, Packard. 
ilelin (l(iiihi/i Ncnin. Can. Ent., xxiv, ]>. 22.i, 1892. 
Enmitia (luiibjii Nenni. Can. Ent., xxv, p. 25, 1892. 

Eumeliu aeveia Neuni. aud Dyar, Trans, .\nier. Ent. Soc, xxi, ji. 191. .Jnne, 1894; .lonni. N. Y. Ent. Snc. ii, p. 115, 
Sept., 1894. 

Dyar, Psyche, vi, p. .503, Aug., 1893. 

Of the two female sjiecimens jjlaced under 0. severa in the Edwards collection, one (not the 
type, which is a 9 from Soda Springs, Cal., Ain-il 15, with eggs), probably added after his 
description was published, I regarded provisiomilly as a si)ecimen of (1. irrii/htii. Its locality is 
Sierra Nevada, Cal. (and .Mr. lieutenmiiller suggests tlnit it may have been taken at Mount 
Shasta). The sjjecimen is |)erfectly preserved, and in its structural characters is clo.sely allied to 
G. severa. The thorax has a median tuft, as in G. severa. From the type of ■wrightii it differs in 
the more distinct and darker markings, being less rubbed. 


A decidedly lutcous subtriangular spot extends from the base of the wiiji;- to the inner distinct 
line crossing the wing, which line is situated Iialf way between the base of the wing and the inner 
side of the median band, this line having been rubbed oft' in the type of wrightii. The space 
between this line and the median band is whitish gray. The broad blackish median band incloses 
a sinuous linear hiteous discal spot, and there is a Inteous patch near the internal edge of the 
wing. The inner edge of the median band is less distinctly sinuous than in the tj'pe of >rri(jhtii, 
and so is the white outer bordering Hue, which, however, is more zigzag. The edge of the wing 
is stone-gray, as in tlie type of wrifjlifii, and incloses the usual scalloped dark line, as in the type 
of icriyhiii. Hind wings as in the type; a difthse dark band crosses the wing beyond the middle, 
and a second outer one is parallel to it, but does not reach the middle, and the two bands inclose 
a white linear spot, as in the type. 

The species occurs in northern as well as southern California, and is quite variable. 

G. severa Edwards. — The single type is a 9 from Soda Springs, Cal. 

The type is much larger than the Sierra Nevada specimen, and well preserved. Antennie 
with short pectinations. Body and head dark gray. Wings unusually dark; fore wings dark 
gray on the basal third, with a very small luteous spot on the cubital and internal veins. Mediaii 
baud broad and dark, almost black, and not bordered by the narrow scalloped outer line, the 
wing being suffused with black to the outer edge. A narrow faint luteous linear discal spot. 
Halfway between the scalloped pale gray line and the outer edge of the wing is a submarginal 
series of tawny or luteous jjatches. Hind wings just as in the Sierra Nevada example, and 
venation as in wrightii. Wings underneath dark and much diflused, the line on the fore wing 
less sinuous than in the trriyhtil type. Ilind wings with two i)arallel broad dark bands, just as in 
the Sierra Nevada specimen of G. wrightii. The shape of the head and the; wings is the same in 
the Californian severa and the eastern form. In both forms the hind wings are nearly the same. 

Var. Hrimacula. — The following is a descrii)tion of a type specimen presented by IMr. Hudson to 
the United States National Museum: Body and fore wings ash-gray, basal line black, with a large 
irregular loop just below the median vein tilled in with luteous scales. Middle line black, sinuous; 
extradiscal line diffuse, oblique, and sinuous; no luteous median band, this space being ash-gray, 
with obscure luteous scales near and on inner edge; au indistinct submarginal series of blackish 
scallops; a very distinct, irregular, reniform black discal spot, tilled in with distinct luteous scales, 
so that there are two distinct conspicuous clay-yellow spots in this species; hind wings with no 
distinct line and no common line beneath. Expanse of wings, 37 mm.; length of body, 10 mm. 

Plattsburg, N. Y., May 10, 15, 21, 2'2 (O. H. Hudson). Professor French has (hoibi/i from 
Victoria and .severa from Shasta County, Cal. 

G. severa var. slossuniw. — Body and wings pale ash-gray ; the prothoracic segment colored as the 
bead, but the rest of the thorax is dark brown, the median thoracic tuft also dark l)rown. Fore 
■\vings black-brown on basal one-tittli, this portion sending out five sharp tooth-like projections 
along the subcostal, internal, and second anal veins. A broad distinct median oblique band, with 
irregular loliulate edges, and widening on the costa; it incloses a very distinct discal triangular 
white spot, the apex pointing outward. A submarginal broken row of dark spots arranged much 
as in Gluphisia trilineata. 

Hind wings with no markings, but at the inner angle is a faint short curved dark band, 
edgeil externally with white, but not reaching beyond the middle of the internal space. Fringe 
coucolorons with the wing, but checkered with small black spots. 

Wings beneath much as in Gluphisia trilineata; the black band is faint, its outer edge indicated 
•on the costa by a dark spot. Expanse of wings, 38 mm.; length of body, 15 nnn. 

I am indebted to Mrs. Annie Trumbull Slosson for the privilege of examining and describing 
a single remarkable specimen in a perfect state of i)i'cservation taken at Franconia, N. H. Mrs. 
Slosson, unlike many entomologists, has kindly allowed me to partially denude the under 
side of the wings of her unique specimen, so that the venation could be carefully drawn with the 
aid of the camera. She has determined the species to be new. The species was not to be found in 
the collections of Mr. Graef or Mr. Nenmogen, and Mr. Beutenmiiller had not seen it in the Henry 
Edwards collections, now fortunately in the possession of the American Museum of Natural 
History at Central Park, New York. 1 had described the form as Ceruridia slossonia; regarding 
S. Mis. 50 7 


it as tin- type of a now yeiius, allied to, but distinct from, tihipliisia, owiny to the notable difter- 
ences in the venation, as well as the presence of a dorsal tutt and other characters given below. 
After sendinjr my description for iJiiblication Mr. Dyar wrote me that he had seen the specimen 
with my name on it in Mrs. Slosson's collection and that it seemed to him to be a dark 9 of 
(iliipliixifi (u'iiiiaiHhi Hudson, addiiij; that Mr. Xeumogcn's ^•Mclia ddiihyi" is referable to the same 
genus, but his name -'Melia" is preoccupied. Since then 1 have reexamined Edwards's typo of 
G. Hi rem, ami iiave received from Mr. Dyar a specimen of G. Untneri. ]\Ir. Dyar also wrote me as 
his opinion that the species of Ceruridia cu' Melia (Kumelia) are not geuericaHy ditt'erent from 
Glnphisia, as he has collected G. xerera in the Yosemite Valley, Cal. 

As the result of my studies, especially of the venation, I am inclined to divide the genus 
Glui)liisia into two sections and to believe that in the forms mentioned below we have a number 
of climatic or temperature varieties of a species allied to G. Uiitiieri (originally referred t» 
Dasychira by Grote), and whicli is common to both the Atlantic and Pacific coasts. 

Of all these forms the variety sJosxoiria' is the most remarkable, from its very dark markings, 
and deserves to rc^ceivo a distinct name. That these forms may be the result of climatic causes, 
acting on the insect in its pupal state, seems pretty well established from the remarkable results 
obtained not only by Weisniann and W. H. Edwards, but also the more detailed experiments 
made by Mr. F. Merrilield and jjulilished with elaborate plates in the Transactions of the 
Entomological Society of Ijondon for 181)1 (p. 155) and 1S92 (j). 3;}) (xxxvi). 

In comparing G. slo.snonia' with Hudson's description of avimacula, it seems most probable 
that it is a melanotic form, due to the colder and damper situation of Franconia, N. H., which is 
about 1,4(MI teet above the sea. In s/«/rt' the thorax is ligliter. the pale ocherous basal and 
discal spots of (irimacula are whitish gray in slos.sonia; and the basal and middle lines of the 
median band arc swamped by the broad black-brown band of sl<»isiiiii(v; the hind wings of 
slonsoiiid' agree with Hudson's description of <(cimaciil(i. 

The following account of its transformations is copied from l>yar (Psyche, vi, p. 5<»3, Aug.,. 
1893) : 

Eiig (.'). — Mciiiisiilieru-al, tin; base flat; smootli, slightly sliiiiy wliitisli uret'ii, the miiroiiyle round, sin:ill, black.. 
Under a hall'-hich objective, it is seen to be covered with irregular llatteued reticulations, not raised above the 
surface of the egg, much as ni (Jerura, but more irregular, ranging in shape from quadrilateral to hexagonal. 
Diameter, 1.1 mm. Founil on a i)oplar leaf, deposited singly. I am not sure that this egg belongs to this species, as 
it failed to hatch, but it was found with the larvie and probably belongs here. 

first Ittiral stage. — Not observed. 

Second stage.— Head slightly bilobed, not sliiuy, pale green; mouth wliitisli; (icilli black: width, nini. liody 
smooth, slender, without hiiuijisor tiibcrclcs, luiiforiu jiale green, not shiny, with a faint yellow subdorsal line. N'o. 
other markings 

Third Htar/e. — f)nly the cast head-case was observe<l, the width of which was 1.45 mm. 

Fiiiirth s/ayc— -Width of head, 2.3 mm. Much as in the first part of the last stage. There is a moderately 
distinct, pale yellow, subdorsal line! without other markings, or else traces of lateral and stigmatal yellowish lines, 
the former bioken, the latter continiuuis, but faiut. .Spiracles small, faintly ocherous. As tln^ stage advances the 
stigmatal line becomes the most distinct, the others becoming faint. 

/''////( stage. — Head very slightly bilobed, somewhat flattened in front, uniform pale, sublnstrous green, miuith 
parts paler, jaws black; width, 3.5 nnu. Feet normal, all nsecl in walking, concolorous with the body, the claspers. 
wliitisb. Body long and slender, noctuiform in appearance, without humps or tubercles; jiiliferous dots absent, the 
haire being reduced to mere riuliments. Color uniformly uoulustrons pale green, semitrausparent, showing plainly 
the pulsations of the dorsal vessels. An obscure, pale yellow, sligmatal line. Spiracles dull oeher. The l.irva 
rests on a slight web on the back of the leaf, the head held out flat. 

.\8 the stage adv.ances the markings become much more pronounced. The head is mottled with white, especiaU.v 
on each side of the clypeus; elypeus white centrally ; a yellow line appears on the side of the head fnnu the base of 
till- ('utenua' behind the ocelli, in line with the stigmatal bjind when the insect is in its normal position of rest. 
Stigmatal line distiuct, jiale yellow, bordered above, very narrowly, with crimson ou the thoracic segments, and 
reaching nearly to the end of the anal plate. Uorsal region whitish green, becoming almost wliiti^; siibveutral 
region clear green, with yellow dots; spiracles orange, feet faintly tipped with vinous. There are faint traces of a 
yellowish subdorsal line and one on each side of the dorsal vessel, Ijiit they become white and are seen as somewhat 
more distinct parts of the general whitish dorsal shading. Still later the rudimentary iiiliferoiis dots become 
surrounded with yellow, ThiTe are seven ou each side above the stigm.ital line, seven in the sul)ventral space 
(where they appear more distinctly on accouitt of the absence of white shading), .mil others on the venter ot tlie- 
legless segiueuts. 


Lengtli of larva, 41 mm. at maturity. 

Cucuon. — .Spun amons leaves. It i.s composed oC nummy silk, slii;lit. l)nt touiih. 

/"«/»(.— Nearly cyliiulrical. roumle.l, no cremastcr; abdomi-u puuctm-ed, oases coarsely creased ; color iinilnrui 
dark l>ro\vn, uearly l)lack. Lenstli, 17 min.; width, fi mm. 

Fowl planls. — Paiihiv (['opiihix tirmiiloides and /'. hihamifera). \,n\-y:v tVoiii Vosemite, Cal. (Dyar.) 

Dr. Dyar tells me that he lias found at Keeiie Valley, New York, the larva of G. avimuciila 
or slosnoiu'fv, which is e.xactly like that of O. necem, described above. 

Subfamily II. — Apatklodin.k.' 

Head more proniiiieut than iu the previous family; antenna- well pectinated to the tips; palpi 
large, stout, ascending, reaching well beyond the front. Fore wings triangular, falcate, and with 
the outer edge bent in front of the middle on the si.xth subcostal venule. Hind wing's with the 
apex unich rounded. Hind legs very thick, the femora oval. 

Larva cylindrical, almost entirely concealed by the long wool-like hair, through which arise 
long pencilsof hairs: in niH/rlini, hairs short. Freshly hatched larva clothed with lougwhite hairs. 

The reference by Mr. Druce (JJiologia Gentr. Amer., p. 208) of this genus to the Lasiocampida" 
seems to us to be quite erroneous, as the venation is truly Notodontian and very unlike that of 
any of the Lasiocampidie known to us, in all of which there are four branches of the cubital vela 
of both wings, and no bristle (frenulum) on the hind wings. The larva doe.s, however, have a 
superficial resemblance to that of some Lasiocampa\ Let the reader compare the venation of 
ApatelodA with that of Iclithyura and Nadata. The end of the abdomen is also tutted much as 
in Ichthyuia. Apatelodes also spins no cocoon. Acronyctodus of Edwards is closely allied; the- 
single species known is from Vera Cruz, Mexico. 

Apatelodes I'ac kard. 
(PI. XX.WIll, ligs. .5, 5a-5(-, venation.) 

Fluihnia, Abbot and Smith, Nat. Hist. Lep., Georgia, p. l."il, 1797. 

I'yijara (in part) Hiibn., Verz. Schmett., p. 1(52, 1816. 

Pnialhi/ris Hiibn., A'erz. Schmett., p. 158, 1816. 

Apatelodes Packard, .Syn. Bombycidic U. .S., Pt. II, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., p. 2.53, Nov., IN64. 

Grote, Check List N. A. Jloths, p. 18, 1882. 

Druce, Biologia Centr. Amer., PI. LVI, p. 208, March, 1,887. 

Smith, List Lep. Uor. Amer., p. 2'j! 1891. 

Head moderately prominent, the front rather broad, more so than usual, subtriangular, the- 
hairs clothing it rather uneven and loijse. Antemne in i evenly branched to the end, but' the 
pectinations shorter than usual, about as long as the thorax. Palpi large, thick, stout, slightly 
ascending, reaching well beyond the front, tips broad; third Joint minute, nearly concealed, not 
distinct from second Joint. Eyes naked. 

Thorax simple, not tuftetl. Fore wings triangular; uearly one-half as broad as long; in the 
9 much broader; costa straight, mucli curved at the apex; outer margin hcdlowcd just below the 
apex, rendering it unusually falcate. Below the apex the outer edge of the wing is oblicpie, not 
indented, but making an obtuse angle with the straight inner edge. Costal vein extending nearer 
the apex than usual. First, second, and third subcostal venules suddenly detlexed upon the- 
costa very near each other. Apical interspace broadly triangular. The fourth and fifth subcostal 
venules of the same length; no subcostal cell. Discal area short and broad; the discal venules- 
situate.l within the middle of the wing; the posterior di.scal venule oblique, though curvilinear. 

Hind wings large, full, and rounded on the outer margin, of an irregular pentagonal form 
reaching nearly to the tips of the abdomen. Both discal venules very obliipie, especially the 
hinder one. Tibia' with broad fiat concavo convex tufts. Femora densely, giving the joint 
an oval form; hind tibiie with dense scales, making it unusually broad, with four large spurs. 
Abdomen of i slender, with a tuft on each side of the tip. 

Coloration, no discal spot; with gray brown lines and blotches. 

The genus is easily recognized by the broad, very falcate fore wings, their peculiar venation, 
andby the unusually broad hind tibiaj and the large tufts at the end of the male abdomen. 

' This name was proposed by me in MS., but Neumoegen and Pyar published it in 1894; the facrth^ 
It was proposed by two different authors shows that it is well founded. 


The genus may be also distinjriiisbed by the slioit anteunal pectinations; by tlie large palpi; 
by the simple, iintiifted thorax; by the falcate fore vrings, the outer edge not scalloped, and by 
the bi'oad couravo convex tibial tufts. 

The generic name was suggested by the resemblance of the hairy hirva to Apatela amerieana. 
Our species can not be referred to the same genus as Panithyrh ci'do-ntiUi of Cramer, at least 
until we have examples of that South American form for coni|)arison. 

[•Jgg. — Very nuich flattened, resembling a very shallow inverted plate, with sloi)ini;- sides, 
the surface appearing as if ringed, each ring inclosing a circle of 5 to 7 si>ines. 

Larra. — Body cylindrical, nearly smooth, almost comiiletely covered by long, fine, dense hairs, 
throngh which are .seen on each side the lateral row of black spots; most of the hairs dark on 
the distal half, pale at, and from the black dorsal spots arise from two to four spindle shaped 
black hairs forming median dorsal pencils on the abdominal segments. A long, slender median 
jjcncil arises from the .second and third thoracic segment, and a single median j)encil is directed 
backward, arising fnuu the eighth abdominal segment. Freshly hatched larva, smooth-l)odied, 
thickly covered with long white hairs, arising from small tubercles. 

rnpu. — ? 

Geof/nqiliical distribution. — The species range from New England and Canada southward to 
Florida and Georgia, and appear to exist in Surinam and Brazil. The genus is well rei)reseuted 
in Central America; three species, according to Drnce, occurring in Mexico, one, A. (uinislria 
Druce, near A. torrcfacta, recorded from Cordova, Mexico, Yucatan, Costa Rica, au(^ Panama; 
A. ardeola Druce occurs in Panama and also on the Amazons, while another inhabits Guatemala. 


Winfts not dentate, fore wings with four brown lines .luil ;i double brown spot base 4. iorrefacta 

Wings dentate; fore wings with a square transparent spot near apes; no ilistimt lines J. itniiclira 

"Fore wings grayish drab, tinged with reddish, the lines and marlcs all obsolete" (Edwards).. .1. intli.tiinctti 

Apatelodes torrefacta (Abliot ami Smith). 
(PI. VII, fig. 10.) 

Pha1<ma torrefacin Abbot and Smith, Nat. Hist. Lep. Ins. Georgi.a, ]>. 1.51. PI. LXXVI. 1707. 

Pijij<vra lorre/acla Iliibn., Verz. Schraett., p. 162, 181fi. 

I'arathijrh lonefada Walk., Cat. Lep. Ins. Br. Mus., v, p. 1088, 1885. 

Jpatetodts lorrcfntta Pack., Proc. Ent. .'>oc. Phil., iii, p. 353, 18(11. 

Astasia lorrefarta ? Harris, Ent. Corr., p. 307, 18(59. 

Jpatelodea torrefacla Grote, Check List X. A. Moths, p. 18, 1882. 

va.r. tloritlumi II. Edwards, Ent. Amer., ii, p. 13, April, 1886, 

Smith, List Lep. Ror, Amer., p. 2S». 18;tl. 

Kirby, Syn. Cat. Lep. Het. 1, p. 851, 1S92, 

Neuni. and Dyar, Trans. Amer. Eut. Soc, xxi, p. 1,S3, 18H4 : .lourn. N. Y. Ent. Soc., ii, p. 113, 
Sept., 1894. 


(PI. IX, figs. 1-8.) 

Jbbiil. Aldiot and Smitli's Nat. Ilist. Uarer Insects of Georgia, PI. LXX\'I, 17117. 

Harris. Ent. Corresp., p. 307, 18(i!i. (Full-fed larva and habits described.) 

Soule. Psyche, v, )>. 19, ,Ian., 18S9. (Eggs and five stages described, witli notes on habits.) 

Packard. Proc. liost. Soc. Nat. Hist., xxiv, pp. 519-522, 1890. (Stages I-VI described.) Filtli Kep. V. S. 

Ent. C'omni. Forest Ins., p. l>47, 1890. 
Beulenmiiller. Hull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist.. N. Y., v, p. 87, 1893. (Egg ami larval stages described.) 

Moth {') S , 2 9). — Soft velvety a.shen. Paljii and hind margin of the thorax reddish brown. 
Fore wings with a large reddish brown spot ou the base of tiie internal miirgin; no di.scal spots; 
beyond is a line of the same c<dor which crosses the wings and is curved inward on the costa. 
An outer, nearly straight, slightly flexuous, very faint line. Just beyond the middle of the wing is 
a similar but more distinct line. A wavy submarginal line, curved outward Just before reaching 
the costa. A minute subapical white spot margined externally with rcddisli brown. Ilind wings 
tinged with reddish. A light nu'dian obsolete line terminates on the internal inaigiii in a white 
spot, which above and below is reddish i)rowu. Fore wings a little paler beneath; the subapical 

3ie:moiks of the xatio:s^al academy of sciences. loi 

spot present, the apical region being reddish brown. Within is a re.eularly curved light line. In 
the middle of the wing is an obsolete reddish line. 

Hind wings discolored with red along the median vein, there bending into the middle of the 
internal margin: this is faintly continued upon the costa. A submarginal white line. Fringe on 
the internal angle, reddish brown. The lateral tufts on the end of the abdomen reddish brown. 
The female only differs in the much broader wings. 

Expanse of wings, i 4.") mm., 9 50 mm.: length of the body, S 20 mm., 2 24 mm. 

Var. tloriilaiia Edwards, much redder, lines fainter, the discal whitish spots more clearly 
defined. Beneath, wings foxy red. (Coll. Amer. Mas. ^at. Hist.. Xew York, and Coll. Xeunioegen.) 

The following notes are based on the sketches and uotes made for me by Mr. J. Bridgham, 
who kindly preserved for me in alcohol specimens of the two later stages, from which, with the 
aid of his excellent drawing, the following description of those two stages were drawn up. It 
appears that there are six larval stages. 

Egg. — The eggs were laid on the wild cherry June 22, and hatched July 9; another lot 
received from Morton, hatched July .5-0. They are much flattened, resembling a very 
shallow invei'ted i)latc, with sloping sides. The siu-face appears as if covered with overlapping 
rings, each inclosing a circle of five, six, aud sometimes seven spines. . Diameter, 1 mm. 

Miss Caroline C Soule describes the eggs as at first green, and five days later sordid 
yellowish white, circular, flat on both top aud bottom, translucent, and looking like tiny gelatine 
lozenges, 1.5 mm. in diameter. 

Larva, Stage I. — Length, 4-5 mm. Head and body pale greenish white or whitish flesh, with 
no black or dark marks; head moderately large: body covered thickly with long white hairs, 
mostly curled, which arise in irregular and scattering tufts from four dorsal and three lateral 
tubercles; the hairs arising from the thoracic are rather longer than those from the abdominal 

Larva. Stage II. — Length, ti mm,, July 1(3, Much as iu the first stage, the hairs a little 
denser, and the head and body still whitish, with no dark spots. 

Miss Soule says that after the first molt the larva becomes " even whiter and flurtiei- than 
before, with a dorsal line of black dashes, and a dark pencil on the tenth segment. A few had gray 
hairs over the head."' 

Larra. Stage III. — Length. 11 nnn., July 25, Color of the head and body the same, but the 
woolly white hairs on the thoracic segments appear to be thick and matted. Xow appears along 
the back of each abdominal segment a conspicuous black dash, and from the eighth abdominal 
segment arises a long, slender, tapering black pencil, whicli projects backward. 

Miss Soule .says: "As before, with the addition of a gray pencil on the second au<l third 

Larva, Stage IV. — Length, 20 mm., August -i. The head is yellowish white, but the body 
slightly pale gray. From the second and third thoracic and eighth abdominal .segments arises a 
black pencil, each about the same length as the other, viz. about twice as long as the thickness 
of the body; the anterior pencil points forward, the two others backward. The interrupted black 
dorsal stripe is as before. 

3Iiss Soule states that in this stage •• a lateral and subventral Hue of black arrowheads 
appeared. One larva became l)right yellow, with the pencils tan coloreil, with black tips, and one 
was of a soft gray, with black pencils." 

Larva, Stage V. — Length. 27 nun.. August 7. (This and the last stage described from alcoholic 
specimens as well as from Mr. Bridgham's colored drawing.) Head normal, rounded, the sides 
and top somewhat swollen, the median suture somewhat depressed: of a peculiar white-flesh color. 
Prothoracic segment without a pencil or a lateral black patch; second thoracic segment with two 
coutiguous i-ouuded tubercles from which arise two long pencils whose hairs blend together to 
form a common median deep ocherous pencil inclined forward, becoming black at the distal 
third. Third thoracic segment with a similar pencil inclined backward. A -similar median 
pencil on the eighth :ibdominal segment. There is now a dorsal row of six long median black 
stripes on abdominal segments 2 to 7. Between these spots arise a pair of dorsal pencils 
composed of curious long spindle-shaped flexible black hairs, pale at the base, which taper from 


near tlic end to :i sli;ir]» jxtiiit. The pencils consist of tlnce to fonr liaiis arisiiij; I'loin a ]iair of 
small warts, one clnsc to but on cadi side of tlie median line and situated Just hcliind each dark 
dorsal dasli. On the sides of tlie second thoracic and the ninth alxloiniiMil sejiinent is a l)lack 
patcli. more or less oblony and Ja,uj;cd on the upper edf;e. The sntuics between the sejjnients 
are not black. The underside of the body is blackish. At tlie base of the abdominal leys is a 
black ring, and another near the jilanta. and a lon.ffitndiiial black stripe ilown the outside of the lej;'. 

Miss Soiile adds that "the yellow one came out with the body lilack, tlichair maltesc-gray, 
lighter over the head; pencils darker gray with black tips. The gray one was like it." 

Larva, Staije VI. — Length, '.'<') mm., August 11. The hairs concealing the body are now 
uniformly white (Harris, referring to the living larva, says, "of a beautiful white color"), having 
entirely changed their color. Tlie dorsal black lines are now more connected; tke three long 
pencils are pale at base and black toward the tip. The lateral black spots send two points 
ujiward, and the sutures are now black. The head is stained with black on the vertex and along 
the sutures anil around the mouthparts. The thoracic and abdominal legs are black, but the 
plantie of the abdominal feet are pale. Most of the hairs are dark on the distal half but \ni\e at 
the basal half, and from the black lateral spots arise from two to four si)indle-sliaped black hairs; 
also several others which stand out from the mass of dull gray hairs, arising from minute tubercles 
along the sides of tlie body. The legs are hirsute, and the body is black beneath. 

Miss Soule's full-fed larva was :>! mm. in length, '• densely covered with long silky hair, 
varying in cidor froai pure white to deep gray: jiencils almost black with black tips. Head gray. 
l}ody hardly to be seen, but black wherever visible." 

Summi()-y of the larnd clidiiiirs. 

1. No glandular hairs, and in Stage I the body is covered with long woolly soft hairs. 

2. In the third stage appears the dorsal black stripe, and a single black i)encil on the eighth 

.'5. The two other black thoracic jiencils ap])ear in Stage IV. 

4. The hairs become yellow and the pencils bicolored, while the lateral black si)ots a]i])ear in 
Stage V. 

'). Tiie last stage (VI) is signalized by an entire change in color from ocher-yellow to white 
or gray. 

Length of egg stage, sixteen to seventeen days; of first larval stage, seven days; Stage II, 
nine days; Stage III, eight to nine days; Stage IV, four days; Stage VI, nine days (Harris); 
prepupal stage, three days (Harris's pupal stage). 

Cocoon. — Harris states that it does not spin a cocoim, but probably enters the earth. Miss 
Soule also states that no signs of s])inning were found. 

According to Abbot, in (ieorgia the caterpillar "went into the ground .lune 20, came out the 
14th of July. Auother went in the ITtli of October and came out on the li.Jth of Ajiril." 

Habits. — Dr. Lintner has described ijuite fully the larva of the other sjiecies {A. aiu/rlica 
Orote) which feeds on the ash and syringa, traiistbrming to the ])U])a state September 14. His 
larva seems to differ in the '• numerous fine black linings, among which may be traced two forming 
a vascular stripe and two similar lateral stripes on each side." Lintner also speaks of "four dorsal 
white lines, posteriorly black," on the iirothoracic segment, and also of." short stiff red hairs on the 
sides of the second ami tliinl thoracic segments, and indeed it is evident that the larva- of the 
two species differ considerably in markings." Our larva, on the other hand, aiijiears tobe identical 
with that described by Harris (('ori'esiMindence. ]>. .'507) under the name of Axtusia torri'facta.' Sni. 
and Abb., the two last stages of which he describes. He found it on the burdock, and says that 
it "eats leaves of willow well," and further on states that he found one "on a leaf of I'miiun 

Miss Soule states that a female found at Nonquitt, Mass., laid a mass of eggs duly 13, the 
larva- hati-hing on the L'Oth. The first molt occurred August 2, the second August ">, the third 
August 10, the fimrth August 15, the fifth August 20. The freshly hatched caterpillar rested on 
both sides of the sassafras {Sassafras officinale) and ash (Fraxhnis) leaves, and moved very fast. 
" When touched they ciiih-d un like the arctians. Thev drank grei-dilv and ate their cast skin." 


"The larva fed on sassafras grew faster and larger than those fed on ash, and molted and 
pupated earlier." 

This consi)ienous hairy caterpillar, whicli evidently feeds exposed on the leaves, seems to be 
«oniewhat omnivorous in its tastes, and sometimes feeds on herbaceous plants, as the burdock. 
Hence, it apparently beloni^s to the same category of hairy penciled white and black spotted and 
tufted caterpillars, as tiiose of Ilalesidota. those of the Liparida/, and certain species of Noctuid;e, 
as Platyceruro fiirciUa, etc. It is noteworthy as being in this respect exceptional among 

Mr. Beutenmiiller has bred tliis species; the eggs were laid .luiie 114, the larva entered the 
ground August 2, pupated August 4, and the moth emerged August 27-l!9. 

Pupa. — ? 

Food plants. — Wild clierry. 7V««».v rlrijiiiiana ; fiamd on burdock; eats willow well (Harris 
Corr., 307); sassafras and ash (Soule); willow, alder, blackberry, bayberry, azalea, sassafras, 
viburnum, and hazel (Beutenmiiller). Feeds on the ironwood, gall berry, sassafras, etc. (Abbot); 
Fhaseohis helvolns (Abbot's MS. drawings in library of Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist.). 

Gco(ir(iplikal disfrih)itioi>. — Cambridge and vicinity of Boston (Mns. Comp. Zool., Sanborn, 
Mus. Bost. Soc. Xat. Hist.); Audierst, Mass. (Mrs. Fernald); New York ((rrote); Georgia (Abbot); 
Florida (H. Edwards); Massachusetts, Wisconsin, Ohio, Texas, var. foridana, Florida (French); 
Chicago. 111. (Westcott); New Jersey, Pennsylvania, July and August (Palm): Kanawha Valley, 
W. Va. (W. II. Edwards, Mus. Comp. Zool.). Larva, Bushburg, Mo., September 17; moth, Indiana, 
■Ohio, MissQuri, Alabama (U. S. Nat. Mus.). 

Apatelodes angelica Grote. 

(PI. XLIX, fig. 1.) 

ParaihijHs migelica Grote, Proc. Ent. Soc. Pbil., iii, p. 322, Sept., 1864. 

JpaUlddcs hijdUtiopiimila Pack., Proc. Eut. Soc. Phil., iii, p. 2.54, Nov., 1864. 

Apatelodes angelica Grote, Proc. Eut. Soc. Pbil., iv, p. 207, Feb., 1855. PI. 4, fig. 1, 0, p. 184. 

Kirby, Syn. Cat. Lep. Het., p. 852, 1892. 

Neum. aud Dyar, Traus. Amer. Ent. Soc, xxi, 1894; .Jourii. N. Y. Ent. Soc, ii, p. 113, 
Sept. 1894. 


(PI. XLIX, fig. 1.) 

Lintnei; Eut. Contr., iii, ]>. 130. 1874. (Detailed description). 

Moth (3 (? , 1 5 ).— The female differs from A. torrrfacta in having both wings well toothed on 
the outer edge, the apex of the fore wings much more acute, the outer margin more oblique, and 
in having much smaller palpi. In coloration it is quite distinct, since it does not possess the 
prominent lines aud spots of A. torrcfacta. Both .species have the subapical square transparent 
spot, but in A. torrefacta it is small and inconspicuous, while a second adjoining one is wanting. 

Body and wings very uniformly pale cinereous. Head, legs, and thorax coucolorous. t)n the 
inner third of the fore wings is a straight, rather broad, darker band, which increases in width 
toward the costa. Beyond the median broad pale gray band the wing is darker. The costal edge 
is fuscous, the median crest of the thorax is tipped with brown, and beyond the middle of the 
patagia is a narrow transverse line. Hind wings fuscous gray, with an indistinct .submarginal 
line slightly waved and edged with gray. Upper part of al)domen reddish. Fringe darker. 
Beneath, the fore wings are crossed by two bands, the inner fuscous, the outer dark gray. The 
margin of the wings dark gray, especially the fringe. The thin broad tuft on the hind tibia:' is 
edged with brown. On each side of the base of the alidomeu is a broad oblong spot, edged broadly 
with white before aud behind. 

Expanse of wings, $ 43 mm., 9 .jO mm. ; length of body, $ 20 mm., 5 22 mm. 

The species derives the name I gave it from a peculiar square transparent spot edged with 
brown, situated just below the apex of the fore wings, nearly opposite the middle point of the 
wing. The lower subcostal venule separates it from a much smaller adjoining one in the 
extradiscal space. 


Larva (fall fed). — Head siibrotund, dark brown, and two lines on the iVont lifjhter brown. 
Body with the thoracic sejjinents taperinji'; terminal segments taperinj;' and flattened posteriorly; 
vential region Uattened, the anal legs ])r()jecting behind. Color of the body, gray; numerous One 
black linings, among which may be traced two foruiing a vascular stripe and two simdar lateral 
strii>es on each side. On segment 1, anteriorly, are four dorsal wjiite lines; posteriori}', black; 
segment 1' is black anteriorly, behind which are irregular black linings ; segment 3, as the preceding 
oue; on segments 5 to 10 the dorsal black linings assume a V shape, the apex resting on tbe suture 
and iiick)sing centrally two yellow-green siibelliptical spots, with a similar spot exterior to each 
within the sui)erior lateral stripe. 

From the first segment long whitish brown hairs project over tiie head, nearly concealing it; 
from the middle of the second and third segments whitish hairs project forward, of which those 
on the latter segment are shorter and arranged somewhat in tufts, beneath which, when extended, 
some short, stifl', red hairs are seen; laterally below the stigmata are two rows of fascicles of white 
hairs of uner|ual length, mingled with a few longer brown ones, extending rectangularly with the 
body until to its middle, whence the remainder art; directed backwiird; from the terminal segment 
white and browu hairs, of greater length than elsewhere on the body, project horizontallj', brush- 
like, backward; short whitish hairs are scattered sparsely over the body. (The larva escaped 
before its description could be comi)leted, and the remainder is from memory.) On the vascular 
lino oil each segmeut is a tuft of black hairs about (1.0(1 inch long, the ends of which converge to a 
point. The prolegs project laterally, almost hidden by the hairs. Ventrally is a broad fuscous 
stripe. (Lintner.) 

Habits. — Lintner found eight or ten larvie near Albany, early in September, feeding on the 
ash, aud Mr. Meske collected them from the lilac (Si/riiujii ruh/arin). When not eating, they 
usually occurred resting on and closely appressed to a twig. The first trausformatiou to a pu]ia 
was on September 14. The larva lias a marked gastropachau aspect. (Lintner.) 

Fdixl phiitix. — Ash and Syringa. 

Geof/yaphicul distribution. — Medford, Mass. (W. II. Dall, Mus. Comp. Zool. Cambridge); 
eastern New York (Lintner, Meske); Plattsbiirg, N. Y. (Hudson); Middle Atlantic States (Grote, 
Coll. Anier. ICnt. Soc. Phil.); Ontario, Canada; New Y'ork, >"ew Jersey (Palm); North Carolina, 
Ohio, Irvingtou, 111. (French); Enterprise, Fla. (Thaxter). 

Var. indistincta H. Eilwaiils. 

Apaie.lodea indistinclii Edw. Ent. Aiiier., ii, p. 13. April. is8(i. 
Siuitb, List Lep. Bor. Amer., p. 2;t, 1891. 
Kirby, Syii. Cat. Lep. Hot., i, p. 852, 18'J2. 
Var. hidintincia, Ncum. ami Dyar, Traus. Auut. Eut. Soc, p. 181, 1894. 

Primaries of a grayish drab, tinted with reddish, the lines and marks all obsolete: the 
surface dotted with black irrorations. There is near the apex a semitrausparent sijuare spot, 
with a smaller one beneath it. The fringe is reddish chestnut. The secondaries are reddish 
testaceous, without marks. Cnderside wholly reddish fawn color, with a few black and brown 
specks, but wholly without the dark shading so consiiicuous in ^1. torrc/actd. Thorax color of 
primaries. Abdomen reddish testaceous, with brown dots. Expanse of wings, .'Jo mm.; length of 
body, IS mm., IS. Indian liiver, Florida, Coll. P. Neumoegen, (Ent. Anier., ii, p. 13); Florida 

Subfamily 111. — Pyu.ekin.e. 

Head rather large, the front rather broad; the antenna' ciliated, not pectinated in the male. 
The body and wings are usually, and in all the species of Dataiia, reddish ochcrous, the fore wings 
being crossed by from four to five straight parallel lines. Egg oral cylindrical, smooth; top 

Larva brightly banded and very hairy; no tubercles, the body being smooth. They spin 
no cocoon, but pupate deep in the earth. ' 

' Harris says of D. minisira: ''When ready to transform, all the individuals of the same brood quit the tree at 
oiici', dcstoiidiu}; by night, and burrow into the ground to the depth of 3 or 4 inches, and, within twenty-four 
hours afterwarils, cast their caterpillar skins, and become clirysalids without iiiaking cocoons. They remain in the 
ground in this state all winter, auU arc changed to moths and come out between the middle and end of July." 
(Treatise, p. l.^O.) 


Pui^a rather stout, head prominent, notched at the end; the surface rugose and very coarsely 
punctured, the pits being- more or less confluent, especially on tlie tliorax. Cremaster wide at base, 
bearing a pair of double sharp spines. 

I am at present inclined to think that this group may be the most generalized one of the 
family, owing to the smooth and hairy larva% resembling those of the Nyctemerida.', Liparida', etc. 

Datana Wallier. 

(PI. XXXIX, iiud PI. XL fig. 5. Venatiou.) 

rttalaiia Drnry, III. Hist., ii, 1773. 

Abbot ami Smith, Lep. Iu.s. Georgia, 1797. 
Fijga-raf Harris, Cat. Ins. Mass., p. 73, 1835. 
Petasiaf Westwooil, Drury's III. Exot. Eut., ii, p. 27, 1837. 
Datana Walker, Cat. Lep. Het. Br. Mas., v, p. 1060, 1855. 
Eumetopona Fitch, 2il Rep. Nox. lus. N. Y., p. 235, 1851). 
Dalaita Grote, New Check List N. Amer. Moths., p. 18, 1S82. 

Smith, List Lep. Bor. Amer., p. 30, 1891. 

Kirby, Syu. Cat. Lep. Het., i, p. 612, 1892. 

Neum. and Dyar, Trans. Amer. E-^t. Soc, xxi, p. 197, .Tune, 1894; .lonrn. N. Y. Ent. Soc. ii, pp. 112, 
116, Sept., 1894. 

Motli. — Head imt prominent, rather sunken; front vertically oblong, narrower in 9 ; the 
scales clothing it short, closely, and evenly cut. Antennae not pectinated in S , the joints only 
sliglitly produced beneath, and ciliated. Between the antenna' at base is a minute vertical 
pointed tuft. JIaxilla' about as long as the head, sometimes separate, but usually united and 
rolled up. Palpi short and stout, ascending, second and third joints bent upward even with tlie 
front; the scales on the second joint long, bushy, even with or passing beyond the end of the 
minute third joint. 

Thorax rather large, pilose, convex, not tufted. Fore wings one-half as long as broad, 
triangular; costa straight, becoming curved at the apex, which is ])ointed and slightly falcate; 
outer edge slightly scalloped and in S very slightly excavated just below the apex. Hind wings 
with the costal edge convex and bent down toward tlie apex, which is somewhat ijroduced; 
outer edge slightly bent on the second median venule. Venation: A narrow subrhomboidal 
subcostal cell, otherwise much as in Xadata, but with the costal region wider toward the apex. 

Legs with the femora and tibiae densely hairy; the second pair of spurs on the hind tibise 
longer than the first; tarsi rather thick. Abdomen long, somewhat flattened in S , with a slight 
tuft at the end; claspers large, long, and well developed. 

Coloration usually very uniform, the species closely resembling each other, as do the larva', 
but differing somewhat in the venation of the fore wings; body and wings ocherous, thorax with a 
darker brownish patcli, which is contracted and square behind; fore wings usually ocherous, 
reddish brown, with a regular curved basal whitish brown line, and three parallel more or less 
straight outer lines, with one or two discal dots; hind wings and body ])ale ocherous. 

The species are readily recognized by the simple ciliated antenna', short palpi, and the 
peculiar mode of coloration. 

As regards the protective mimicry exhibited in these moths when at rest, Grote remarks that 
Datana in repose '-looks like a broken twig, the shaded thorax, with its raised tufts at the sides, 
like the top of the twig at the break."' (Can. Ent., xx., p. 184, Sept., 18SS.) 

Larva.— Body cylindrical, brightly banded, of uniform thickness, and with no tubercles or 
humps; usually with long, rather dense, pale hairs. Freshly hatched larva, head large; body with 
long clavate glandular hairs of unequal leugth; with faint subdorsal and lateral stripes. 

/•„jK(.— Head prominent, projecting well beyond the body, and witli two parallel dorsal ridges; 
the surface of the body quite rough, being corrugated and granulated. 

(ico<iraphkul (Jisirihulion.— The species are confined to the Appalachian and J ustroripariau 
.subi)roviiices, except one (or two) species on the Pacific Coast. One species, Datana integerrima, 
is said by Mr. Druce (Biol. Ceiitr. Amer., p. 2451 to occur at Jalapa, Mexico, this being in the 
tropical or subtropical belt. 


Tbe following synopsis iiml (k'seriptioiis of tlu' moths <if this geuiis have been kindly pieiniied 

.for me by 'Sir. Dyar: 

SYNdi'sis OF Tin: si'i:cies ok hataxa. 

Outer margin of primaries distinctly rxciivatrd lictwci ii llic veins. 

Color entirely smoky or bliickiKli brown (iviiiikH 

Color yellowish brown or ]):iler. 

Discal spots faint or absent: si/ie mediuiu. 

Color yellow-browu minisfra 

Color testaceous calif oniica 

Discal spots distinct; size large drcxclii 

Outer margin indistinctly excavate, nearly entire in tlic J . 
Color tawny brown or imrplisli. 

Tawny brown, discal si)(>ts distinct; size large major 

More or less purplish, discal spots indistinct, of medium size. 
Thoracic patch rc<ldisli brown. 

Fore wings dark brown vritU a purplish flush tloridana 

Fore wings dull whitish lilac, more or less covered with ciunamon-browu scales pabnii 

Thoracic patch ocherous iiKnlcKla 

Color yellowish butt'. 

Thoracic patch tawny brown iternpinia 

Thoracic patch as pale as the thorax robiista 

Outer margin of primaries eutirc, 

Primaries dark reddish brown; lines aud fringe concolomus iiiUiieiriiiia 

Primaries luteous tawny, the lines and fringe not coucolorous coiitiacta 


Secondary hairs shorter than primary ones; larva' moderately hairy. 

Primary hairs (from tlu^ warts) and secomlary (from the skinj concolorous, pale. 

Stripes very narrow, pale y<dl<)w : luii/iinii 

Stripes moderately broad, greenish yellow , ^.^liiuiiiim ' 

Stripes lemou-y olio w, conlluent posteriorly ih-txclii 

Primary hairs jiale, secondary discolorous, dark. 
Secondary hairs black; head red. 

Stripes broken into quadrate sjiots majar 

Stripes continuous. 

Head dark red llorhhtiia 

Head paler red palmii 

Secondary hairs brown ; head black or red penpicua 

Secondary hairs long, concolorous with jirimary ones, jiale; larva^ very hairy, 

Liues narrow or obsolete inlnn-nima 

Lines broad, creamy white iviiliacta 

, Dataiia miiilstra ^\■alker, 
(PI. II; fig, 3, S ; iig, 4, 9 ,) 

rhala-na miiiistra Drury, llhistr, Exot. Kut., ii, p, 2.5, pi, 14, fig. .S, 177.S, 

Abbot aud Smith, N. H. Lep, Ins, (ieorgia. p, Itil, Tab, isxxi, 1797. 
Pilfiara? miiihlra Ilarr., Cat, ins. Mass., p. 73, 1835; Kept. Ins, Mass., p, 312, 1841; ibid,, third edit,, I'l. VI, 

tigs, (i, 212, 1862. 
I'eUisia minislra Westw. Edit, Drury, Hlustr,. 11, p, 27, pi. 14, 18:57. 
iJataiia ministra Walk., Cat, Eep. Br, Mus., v, p. lOGl, 18.")5, 

Enmtloi)ona miii'mlra Fitch, 2il Kept, Nox. Ins. X, York, p, 23.5, pi, 4, fig, 3, 1856; ,3d Kept,. Ii. I!', 1S57. 
JJutana »iiHi8(ra"Morris. Synopsis, Lep, N. .\mer,, p, 247, 18()2, 

Grote, New Check List X, Anu'r, Moths, ]), 18. 1882. 

SiuLth, List Lep. Ilor, .\uier,, p. :«, 18!)1. 

Kirby, Syn. Cat. Lep. Met., i, p, 613, 1892. 

Neum. and Dyar, Trans. Aiiier. Knt. S c, xxi, p. 197, 1894. 

(PI. X, figs. 1. 1,/. Ih. \r. III. If.) 

Abhot andSinilh, Lep, Ins, Georgia, p. 161, PI. LXXXI, 1797. 

Barria, Ins, Inj, Veg., 1st edit., p. 312, 1841; Ins, InJ. Veg,, 2d edit., p, 332, 1852. 

Fitch, 2d Kept, Nox, lus, N, York, p, 237, 1856; 3d Kept. Ins. X. Ycjrk, p. 337, 1857, 


UaiTis. Ins. Inj. Veg.. Flint's cilit., \>. 429, 1862. 

^;)«(e:iiul Hohiiisoii (iiuoti" Angus in lit.), Proo. Eiit. 8oc. I'hilad.. vi, ji. 11, 1866. 

/)'. D. Il'al«h, I'r.actical Eutoni., ii, p. 7, LSIifi. 

Man-is, Kutmu. Corre-sp., p. 308, pi. 2, fig. 4, 186il. 

Le Baron, 4tli Illinois Rept., p. 186, 1873. Lite history (figs.). 

French, Trans. Di-pt. Agr. 111., xv, p. 189, 1877. 

J. Marten. Trans. Dept. Agr. 111., xviii. Ajipend.. p. 111). 18"i0. 

I). Coijiiillcit, Trans. Dept. Agr. Ill,, xviii. Append., p. 167. 1880. 

/)'. Saunders, Ins. Inj. Frnits, p. 61, 1883. 

fr. BcntenmiiUer. Can. Ent., xx, p. 16, 1888. (Egg and all tlie larval stages.) 

Lurjijer, Bull. 10, Agr. Stat. Univ. Minnesota, p. 78, JIarch. 1890, PI. I. fig. 5, larva; PI. II, fig. .'i, uiotb. 

jlfoth. — Fore wiutfs and base of thorax above ciunanion (Ridg.,' Ill, 20); costal sbade russet 
(Ridg., Ill, 10). not well marked. Thoracic patch ochraceous (Ridg., V, 7) in front, shading 
po.steriorly into chestnut (Ridg., IV, 9). Lines and discal dots as in J), uiujtt.sii, hut the di.scal 
dots are freciuently ob.solete, and the outer one, when well marked, is seldom linear. The sparse 
irroration, lines, discal dots, and fringe all concolorous, mars brow-n (Ridg., Ill, 1.3). Outer margin 
of lore wings distinctly scalloped, and hind wings also percejjtibly so. Hind wings ])a]e straw- 
yellow, cream buff (Ridg., V, 11), immaculate or slightly shaded with brown; abdomen a little 
darker. Underside a little darker than hind wings above, shading into brown on fore wings, 
especially toward the outer margin. Fringe dark, as above. 

E.\ of wings, 42-53 mm. 

Paler in color than J>. anf/Ksii; darker than J>. califoriiica; distinguished from T>. drexcln 
and i). major by its smaller size and less distinct discal dots; from 1>. dredeUi further by the 
absence of a strongly contrasting costal shade; from D. major by the usually paler secondaries; 
but in this last instance specimens may occur very difficult to distinguish (Dyar). 

The following description of preparatory stages of Datana 7)iinistnt is by Mr. Bcutenmiillcr 
(Can. Ent., xx, p. 16): 

Egg. — Pure white, ovoid, with fiatteued base, the apex with black dot showing impregnation. Laid in masses, 
from 25 to 50 on underside of leaf. 

Young larra. — Head black, .shining, second segment orange-brown in front, cervical shield black. Body-color 
chestnut-brown, with the stripes a little darker, anal clasps anil thoracic feet jet black. Length, 3 mm. 

Jfter first moU. — The bead jet black, as is also the whole of the secon/rt segment and anal segment. Body-color 
now much darker, as are also the stripes, these being almost obscured, except along the lateral region. Thoracic 
feet black. Length, 12 mm. 

After second molt. — Head black, rather small; second segment yellow except the cervical shield, black. The 
thoracic feet, abdominal and anal legs, and termination of anal segment jet black, while the stripes are very clear 
yellow on the chestnut-brown ground. Scattereil over the body are also a few short sordid white hairs. Length, 
20 mm. 

Until after this molt the larva- feed upon the underside of leaf (parenchyma), and do not attack the ed"-es 
until after the third molt begins. 

After tliird mutt. — Head jet black, second segment orange, cervical .shield black. Body color reddish brown 
with rather broad yellow stripes; anal clasps, tip of legs, and thoracic feet jet black ; underside striped equally with 
reddish brown and bright yellow. Length, 30 mm. 

After fourth molt. — Head jet black, neck yellow, cervical shield jet black, shining. Body chestnut-brown, the 
stripes bright yellow and equidistant ; the feet and anal clasps jet black, abdominal Ipgs yellow-banded, with jet 
black outside. The hairs over the body are now quite long. Length, 33 mm. 

Stage next to last. — Length, 26 nnu. Head black, as wide as the body. First thoracic segment black. The 
body is yellow, not greenish yellow, as in the adult, and the stripes are reddish brown, the color of brown roofing 
slate. .Inst before molting the first thoracic segment becomes gamboge-yellow on the plate and straw-yellow around 
the edges. A broad dorsal reddish-brown line, fully twice as wide as the others. There are four lateral stripes, all 
of the same width, the yellow sjiaces between them only a little more than one-half as wide as the brown bands. 
The third brown band includes the black spiracles. Thoracic feet black; suranal plate and anal legs black; midiUo 
abdominal legs dark, four of the legs pale livid reddish; planta' pale. The hairs are minute, short, not apparent 
without a lens. 

The head and thoracic segments often held bent over backward, so that the thoracic feet stick u)i, while the 
tail is so bent up as to nearly meet the bead. 

Last stage. — Length, 30 mm. Head Idack. Body with white, conspicuous hairs, many of them one-third longer 
ithan the body is thick. The body is now distinctly greenish yellow, and the prothoracic plate gamboge-yellow. 

'See Ridgwav's Nomenclature of Colors. 


Tbe stripes arc black, not redilish dark lirown. as boforo. The tliinl or siiiracular band is a little wider than before, 
and continued on to tbe prothoracic sefjnient nuder tlie ganiboi^e-jellow jilato. Hase of tbe le;is and si);ne aronnd 
and between them lioney-yellow, not dnll reddish yellow, as in the i)revions stage. Middle abdominal legs reddLsh 
yellow, with a large black ebitinous i)late above the planta. 

Among 77 specimens, forming a cluster on an ai>i)le tree at Salem, ^lass., all molted August 
IS into the last stage. There was no variation among these, except very slight ditierences in the 
width of the green stripes. 

The larva spins no cocoon, but enters the ground to pupate. 

I'Kjxt. — Of the usual shai)e. End of ab<lonien obtuse, cremaster with a short bilid spine, each 
fork ending in two spinules, with an external shorter mesial one at base. 

Habits. — From Mr. I). S. Harris, of Cuba, 111., we learn that in LSSli the caterpillars of this 
species were "so abundant on the black walnut that manj persons have cut down their walnut 
trees when they were near their" The larva is to be found from the latter part of .July to 
the last of 8ei)tembcr. It is single brooded. It occurred at Providence, R. 1., on the birch, 
September 10-12. 

The characteristic attitude of this, as other species, when disturbed, is to raise the head and 
tail, each about as much as the other, the entire caterpillar forming three sides of an oblong 
square. When feeding, the last fourth "f the body is slightly elevated. The larva- remain 
clustered together throughout life, until they to i)ui)ate. 

Mr. Lugger states that the eggs are deposited, several liundred together, in a i)atch upon the 
underside of terminal leaves. Each egg is white and s])herical. In ^linnesota the cater])illars 
"fre(|uently occur in vast numbers, entirely defoliating our largest oaks."' The moth in .Minnesota 
issues late in June or early in July. 

Mr. Lugger found one caterjjillar covered with 240 eggs of a Tacliina tiy. 

Eggs, June (Itiley); larvie. August, September, October, .ind November (Kiley); moth, May, 
July, and August (Riley). 

Food pliints. — Api)le, jjcar, cherry, quince, linden, walnut, hickory, oak of various species, 
chestnut, beech, hazel, hornbeam, birch, locust, etc. (Beuteumiiller). In Kansas, Beiula nigra 
(Popenoe) and Quercus palustris (Popeuoe); hickory, birch, oak, sumac, and walnut (Riley). 

G<wii(q)ltic(ii (li.striliHtion. — Orono. 'Slo. (Mrs. Feriiald); Urunswick, Me. ^Packard); Salem, 
Mass., Boston (Harris, Packard); Amherst, Mass. (Mrs. Feruald): Xew York (Angus, Beu- 
teumiiller, Dyar); New Jersey (Palm); Chicago (Bolter, Westcott); Pennsylvania (Strecker); 
Manhattan, Ivans., June 13 (No. .")) (Poi)enoe); Canada, New llanqisliire, Maine, New York, 
New Jersey, Peuu.>;ylvania (Palm); Missouri, District of Columbia, and Virginia (U. S. Nat. Mus.); 
New Y'ork, New Jersey, Ohio, Wisconsin, Champaign, 111., California (French). 

Datana californica Riley (im^dited). 
The only notes we have on this unpublished species are the following: 

Datana Cali/orniea. 
Dyar, Trans. Anu-r. Ent. Soc. xxi, p. 1!»S. 1894. 
Lai'va-, October IJ, also adult; Santa Clara County, Cal. 

NoTK. — These larvje have bc*n known to fruit growers at Santa Clara for several years b.ack as doing injnries 
by strijiping whole rows of ajiple and plum trees. They do not attack pear trees. A few larv;e were still (nesent 
ou October 13, 1887, and about the defoliated trees many jnipie were found in the loose, dry soil, but most niimeronsly 
among bunches of grass, where they froiiueutly occurred several together. (Riley.) Professor French also reports 
it from Califoruia. 

I)i'. Dyar informs me that Dr. II. H. P.ehr has found the larva? on the oak near San Francisco, 
but failed to obtain the moth. "According to recoUei/tion, it is just like ininintra, but paler 
throughout; about the color of Xadata behremii (pinkish buft')". (Ridgway, v. 14.) 

Datana califoriiica ?. 

(PI. Xl, lig. 1. la-lc.) 

I have received nine or ten larva' from 01ynq)ia, Wash., from Mr. Trevor Kiiu'aid, who sent 
them early in October, and one of wliich lived on until the second week in November, the others 
pupating in the earth. They were feeding on Quercus (jarri/antt. I h;\vo als:) received (August 1) 



Fig. 54. — Papa of Datana from 
Olympia, "Wash. Dorsal view of 

.several of tbe same species or variety from Judge P. C. Truman, of Volga. S. Dak., which differs 
from the same form only in slight respects (i. e.. the yellow spot below the sursiual idate). and 
which also lives on the oak. 1 will tirst describe tbe Oregon specimens from life. 

Larta. — Length. .35 mm. Head black, roagh, punctured, coarsely so below the vertex: the 
punctures more or less confluent on tbe sides and in front, with fine lines and ridges. Shape of 
the body as in D. miiiisira: prothoracic shield entirely ocher-yellow mot lemon or sulphur yellow), 
the yellow extending down each side of the plate and. as in I>. ministra. 
crossed longitudinally by a black hue, below which is an ocherous 
yellow line. Body on each side with five narrow, somewhat wavy, 
lemon or greenish yellow lines: tbe foru'tb or lateral line wavy or 
scalloped and interrupted at the sutures: the fifth line broken and 
represented by sbort jiortions between the thoracic and the abdominal 
legs. All the lines are narrower than in J>. minMni. Thoracic legs 
entirely black ocherous around tbe base, but not so much so as in I>. 
ministra. Middle abdominal legs ocherous. with an external dusky 
brown, not black, not very large patch just above the planta. Two 

ocherous patches behind tbe thoracic, and behind tbe fourth pair of abdominal legs in tbe place 
M'bere the abdominal legs would be if present: these patches as in J), minintra, but smaller. Of 
the four unbroken lines tbe three subdorsal ones are continuous: the uppermost or dorsal one is 
slightly narrower than tbe third one from tbe top or middle of tbe back. The ventral median 
line is broad and continuous, also lemon-yellow, like those above. End of the body black, tbe 
yellow lines scarcely reaching the tenth segment, and not coalescing under or below the suranal 
plate, as they do in D. ministra. In this respect the larva is more as in I), angiisii. though in tbe 
South Dakota specimens two of tbe lines do coalesce and form a small yellowish patch. Tbe 
body is hairy, much as in D. ministra in color, being pale gray or testaceous, i. e.. pale tawny and 
not white, as in D. anffusii. The hairs are long and abundant, those of the thoracic and three 
last abdominal segments longer than tbe others; the short dorsal one* form tufts, nearly meeting 
over the middle of tbe back, and the lateral pairs are groupeil in tufts directed downward. 

I at first referred the larva to D. angusii on account of the narrow lemon-yellow lines, but it 
differs from that species in having one more lateral line, tbe ventrolateral one (though in a 
blown .specimen of I>. angusii given me by tbe late Mr. Elliot, this line is represented by a faint 
yellow mark on each segment); it also differs in the protboracic plate being always ocher-yellow: 
also the thoracic segments between the legs are not "purplish black." but ocherous yellow. 

It differs from D. ministra, to which it is nearest allied 
(and in this respect I agree with Dr. Dyar, to whom I sent 
specimens) in the narrow lemon rather than sulphur yellow 
lines, in these lines not being confluent on each side below 
tbe suranal plate (though in the South Dakota specimens 
slightly SO), and in the ventrolateral or fifth line not being 
so distinct. Tbe body beuejitb with ocherous patches, bat 
smaller, less extensive than in I>. ministra. tbe latter, bow- 
ever, diflering in this respect in different sets of specimens. 
This may prove to be a climatic variety of D. ministra: 
I should certainly think so if its food plant in South Dakota 
and in Oregon were tbe apple, as we should hardly expect 
to find any species of the genus on the Pacific Coast, though 
D. californica may be authoctouous. Tbe South Dakota 
the small vellow bands on the sides of the tenth segment. 

Fig. 55,— Papa of Datan.i frv-m Olympia. Wash. 

s])ecimens are in one respect, i. e.. 

iutermediate between D. ministra and the Oregon examples. 

Tbe foUowiug is a description from life of tbe South Dakota specimens: 

Larra. — Length. 17 mm. Head large, black: protboracic shield ocherous yellow. Body 
black, with five narrow lemon or greenish yellow stripes on eitch side, all of nearly uniform 
width: the longest fifth) are broken and not readily seen: end of tbe lines confluent on tbe 
tenth abdominal segment, forming a small ocherous spot below tbe suranal jilate. A median 



ventral greenish yoUow line. Tlionicic lej^s lilacl<. yri'eiii.sli ;it the base: abdominal le;L;s black on 
tlio outside, but gTceuish yellow at base within and on tlie planta-. The body is dusted (luite 
densely with long and abundant iiale whitish gray hairs, those of the thoracic and eighth and 
ninth abdominal segments much longer than tlie others; the short dorsal liairs on the second and 
third thoracic and fourth to eighth abdominal segments forndng tufts meeting over tlie middle 
of the back, while tlie lateral hair.s are grouped in tiitts which are directed downward. 

Pupa. — The following description is that of the pupa of the Olympia, Wash., larva, 2 : 
Head a little less jfrominent than in pupa of I>. aiujunii, not distinctly notched, and the ridges 
much Ies.s distinct. Body elongated, not very plami), suddenly i)oiiited at the end. and bearing 
a large, broad cremaster ending in ibur spines, the two inner ones the longer, and with a small 
lateral spine at base. Surface of the body and alxlomen coarsely punctured. Length, 20 mm. 

Dataua augusii Grote ami Kobiusoii. 

(n. II, lig. 1, J; fig. 2, 9.) 
Daiaiiu aiiijnsii (iroto and Kob., Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., vi, p. it, 1X66, ])!. L', tig. 1. 
Grote, New C'lieck List N. Amer. Sloths, j). 18. 1882. 
.Smith, List Lep. ISor. Amer., ji. 30, 1891. 
Kiiby, S.VD. Cat. Lcp. Het. lir. Mus., i, p. 613, 1892. 

Xcuiu. anil Dyar, Traus. Amer. Ent. Sue, xxi, p. 197, ISill; .louiii. X. V. Ent., Soc ii, p. 116/ 
Sept., 1894. 

(PI. X, lig. 2.) 
Grote (ind Robinson, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., vi, p. 10, 1866. (Last larval stage.) * 

HedlenmiilUr, Can. Ent., xx, p. Vi'i. IHXS. (Last larval st.age.) 

,\[otli. — Ivxterior margin of fore wings exi'avated between the veins in both sexes. General 
color above and below smoky brown (mars brown, Ridgway's Nomenclature of Colors, PI. Ill, fig. 
13), but paler, shading into burnt umber (Uidg., 111,8) along costal edge of fore wings. The dark 

(juadrate patch which covers the head and the anterior part of 
the thorax is burnt umber, shading darker posteriorly. Fore 
wings .sjiarsely irrorate, with brown-black scales, crossed by 
Ave transverse lines which, with the apical streak, di.scal dots, 
and fringe, are coucolorous. The lines have the same arrange- 
ment as in all the specaes of the genus and are not quite con- 
stant in their course. The Urst one crosses the wing at the 
basal third and is greatly arcuate; second at about the middle, 
passing outside of the rounded ob.scure inner di.scal dot and 
either inside or through the outer elongate, sublinear discal 
dot situated on discal cross vein; third line intermediate 
between second and tifth; fourth contiguous to fifth, which is at the outer lliird of wing; the 
fourth line is narrower than the other, and often obscure. All these lines, except lirst and fifth, 
are obscure on the costal edge. Ai)ical stiealc short from just 
below apex or outer margin, and runs inward and downward, 
ending at about vein 4. Anterior to the streak, and between 
the median vein and costa, the wing is of a brighter tint, con- 
structing the costal shade seen in all the species. Hind wings 
and abdomen evenly coucolorous, mars brown, the abdomen 
darker at tip. lielow uniformly i>aler than hind wings above; 
the body parts a shade darker. Primaries shading darker 
toward the apices; the fringe brown black, as above. 
Expanse of wings, i6-53 nun. 

Tliis species is marked exactly like2>. ministra and D. califor- 
nic((, but differs in the dark smoky-brown color throughout. From 
D. integerrima, with which it is often confounded, it differs in the scalloped outer margin of the fore 
wings, the dark hind wings, nearly coucolorous with the primaries, and in the comparative scarcity 
of irroration on the primaries and the absence of pale shades bordering the transverse lines 

Fia. 56. — Pupa of Datana angush 
ilorsal view. 

Fio. 57. — Pupa of Dataita anrfxaii. Knd 
of lioih-. 


Efiy. — Liiid in iiregular patches of about 7o on the uiuleiside of ;; k\Tf; oval cylindrical, 
larger at the lower end by whicli they are attached, bulging out a little above the base, and 
contracting toward the top, which is somewhat crater-like; the inicropyle dark, distinct, and 
situated at the bottom of a saucer-like depression; outside and below the rim of this crater is 
usually (not always) an irregular crenulated edge or rim, which is partly eaten away by the larva, 
in escaping from the egg. The shell is smooth, polished, not pitte<l when examined by a strong 
lens, nulk- white, and resembling cheap white earthenware pottery. Under a h inch A eyepiece 
the shell is seen to be ornamented with fine polygonal areas, but those of the lower part of the egg 
are not distinctly six sided, being less regular and distinct than in the egg of I>. palmii. Diameter 
about two-thirds mm., being considerably less than the height. 

Larva. — The specimens here described were received under the above name from Mr. James 
Angus, September 4. I failed to note their length, but they were nearly, if not quite, full-grown. 

Head black, including the mouth-parts. The prothoracic shield is distinct, transversely 
oblong, black. Bodj' black, with four narrow, pale whitish yellow stripes on each side. The two 
dorsal stripes are wide apart, leaving a broad dorsal median black stripe; the space between the 
first and second line is a little wider than between the second and third; the fourth line is 
slightly wider than the others, scalloped, and interrupted by the sutures between the segmeijts. 
Beneath the lateral ridge along the base of the legs is an irregular livid purplish stripe beginning 
on the third thoracic segment. There are no hairs along -the back, and those along the side are 
unusually short and are pale grayish in color. The body beneath is black, with a median livid 
pinkish line along the abdominal segments, widening between the abdominal legs, and ending on 
the seventh segment, the end of the body, including the anal legs, being black. 

The following account of its transformations is copied from Beuteumiiller: 

Egg. — ti.> that of I), ministra; can not be clistinguished i'roni it. Laid in masses on the underside of leaf. 

Touiig larra after first and seroiiil molts. — Can not be distinguished from those of D. inhiistra. 

After third molt. — Little change except in size. The stripes are now coutlueut about the .anal segments. 
Length, 30 mm. 

After fourth molt. — Head jet-black, cervical shield now chestnut brown instead of black; otherwise as m 
D. ministra. Length, 40 mm. 

Mature larva. — Head jet-bl.ack, shining, slightly punctured; cervical shield and neck wholly golden-yellow. 
Body black, with four equidistant, stripes of citron-yellow on each side and three ou the nuderside. Abdominal 
legs and bases of thoracic feet orange. The stripes all become conjoined at the posterior extremity. The anal plate 
jet-black, very shiny and nearly smooth, and not roughly punctured, as in /*. ministra. The hairs over the body .are 
sordid white. Length, 55 mm. .Single brooded. 

Mr. Beutenmiiller writes me that '"the young larva of 1>. atKju-'iii is different in coloration 
from all the other known species. Tlie first and third thoracic segments are wine colored, as are 
also the dorsal region of the fourth, tiftli, and seventh alidominal segments, and the body is 
greenisli brown, provided with the usual number of yellow longitudinal stripes."' 

Habits. — At Salem, Mass., I found (August 26) 14 full-grown larvte and 40 others in the fourth 
stage; early in the morning of August 28 these had molted and begun to feed. Larva in July and 
August; moths April to July, District of Columbia and Maryland (Kiley). 

Pupa. — Body rather stout, surface very coarsely punctured, the pits more or less confluent, 
especially on the thorax; head prominent, deeply notched at the end, and with two prominent 
parallel ridges in front, with a deep valley between. The four terminal spines of the cremaster 
equal in length and shape. On each side of the common base is a conical projection. Length, 
15 mm (Figs. 50, 57). 

Food plants. — Hickory {Cari/a) and walnut (Ji(ijlait.s) Beutenmiiller; linden (Packard). In 
Manhattan, Ivans., Betula (I'openoe), black walnut and hickory (Eilcy). 

Geographical distribution. — Brookline, Mass. (Shurtlefl' Mus. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist.); Jamaica 
Plain, Mass. (Jack, Mus. Comp. Zool.); Beverly, Mass. (Burgess, Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist.); 
Plattsburg, N. Y. (Hudson); Chicago, 111. (Bolter); Illinois, Pennsylvania (Strecker); Auburn, 
Jle. (Mrs. Fernald); Salem, Mass. (Packard); West Farms, X. Y. (Angus); Missouri and District 
of Columbia (17. S. Nat. Mus.); New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Arkansas (Palm); Ames, 
Iowa (H. Osborn); Canada, Rhode Island, New York, Wisconsin, West Virginia, Indiana,. 
Carboudale, 111. (French). 


Dataua drezelii Kd wards. 

(PI. n, lig. ,5,^;lig. 0,9.) 

Datana drexelii H. Edw., Papilio, iv, p. 25, Fob., 1884. 

Sinith, List Lep. Hor. Amer., p. 30, 1892. 
Kiiby, Syu. Cat. Lep. Het., i, p. (U3, 1892. 

Neum. and Dyar, Trans. Amer. Eut. 8oc., xxi, p. 198, 1894; Jouin. X. Y. Kut. Soc, ii, p. 116, 
Sept., 1894. 


(Plate XI, tij;s. 2,2/., 2f, 3.) 
ICdteanU, Papilio, iv, p. 25, 1884. 
Jiiiitcnniiillfr, Can. Ent.. xx. p. 57, 188l!. 
Diinr, Psyche, v, p. 418, 1890. 

Moth. — Extei'ior margin ol' the primaries less distinctly scalloped in tlic i than in the 9 , but 
fore wings distinctly so in botli, witli the markings as in J), ministra, but larger, and the costal 
shade is bright, distinct, contrasting. Its tint is ochraceous (Itidg., Y, 7). Thoracic i>atch 
tawny ochraceous (R , V, 4) in front, shading darker, as in D. ministra. Discal dot large and 
distinct, darker than tlie line ("Fronts brown," R.. 111,11), the inner round, outer elliptical. 
Hind wings darker than is usual in ministra, shaded, somewhat jiowdcred with russet (R., Ill, 10), 
a faint jialer extramesial band sometimes perceptible. Underside essentially like i>. ministrti. 
Occasionally a dark sha<lc, concolorous with the lines, fills up a part or most of the space between 
the tiist and tilth line below the costal shade. Exi)anse of wings, mm (Dyar). 

Ef/f/. — Subspherical, shell tliick opake, porcelain white; micropyle smaller than m J>. major. 
see p. 116. 

Larva, Stage I. — "Head rounded, black, shiny; widtli, 0.5 mm. When nearly hatched the 
larva is scarcely distinguishable from i>. major. The anal feet are rather long and elevated. 
Body sordid yellow, cervical shield, anal ])late, ;nid feet blackish. A number of short hairs from 
the head and from al)out si.K rows of simill blackish tubercles, which are larger in proportion than 
in the subsequent stages. As the stage advances the body becomes reddish, with four lateral 
stripes on each side and three ventral, about as wide as the intervening si)aces, dull yellow and 
conlluent posteriorlj'. During this stiige the larva> eat the parenchjina in the same manner as 
1>. major. I have estimated that a single larva eats about ilO s(]. mm. of witchdiazcl leaf" 

Utafjc II. — " Head black and sliiny, with a few hairs ; widtli, 1.1 mm. Body brown, stripes dull 
yellow, narrower than the intervening spaces, extending from the cervical shield and the anterior 
edge of the protlioracu! segment to the anal plate, and becoming a little conlluent there. Cervicid 
shield, anal plate, thoracic and anal feet, and the abdominal feet outwardly black. Hairs short 
and i)ale. Duiing this stage tlui larv:e eat the whole leaf." 

Stai/r III. — " Head higher than wide, depressed at the sutures of the clypeus: smooth, .shiny 
black; widtli, l.S mm. Body brown, the stripes jellow, conlluent posteriorly and along the 
anterior edges of tlif prothoracic segment. as in the previous stage." 

Stiii/f I V. — •' Head slniped as before, smooth, centrally dei)rcsseil at the to]) of the clyjieus 
and more slightly along the central suture; clypeus ;ind labruin wrinkled; all shining black; 
width, 3.2 mm. Cervical shiehl black or partly brown; in some examples nearly all light brown; 
anal plate, thoracic feet, and the abdominal feet ontw;irdly black. Body black or jiartly brown, the 
antei'ior half of the |)rothor;icic segment yellow, the stripes strongly contiuent on the last segment. 
The bases of the legs and corresponding spots on the legless segments, as in the mature larva, of 
a darker yellow than the lines. Each segment is .shaded centrally with this yellow, but it does 
not cause the lines to ai)pear conducuit, on iuicount of its darker shade. Hairs sordid white, besides 
other short, tine, brownish hairs .seen with a lens."' 

Stage F.— " Head as iiigli as wide, llattened in front, dei)rcsscd at the upper pari of the 
sutures of the clypeus, punctured, ('lypeiis and labruni somewhat wrinkled. Color slimy black, 
the antenna' and pidpi white ringed, their bases gr(?eiiish. Widtli, o.l mm. I'.ody black, cervical 
shield honey yellow; anal jilate, thoracic and anal feet, ;iiid the abdominal feet outwardly black. 
Anterior half of the prothoracic segment yellow; stripes narrow-er than the spaces, citron-yellow, 


running into the yellow part of the protboraeic segment, and confluent posteriorly on the tenth 
abdominal, which is all yellow except the anal plate and a dorsal band. The three upper lateral 
lines are connected also on the eighth and ninth abdominal segments by a broad, dark yellow 
shade. The bases of the legs and corresponding spots on the apodous segments (on the tirst, 
second, and seventh, eighth, and ninth abdominal segments) also dark yellow, forming expansions 
of the subventral line and reaching the lowest lateral line, except on the thoracic segments and 
the ninth abdominal. On the apodous segments in the center of each yellow patch is a snmll, 
lilack spot, representing the absent legs, but thLs is not ])resent in all exanqdes. Hair rather 
abundant, sordid white, the long and short hairs concolorous, arising from minute blackish 
tubercles which, in the black parts of the body, are each surrounded by a minute yellow ring." 

''■Pupa. — Exactly like that of I>. mnjor; the two cremasters each bear three spines in a 
transverse row, the posterior one the longest. Length, 28 mm.; width, 10 mm. 

" Single brooded, the winter being passed in the pupa state beneath the ground. The 
duration of the larval stages was as follows: First stage, five days; second stage, six days; third 
•stage, six days; fourth stage, seven days; fifth stage, seven days. 

'' Food plants. — Hnmamdis riyfihiica, Vaccinium stamineum. 

" Larvie from Ulster County, N. Y." 

(Dyar, Psyche, Vol. v., 188S-1S00, pp. 418-420.) 

Food plant. — High bush huckleberry ( Vaccinium forj/)M6os?<»i),Hamamelis (Elliot and Edwards) ; 
Tiiia, Popenoe. 

Geographical distribution. — New Y'^ork (Beutenmiiller, Dyar); New York and New Jersey 
'(U. S. Nat. Mus.); Plattsburg, N. Y. (Hudson); New York (French). 

The belated larva^ of what I regard as I), drexelii (PL XI, fig. 2) occuiTed on the sassafras 
tit Providence, E. I., October 3, and are described as follows : 

Length, 20 mm., head black, body pale yellow ocher, prothoracic segment yellow; cervical 
plate transversely oblong, shining brown-black. Dorsal and subdorsal region of the body of a 
peculiar pale reddish vandyke brown, inclosing eight lines which are lemon-yellow, thus slightly 
differing in hue from the body beneath and on the sides. The dorsal and first or upper subdorsal 
lines somewhat wider than the two lines beneath, and the lowest or fourth (infraspiracular) line is 
waved and twice as wide as those above. Spiracles minute, black, situated in the pale reddish 
brown band above the fourth or lateral yellowish line. The ninth abdominal segment pale 
yellow ocher, the lines ending in this area, though not blending with each other before reaching 
the ninth segment. A ventral lemoii yellow meilian line, with a broad, ])ale reddish l)rown band 
on each side. Thoracic legs Ijlack; the four pairs of middle abdominal legs externally tipped 
with black; anal legs slender, black. Suranal plate small, transversely oval, its surface shining 
black, with irregularly scattered punctures and piliferous depressions rather than warts, from 
which about twenty black and a few gray hairs arise. Tlie hairs on the body are few and 
scattered, and no longer than the body is thick; they are uneven in length and pale in color. 

Dataua major Grotc aud Robiusou. 
(PI. II, fig. 7,^; 8,9.) 

Daiana major Grote ami Rob., Proc. Eat. Soc. Phil., vi, p. V2, May. 18GG. \>\. 2, fig. 30. 
Groto, New Check List, N. Aiiier. Moths, i>. 18, 1882. 
Smith, List Lep. Bor. Amer., p, 30, 1891. 
Kirby, Syn. Cat. Lep. Het., i. p. 613, 1892, 
Neum. aud Dyar, Traus. Amer, Kut. Soc. xxi, p. 198, 1894. 


(PI. Xll, figs. 1-6.) 
Amiretvs, Psyche, ii, p. 272, 1878. 
Dyar, Can. Eut., xxi, p. 34, 1889. 

Moth. — Exterior margin of primaries less distinctly scalloped than in any of the preceding, 
less in the S than in the 9 . Of the size of D. drexelii, but almost identical with D. ministra in 
coloration. The tint is a little darker, and the secondaries are dark, darker than in D. drexelii, aud 

S. Mis. 50 8 


almost coucolorous with ])riiuaries. The discal dots are large aud distiuct, exactly as in 1). di-exelH. 
Otherwise tlie moth is the same as its allies. 

Expanse of wings, 47-(l() miu. 

From D. drcxeUi it ditters in the absence of the bright costal shade, the more iiuiform coloration ; 
from />. miiiistid. as already pointed out under tliat species. With the other species it could 
scarcely be confounded. (Dyar.) 

J-Jf/j/. — Of nearly the same size aud shape as in that of J>. ih-e.rrlii, Imt considerably smaller 
than that of I>. pnhnil. Differs from that of 7>. drciclii in the ujijicr end with the )uicroi)yle being 
somewhat depressed. It is round, barrel shaped, the shell iiorcelain white. The microi)yle is 
somewhat larger than that of />. (Ire.relii. Described lioni li\ ing specimens received from Miss 
C. G. Sonic. 

lAirni. — 1 have iu)t seen the larva alive. The exiellent figures kindly loaned me by 3Iiss 
^lorton well represent this species, which is readily recognized by its checkered appearance. 

The following description of the eggs and larval stages has been kindly sent me by Dr. Dyar: 

Egy. — Laid in patches of 91), 9.1, lOli, on underside of leaf of the food plant, Andromeda 
lif/u.striii(i. Cylindricopyriform, being of less diameter just below the summit, flattened at base 
and vertex. Uniform white, with a rather large central black spot at vertex. Diameter, 1.1 mm.; 
height, 0.7 mm. 

Larva, first vjatje. — Uead round, shining black; width, 0..j mm.; cervical shield, anal plate, 
thoracic and anal leet, and leg-plates black. Body wine red, a broad sulidorsal and lateral yellow 
band, each containing a narrow red line. No lines on venter. Hairs, several from a wart, the 
warts minute, dark brown; no secondaiy hairs. 

Second tiliii/c. — Head shining black or with a slight brownish tint, rounded, rather higher than 
wide; width, 1.1 mm. Body dark wine red, the bands as before, greenish yellow; venter with a 
iiarrow central pale yellow line. Later the bands become almost white. Besitles the hairs from 
the warts, short, tine, secondary hairs are present on the skin. 

Third stage. — Head higher than wide, narrowing toward apex, the sutures depressed. Color 
red-brown, the ocelli and mouth black; width, 1.6 in. Cervical shield black or jjartly orange; feet 
aud anal plate shining black. Body blackish brown, the stripes at tirst as before, but later they 
appear as four very broad, lateral, clear white (or bright yellow) bands, with slight traces of the 
ventral lines. In a few the pedal line is tolerably distinct, but narrow. Bases of the legs and 
corresponding spots on legless segments dark wine-red. Hairs not abundant, pale, the secondary 
ones very short. 

Fourth stage. — Head as before; width, 3.1 mm. Body black, the side stri])es much broader 
than the intervening spaces, continuous, clear white (or yellow). The ventral strijies (two pedal 
and medio- ventral ) ai'e represented by a few linear dots or are absent. Cervical shield light brown ; 
anal plate black or partly brown. Thoracic, anal feet, and leg i)lates black, the bases of the feet 
red, as before. The stripes are not confluent at either extrenuty. 

Fifth stage. — Head rounded, as high as wide, shagreened, shining; color, orange-brown or 
light mahogany-red; width, 5..'! mm. Cervical shield, anal plate, bases of legs, and corresponding 
spots on legless segments nuihogany-red. Anal and thoracic feet blackish. Body black, the 
ventral lines as before, but the lateral are broken by the black ground color into a series of 
sub(|uadrate sjjots, as follows: The two upper lines are broken in all the segmental incisures and 
broadly through the center of the segment; the third (lateral) is broken in the same manner, but 
less broadly in the center of the segment, while the fourth (substigmatal) Is not broken in the 
incisure nor center of the segment, but once before the spiracle and again toward the posterior 
edge of the segment. The spottings are partially obsolete at the extremities. Primary hairs 
arising from the wart-areas long, white; secondary ones very short, black. There are two forms 
of this hirva in which the spots are pure white or bright yellow, respectively. 

Larva' from Dutchess and Ulster counties, N. Y. (Dyar.) 

Pupa.— $ and 9. Head rather prominent, roughly corrugated, with the three frontal ridges 
moderately well umrked ; the head is broader and the ridges less marked than in D. perspicua. 
Thorax and body coarsely punctured, but not so mu(;h so as in />. pcrspicua. The body is less dull,. 


more sbiniiig than in 1>. perspicmi; in the. latter species the metauotum varies iu beiug either 
pniK-tiireil or not. Creinaster ahiiost exactly as in D. perspicua, bnt the underside is nearly 
smooth, not so coarsely corrugated, and without the six longitudinal ridges of I>. pcrspiciia; the 
four spines are nearly as iu I>. pcrspiciia. The 9 has oue sexual scar, which is long aud linear: in 
the i the region on each side of the genital fossa or scar is regularly swollen, the surface convex. 
The transverse fossa at the base of the tenth abdominal segment with five or six teeth, the teeth 
less ridge like and regular than J>. pcr.fpiciin. 

liciiKtrls. — Vestiges of the abdominal legs appear iu these pupa-. On the tilth and sixth 
segments is a pair of iri-egular tubercles, none exactly alike, the left one on the fifth abdominal 
segment being conical. Tlie rudiments of the anal legs are quite distinct. In pupa of T>. pcrKiiicita 
there are faint vestiges of legs on the sixth segnu^nt. Vestiges of abdominal larval legs, due to 
their being imperfectly .absorbed during tlie process of pupation, were also observed in the pupa 
of a Datana from Olynipia, Wash., indicated (in fourth and fifth abdominal segments by a deep 
crescentiform depression, perhaps representing the outer and inner edge of the planta. Similar 
vestiges were observed in the pupa of D. angusii. For specimens I am indebted to Miss Ida M. Elliot. 
The markings of the larva whose lines are divided Into spots, indicates that it may be the latest 
form of the genus. 

ifnZ(/7s.— Eggs of second brood deposited July 25; larvae of second brood in July, August, 
and September, New York and .Maryland. (Riley.) "They always keep in close clusters and feed 
together." (Le Conte.) 

Food 2)htHf. — AiKlromcdu lif/ustrinii, and in Georgia on Andromeda mariaiia. 

Geofiraphical distribiitioiL — New Bedford, Mass. (Miss Elliot); ^Massachusetts (Mrs. Fernald); 
NarragansettPier, E. I., aud Newburg, N. Y. (Miss Morton), (U. S. Nat. Mus.); Maryland (Strattou 
Coll. Ent. Soc. Phil., U. S. Nat. :\Ius.); Arkansas (Palm); New York, Tiffin, Ohio; Maryland, 
Savanuah, Ga. (Le Coute); Carboudale, 111. (French). 

Datana floridana Graet'. 

(PI. II, fig. U, s ;!-', 9.) 

Datana floridana Graef, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soe., ii, p. 37, Sept., 1879. 
Grote, New Check List X. Amer. Moths, p. 18, 1882. 
.Smith, List Lap. Bor. Amur., p. 30, 1891. 
Kiiby, Syu. Cat. Lep. Het., i, p. (il3, 1892. 
Xeum. aud Dyar, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc.xxi, p. 198,1894; Jonrn. X.Y. Ent. Soc.,ii, p. 116. 1894. 


(PI. XIV, fig. 1.) 

Eoehele, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, iv, p. 21, 1881. 
Diiar, P.'^yehe, vi, p. 573. 1893. 

Moth. — As in D.paJmii, but browner, the pale scales less jirominent, the lines less contrasting, 
obscure. Tlie discal dots are, however, more distiuct than in 1). palmiL Secondaries more 
■ heavily tinged with brown. Tlie Florida specimens show very little of the whitish or pale lilac 
tint, while specimens from Long Island are almost as pale as D. palmii from the Catskills. 

Save I>. palmii, the species has no very close allies. In general appearance it comes nearest 
to D. iiitcf/errima, but differs oOviously in its purplish tiut and entire lack of pale shades bordering 
the lines. (Dyar.) (For Dyar's description of the larva see A]ipendix A.) 

Larra. — •' The larva is black, with eleven parallel yellowish lines running the full length of the 
body. There is one immediately between the legs under the body, one on the line of, and inter- 
rupted by. the legs, the rest above aud equidistant from each other, leaving the back with a 
somewhat broader bhu;k space. The head, the summit of the body-segment, the anal covering, 
and the summits of al! the legs are deep mahogany-red in color. The feet are all black; those on 
the last segment are partially aborted. 

Habits. — "It hiis the habit, which seems to be common to the genus, of raising and throwing 
back the head and tail over the body when disturbed." (Koebele.) Larvie in October, moths iu 
March, Florida (U. S. Nat. Mus.). 

Food plant. — Andromeda mariana L. (Eiley). 

Geographical distribution. — Florida (Graef, Frencli;. 


Datana palmii Iteiitenniiiller. 
(PI. II, fig. 9, S; 10, 9.) 

Datana palmii Beut., I'.sycbe, vi, p. 299, .lau., 1890. 

Smith, List Lep. lior. Aiiier., p. HO, 1S91. 
Kiiliy, .\vii. Cat. Lep. Hot., i, p. G1.3, 1872. 
v.-ir, Trails. Ainer. Eut. Soc, xxi, p. 198, 1894: .louru. N. Y. Ent. Soc, iv. p. 116, 1894. 


(Pl.XIV, fjf;s.2.2((, S, 3n. 
Dya); Eut. Amer, vi. p. 181, 1890. 

2[oth. — Tlioraek; patch burnt umber (R., Ill, 8), sliadinj; into tawny olive on liead and collar 
(R., Ill, 17). Thorax and primaries of a pale whitish liiae color, between It., II. 1.'!, and R.. Ill, 
21, but paler than either, and shading into a brownish tone along the eo.sta; wings rather thickly 
irrorated with mars brown (R., Ill, 13) .scales, witii line and fringe of the .same color. Lines 1, L', 
and 5, are distinct, the others faint. Di.seal dot obsolete, rei)re.sented by faint .shades. .Sfpondaries 
glossy ))inkish buff (R., V, 14) more or less tinged with brown. Abdomen darker, especially toward 
the base. Below even paler than the secondaries above, shading into a brownish tint on primaries, 
the fringe on these wings being as dark as above. Exterior margin of primaries only slightly 

Expanse of wings, 40-50 mm. 

This form is probably not specifically distinct from J). Jioridnna. The color of the pale scales 
is brighter and they are more numerous, which gives the wing a lighter appearance and brings 
out the lines more prominently. In the larvse, that of ]>. palmii has the head and other red parts 
Jighter than in 1). Jinridana, being nearly a cherry-stone color in the former and ''mahogany-red'' 
in the latter. The stripe may be a little narrower in I), jxdmii, though this is doubtful. (Dyar.) 

jj]gil, — Laid in a patch of 7."i-S0 on underside of the leaf. The egg differs from that of 7>. 
■drexeUi in being smaller, thin-shelled, somewhat like tine porcelain. Its diameter is nciirly as 
.great as its height. The tip is not depressed, being full, convex, forming a regular cap, Avhich 
.is clearly .separated by a slight constriction from the rest of the egg; most of this cap is eaten 
.awa,y by the larva in hatching. Micropyle large, distinct, and dark, from the shell at this place 
being thin and transparent. Under half-inch objective, A eyepiece, the surface of the shell, 
including the cai), is seen to be ornamented with fine polygonal areas. 

Larva, first slagi-.—Uend black anil sliiniug; widtb, 0.5 mm. Boilv brown, with four lateral ami three, ventral 
(lull yellowish stripes wider than the intervening spaces. Cervical shield, aual plate, and feet black. The hairs 
arise from minute warts. During this stage the larva- eat only the parenchyma of the leal', and sit with the 
extremities of their bodies elevated like the other siiecies of the genus. 

Second s(a.7c.— Head higher than wide, tlat in front, black (in a few exam]>ies. brownish), .smooth, and shinnig; 
•width, 0.9 mm. ; furnished with a few jial.' hairs. Body reddish lirown, the stripes yellowish. Cervical shield, anal 
plate, and feet shining black. During this and subseiiiieiit stages the larva- eat tlic whole leaf, remaining together 
upon one twig nntil it is defoliated. 

Third utai/e.—lleMl black to blackish red in different examples; eyes and mouth black; width, 1.6 mm. Body 
dark reddish brown, the stripes dull yellow, arranged as in the next stage, the snbventral ones interrupted at the 
biises of the legs and correspondingly on the legless segments. Cervical shield, anal plate, thoracic and anal feet, 
and the abdominal feet outwardly black. A few short pale hairs. 

Fourth stage.— Haul higher than wide, roundeil, (juite tiat in front; depressed a little at the sutures at the 
top of the triangular plate and niriushed with a few hairs; color black or blackish red to light nialiogany-re<l, or 
even orange tinted m dilierent examiiles of the same brood ; the eyes aud.jaws black, labium and anteuiKi- yellowish ; 
the latter black ringed. Body Idack, becoming; four lateral striiies, a snbventral and ventral one pale 
yellow, the lateral ones becoming almost white in some examjjles. All nearly as wide as the intervening spaces. 
Tiiey run nearly to the anterior edge of .joint 2. except the first and second lateral, which stop at the cervical shield 
and end before reaching the anal plate, except the third lateral and the ventral. The snbventral lino is interrujited 
by the light reddish bases of the logs and by reiUlish spots on the legless segments, except on joint KH. Cervical 
shield, anal plates, thor.acic feet, and the abdominal outwardly shining black; the anal plates imnctured and 
narrowly bordered with ocher-yellow. In some examples with red heads this border is broader, and the cervical 
shield is partly ocherous orange. Hair whitish, thin, and short, growing from minute black tubercles. 

Fifth stage.— He:u\ as high as wide, rounded, a little llattened at the extreme front; depressed at the sutures 
at the top of the triangular plate, and very minutely puiiCtured: a few blackish hairs; color light reddish orange 


or with a brownish tiuge not uuliko the color of a cherry stone; labium and antennro paler, the latter with two 
black rinjis- jaws black; eyes blackish, liody black, the stripes pale yellow, the lateral ones in some examples 
becomiuij white ami in a few canary-yi-Uow; narrower the intervening spaces, continuous from cervical shield 
anil the anterior eil"-e of joint 2, except the subventral; somewhat iutcrrupteil anil irregular on joints 12 anil 13, 
and barely reaching the anal plate, except the third lateral. Cervical shield, anal plate, and abdominal feet, except 
an outward blackish liand on the latter, concolorous with the head. Bases of all the legs (cxcejit the anal) and 
corresponding spots on the legless segments darker red. Thoracic and anal feet black. Hair thin, about 5 mm. long, 
■with some short, more numerous, fine black hairs, seen with a lens. At maturity the bead is more of a brownish red. 
Length, about 50 mm. Pupation occurs in a subterraneous cell, and the winter is passed in this state. 

Pupa. — Similar in shape and color to those of the other species of Datana and not to be distinguished from them. 
The two cremasters are short, each with three spines, of which the middle one is usually shortest. 

Food plant. — VacrAnium staminetim. Larva' from Ulster County, N. Y. 

(Dyar iu Eutoiuologica Americauii, Vol. YI, 1890, pp. 181-183.) 

Oeoiiraphical distribuiion. — Appal ad liau sabprovince; Delaware Water Gap, Pa., Juue (Palm 
ex Beuteumliller, French); Arkansas (Palm). 

Datana modesta Bentenmiiller. 

(PI. II, fig. 13, 9.) 

Dalaiia modesta Bent.. Psyche, vi, p. 297, .Jan., 1890. 

.Smith, List Lep. Bor. Amer., p. 30, 1891. . 

Kirby, Syn. Cat. Lep. Het.. i, p. 613, 1892. 

Dyar, Trans. Amer. Ent. .?oc., xxi, p. 198, 1894; Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc., ii, p. 116, 1894. 

Muth. — Exterior niargiu of wiugs rather distinctly scalloped, almost as much so as in D. major. 
Thoracic patch ochraceous (R., V, 7), scarcely darker posteriorly, ])aler than the thorax. Thorax 
and priuiaries "hazel"' (Pt., IV. 12), but darker than the plate, with scarcely any costal shade. 
Lines obsolete, the tirst and fifth Just discernible, a shade darker than the wing. Fringe 
concolorous. Discal dot large, distinct, blackish. At base and terminally, below the obsolete 
ajiical streak, a yellowish .shade prevails, concolorous with the discal dots. Secondaries, abdomen, 
and underside almost exactly as in D. Jloridana, hnt the fore Avings are iu the present species 
brighter in tint, and the secondaries lack the peculiar gloss oi Jiuritlniw and jxtliiiii. 

Expanse of wings: 9 , .Tl mm. (no S ). 

A distinct species, which, in the absence of all knowledge of the 'arva, tinds, we think, its 
nearest allies in florid ana and major. The type is iu the collection of Mr. Charles Palm. 

Geoyraphicttl distribution. — Florida (Graef); Kissimmee, Fla., May (Palm); Florida (Palm, 

Datana perspicua Grote and Kobinj:on. 
(PI. II., fig. 14. <^;15, 9-) 

Tiatuiia perspiciin Grote and Robinson, Proe. Ent. Soc. Phil., iv, j). 489, 1865, pi. 3, fig. 1; Proc. Ent. .Soc. 
Phil., vi, p. 141, May, 1866. 
Grote, New Check List N. Amer. Moths, p. 18, 1882. 
Smith, List Lep. Bor. Amer., p. 30, 1891. 
Kirby, Syn. Cat. Lep. Het., i, p. 613, 1892. 

Neum. and Dyar, Trans. Amer. Ent. .Soc, xxi, p. 199, 1891; Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc, ii, p. 116, 


(PI. XIV, figs. 4, 4a, 46.) 

Jni/iis iu Croie iind Holt., Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., vi, p. 15, May, 1866. 
Edwiirdfs, Ent. Amer., iii, p. 170, 1887. 

Dijiir, Can. Ent., xxiii. p. 82, April, 1891. (Egg and all the stages, impa, etc.) 
Packard, .Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc, i. p. 01, June, 1893. (Last three stages.) 

^fotli. — Exterior margin slightly scalloped. Thoracic patch ocheryellow (P., V, 9), shading 
posteriorly into ochraceons (R., V, 7) and finally into tawny (P., V, 1). Thorax and fore wings 
bufif-yellow (R., YI., 19), the latter with a few brown scales, which are absent on the costal poi'tion. 
Lines, discal spots, and fringe hazel (P., I Y, 12). First and fifth lim- distinct, and second and third 
very faint on their costal third, the fourth line obsolete. Discal dots large, the outer somew hat 



Fio. 58.— Hi'iulaiKftlioraxof pupaofD.pers/iiCTin. 
seen from above. «-. cyi-: *'■, jiair; w", si-rond 
pair of winjis; ah', tirst alitlnmiual sc;;iiioiil. 

diftuse and sproadinj;. Apical streak unusually lonji' and distinct. The three brandies of the 
median vein are outlined distinctly in bniwn, and tliere is a faint sliadinj; of this color along 
internal margin centrally. Hind wings very pale lititl'(U., V, l.'i), hut innch jialer. without dark 

shades; underside as hind wings above, the outer edge of 
])riniaries darker, w ith the fringe dark brown, as above. 
Expanse of wings, 47-.V3 luni. 

A very distinct sjiecies with only one close ally, namely, 
D. roIiKsfa Strecker. It dilfers from all the other species in 
its bright yellow color. (I)yar.) 

-End. — ''In general sliajje subpyriform ; Hatteiied at base 
and toi>, depressed centrally at \eitex, th(> usual black spot 
small and indistinct, situated at the bottom of the ])uneti- 
form depression ; the whole surface punctured. Color, white; 
the lid like top of a somewhat brighter white. Ayidth, (t.O 
mm.; height, O.S mm. The egg is of the typ(^ of that of JJ. 
major, but rc^sembles that of I), niiiiisira in coloration, by 
])()ssessing a discolorous lid like toj). This is the i)art of the 
shell eaten by the young larva in liatchiiig. Laid in masses 
of varying numbers ou the underside of the leaves of the 
food plant." (Dyar.) 

Litrcd, Stdfie I. — ''Length near the end of the stage, 
about 'j mm. When first hatched the head is black, 0..") mm. wide: the body is yellowish, with a 
reddish dorsal and subdorsal line, not reaching the extremities; 
cervical shield, leet, and anal plate black. As the stage ad- 
vances, the body becomes reddish, with lour lateral yellow 
stripes on each side and three ventral, as in its allies, which 
remain throughout the larval .stages. They are uearly as wide 
as the intervening lateral spaces, a little ccniHuont ])osteriorly. 
and are colored yellow." Llack hairs arise from small black 
tubercles and from the elevated anal feet." (Dyar.) 

I, (lira, Sta(H' //.—"Head higher than wide, slightly i>unc- 
tuied, black; width, 1.1 mm. Body i)arts colored as before. 
The hair is short, blacki&li, and arises from minute tubercles 
that are much smaller than in the previous stage." (Dyar.) 

Larra, tStfKjr J J I. — "Head shiny black, jnmctured, the cly- 
l)eus smooth; width, mm. Cervical shield, anal plate, 

and thoracic feet black. Body dark red, the stripes broader than the intervening .spaces, bright 
yellow; abdondnal feet red, the anal pair black. A few short hairs; sjiiracles small, black." (Duir.) 

The specimens described below Mere received Au- 
gust 23, from Mr. James Angus, and so named by bim. 

Larva, Stafie III or IV''. — Length, 17 mm. The 
head is black, not quite so wide as the body. A shining 
black chitinous transversely oblong ju'othoracic shield. 
The body is moderately hairy, the hairs reddish; it is 
deep straw or lemon yellow, with eleven ])itchy reddish 
lines; th^ median dorsal line is much broader than any 
of the others and broadei' than the sjiiracular line; of 
the two subdoisal lines, the upper is a little wider than 
the lower; the lowest orinl'ias])iracular line is iiiterru]iled 
by the sutures; tlie two ventral lines ol' tlu^ same reddish 
coloi' pass along at and including the base <d" the thoracic 
and abdominal legs. TIk^ suranal plate is small, shining black. The anal legs are ccmical, black, 
excejit the reddish planta, which is distinctly eversihle, being seen at times to be retracted, 
though armed with hooks. The two jiaranal ])lates are dark at the end; the end of the body is 
constantly upheld. The thoracic and abdominal leus are black. 

Flfi. fio. — Piijia of Dalana 2>''ryptnia. Kml 
of alxlmni'ii, sliowni;: t Iw ve.stijiles of the iiinle 
;:riiit;il outlet, of the anal legs, and the ere- 

Flo. 59 Pupa of Datanaperspiciia. tin(lersi(lec)f henil. 



Immediately after molting one can see the fluids of the body under the neck; the head is 
cherry-red, while the suranal plate, anal and other abdominal, and also the thoracic legs are pale 
carneous. . 

Stdf/e TL — Length at first, 20 mm., becoming the next day 23-2.5 mm. Body as before, but 
the stripes are blackish red, there being no other change of importance. The suranal plate is a 
little larger than before. 

Last starjr. — Length, 40 mm. Head large, black, as wide as the body. Prothoracic shield 
dark reddish black.. 

The stripes are of the same relative width as in Stage III, but have lost their red coh>r, and 
are brown-black, while the yellow of the body has a greenish tinge. There is no red at all on the 
prothoracic segment or on tlie legs or on any part of the body. The suranal plate is large and 
black, the black median dorsal line wider on the segment in 
front. The hairs are now whitish and thicker than in theprevious 

1 notice that the hairs on the thoracic segments have at 
times an individual motion, and are jerked one way and another, 
as also the warts wliich give rise to them. 

When irritated it discharges a drop of green fluid, its partly 
digested food. 

One x>upated September 20, and another a little later. 

Fupa. — Body long, but not very thick. Head projecting 
in front, with three ridges, one median. Cremaster with four 
long equal acute spines, the i)oints long and tapering, almost 
setiferous; surface rugose. A lateral small, stout spine on each 
side of the base. The vestiges of the $ sexual opening broad, 
■with a round tubercle on each side. Surface of the body 
corrugated with confluent i)nnctures on head and thorax; abdo- 
men coarsely punctured. Length, 22 mm. 

Food plants. — Sumac (Rhus (ilahra and R. typhina) (Miss 
Morton, Mr. ])yar. Dr. C. V. Riley). 

Habits. — Larva' occurring in July and September; motbsin 
June, July, and September (Riley). 

Geo(iraphicaJ distribution. — Chicago, 111. (Westcott); Colo 
rado Springs, Colo., June 2."), at light (Gillette); West Farms, 
N. Y. (Angus); Newburg, N. Y. (Miss Morton); New Jersey and 

Pennsylvania (Palm); Chicago, 111. (Bolter); Manhattan, Kans. (Popenoe); Colorado (Edwards 
Coll. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., N. Y.); Illinois (Strecker); Mr. Dyar has received this species from 
Miles City, central Montana; Missouri, District of Columbia, Kansas, Virginia, and New York 
(U. S. Nat. Mus.); New York, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, Jlissouri, Carbondale, 111. (French). 

Fig. 61.— Puii.1 of Dataiut pcrspicita. 

Datana robusta Strecker. 

(PI. II, fig. 16, <?; 17,9.) 

Iialana robusta .Streck., I.,ep. iml. and Esot.,p. 131, 1872. 
Smith, List Lep. Bor. Aiiier., p. 30, 1891. 
Kirby, .S.vii. Cut. Lep. Het., i. p. 613, 1892. 

Neum. anil Dyar, Tran.s. Amer. Ent. Soc, xxi, p. 199, 1894: Jourii. X. Y. Eut. Soc, ii, p. 116, 

Moth. — Closely allied to J>. pt-rspicua and marked in exactly the same way. The outer margin 
of primaries seems less distinctly scalloped. Thoracic patch ocher-yellow, shading into tawny 
posteriorly exactly as in D. perspicua, or entirely ocher-yellow, with only a few tawny scales 
defining its posterior border. In this latter case it is paler than the thorax. Thorax and primaries 
clay color (R., V, 8, a little paler), heavily dusted with hazel scales (R., IV, 12), these predominating 
in the space between first and fifth lines below the median vein, all throughout giving a dark 
cast to the wing; lines, spots, and fringe, as in J), perspicna, or rather fainter. Rarely, only the 
outer Hues are discernible. Median venules marked with brown rather more heavily than in D. 


perspicun. Secoiiilaries as in J), perspicua, but tiuged with biowu along outer inargru or ou the 
outer lialf. 

Expause ot wings, -18-50 nun. 

There are no good specific ditt'ereuces between this form and 7). persplctm. Though quite 
dift'erent in general appearance, it is simply /). perspicua intensified. I would not suggest uniting 
the two, however, especially as the larva of D. robuMu is unknown. (Dyar.) 

Geographical distribution. — Dallas, Tex. (Strecker Coll.); San Antonio, Tex. (Bolter); Texas 

Datana integerrima Grote ami Kobinsoii. 
(PI. II, fig. 20, cj ; 21,5.) 

Datana inlerjcrritna Gi'ot-o ami Rob., Proo. Eut. .Soc.Pliil., vi, p. 12, 1806, j)l. 2. fig. 4. 
Grote, New Clxefk List X. Amer. Moths, p. 18, 1882. 
Smith. List hep. Bor. Amer., p. 30, 1891. 
Kirby, .Syn. Cat. Lt-p. Het. Br. Mns., i, p. 613. 1892. 

Neum. ami Dyar. Traus. Amer. Eat. Soc., xxi, p. 199. 1894 ; .Journ. \. Y. Ent. Soc. ii, p. 116,, 

(PI. XIII, figs. 1-6.) 

Jiiffiis in Grote aud Boh., Proc. Eut. Soc. Phil., vi, p. 13, 1866. (Full-fed larva described.) 

lieiileniiiiilltr, Can. Eut., xs, p. 134, 1888. (Stiiges IV aud V, last described, i 

Ihjiir, Psyche, p. 421, Dec., 1890. (Last stage described.) 

Packard, .louru. X. York Ent. Soc., i, p. .59, .lune, l-i93. (Last stage described.) 

Moth, — Fore wings entire, as in D. contractu; body colored in the same manner except that 
the abdomen is yellowish. Fore wings cream-buff (R., V, 11), so heavily irroratcd with mars 
brown (I*., Ill, ].■>) as to appear of the latter color; costal shade brighter, tawny, but not as dark 
as the thoracic patch. Lines distinct, coucolorous with the fringe and irroration; the irrorations 
are absent for a short space bordering the lines, causing them to ai)pear bordered distinctly by 
paler shades. These shades border all the lines ou the outside except the first, which is bordered 
on the inner side only, but rather faintly. Discal (b>ts obscure, blackish. Hind wings and 
underside as in J), contracta, but i^aler, lacking the yellowish tint of that species. 

Expanse of wings, 4;j-.j0 aim. 

Allied to I>. contracta, but the ground color is less yellowish, the irrorations more numerous, 
and all the markings are coucolorous with the fringe. (Dyar.) 

Hf/g. — "Deposited on undersideof leaf of walnut in a closely i)laced mass of .'>()(> and upward. 
Rather small, elongate, hemispherical, approaching cylindrical; apex somewhat flattened, color 
dull white. Surface somewhat roughened, l)ut without regular markings. Diameter, ((." nun.'' 
(Riley MS. notes.) 

Larva. — The following notes are written out from an examination of greatly enlarged drawings, 
made by ^Ir. Bridghain at Providence. The figure of tlie fourth stage agrees with ^Ir. Lcuten- 
miillcr's description of the fourth stage of Datana iiitetjcrrima. The food plant is the walnut. As 
is well known, these larva; feed in large conspicuous clusters, being social through larval life. 

First star/e. — Lengtli, when Lit hours old, 5 mm., July,l!4. In this larva the head is very large, 
entirely lilack and hairy, being nearly twice as wide as the end of the body. The body is brick red, 
with a faint subdorsal and lateral yellowish stripe along the body, and a ditl'use spiracular yellowish 
line. There is a distinct small, t)lack prothoracic shield, transversely oblong, from which arise 
about twenty black hairs, slightly cla\ate, two or three of them as long as the segment is thick. 
A distinct black suranal plate is i)reseut; it is entire and rather large, though not so wide as the 
tenth abdominal segment. The; ])iliferous warts are minute, and the dorsal and lateral glandular 
hairs arising from them are more or less club-shaped, sojne of them markedly so, and not quite so 
long as the body is thick. The thoracic legs are black ; the middle abdominal legs are coucolorous 
with the body; the plantar dusky; the anal Ic^gs are about half as thick as the others and black 
at the end. 

In another specimen of this stage, of the same length, which is just about exuviating (July 
2;3), the body being very long aud the head small in proportion to the body, the suranal plate is. 


divided into two oval lanceolate black plates, the small ends poiutiug toward the head. Otherwise 
the body is marked as in the above-desmibed specimen, except that there are black spots at the 
base of the middle abdominal lejis. Tlie hairs are not represented as so clavate as in the other 
specimen. It is possible that the latter is iu the second stage, but if so, the suranal jilate would 
not i)robably be so large and entire. 

Tliird stiujc. — Length, 7 mm. (probably not of the normal length, owing to confinement), July 
30. About ready to molt, as the prothoracic segment is somewhat swollen. The black prothoracic 
plate still persists, aud the hairs arising from it are about twice as long as those elsewhere, but 
the black suranal plate has disappeared; the anal legs are still slight, and the body beyond tlie 
sixth abdonunal segment is upraised. The reddish color has deepened, and the yellowish lines 
are more distinct, while the spiracular line, inclosing the distinct black spiracles, is pale lilac- the 
middle abdominal legs do not appear to be spotted. 

Fourth stage. — Length, 10 mm., August 13 (evidently underfed and unnaturally small). The 
head is large, as wide as the body in front; the cervical shield still persists, as do the clavate 
hairs. The eiilor has now changed to a dark reddish brown, above and beneath, with longitudinal 
gray stripes seen from above aud four seen sideways; the additional stripe is the infraspiracular- 
one, while the spiracular one has moved up, the spiracles being situated between them. 

The following is a description of another larva of this stage received from Mr. Angus,. 
August 2.~>: 

Length, lo mm. Head shining black, as wide as the body. 

The body of the usual cylindrical shape, rather slender, dark pitchy reddish brown all over. 
Prothoracic shield transversely oblong, not so square at the corners as in D. perxpicua. There are 
four dull whitish rather obscure lines on each side, which are of nearlj- the same width and of 
exactly the same color; they are somewhat irregular on the edges, being somewhat broken and 
of the same distance apart. The lowest or infraspiracular line is a little wider and more distinct 
than the others, aud extends along the lateral ridge. The body beneath is of the same color as 
above. The suranal plate is black, rounded ; the anal legs are black at the tips. The middle 
abdominal legs are stained black above the plautw, and the thoracic legs are black. The hairs 
are long and white; those on first thoracic segment, and eighth and ninth abdominal, longer thau 
those elsewhere; those on the prothoracic segment stand up and curl over the head, and two or 
three of them are as long as the three thoracic segments put together. The spiracles are black. 

Fifth stage.— heugth, 28 mm., August 29. Very different from the fourth stage, the color 
being still darker, while only two grayish lines are seen from above, and two lines when the larva 
is seen from the side. Tlie two dorsal and the supraspiracular lines have disappeared. The body 
is now clothed with numerous soft fine gray hairs, many of which are nearly as long as the body. 
The anal legs are still smaller than in the preceding stage. 

Recapitulation. — 1. In this species the larvai of the first four stages apparently have clavate 
glandular hairs, an unusually late persistence. 

2. Tlie body is reddish in the three first stages, but becomes dark in the fourth, while in D. 
mini-stm the body is reddish in the fourth, being less iirecocious tlian iu this species. 

3. The loss of two of the longitudinal stripes iu stage V is noteworthy, and the habits of the- 
larva should be noted by the future observer to learu the probable cause of such a change ; also why 
in B. miiiistra, and perhaps in other si)ecies, there is such a decided change iu the general color 
and stripes in the last as compared with the penultimate stage. 

4. The black suranal plate seems in Stage I to be entire, and to divide in two at the end of the- 
stage, not being present in the third stage. It is to be ho])e:l that those who may hereafter rear 
the S[)ecies of Datana will preserve specimens of the earlier stages in alcohol for future study. 

Habits. — Eggs, August; larviE, August and September; adults. May aud August; localities,. 
Kansas, Missouri, Indiana, New York, Maine, and District of Columbia; food plants, walnut, 
hickory, larkspur, thorn. (Riley MS. notes.) 

Fooil plaufs. — The larvas prefer black walnut, but feed on hickory, butternut, etc. (Angus),-: 
walnut (Pilate); '-Live together iu large companies on walnut {Juglans), hickory {Garya), beech,. 
{Fiif/us), and also on oak {(^uercus), but very rarely" (Beutenmiiller); willow, honey locusf, thorn,, 
and apple (Hiley). In Kansas, Juijlans nigra (Popenoe). 


Geographical (listribution. — Oroiio, Me. (Mrs. Feruald); Plattsburji', N. Y. (IhnlsDn): West 
Firms, N. Y. (Angus); Kaiiawba Valley, West Virffiiiia (\V. 11. Edwards, I\Ins. Com]). Zool.); 
Ohio (I'ilate); Kittery, -\le.; New York, IJliode Island, Wisconsin, Clianipaiyn, 111. (Frencli); 
Chicago, 111. (Westcott); Manhattan, Kans., moth, May 2."»-Juue i' (Popenoe); Arkansas ( Palm). 

Dataiia coiitracta Walker. 

(PI. II, li^'. 18, ^ ; 1!1. 9.) 

Datana coniracia Walker. Cat. Lep. Het.Br. Mils., v. ]>. 1062, 1855. 
Morris, Syn. Lej). N. Amer., \i. 247. 1862. 

Groto and Rob., Proc. Eut. Soc. Phil., vi. ]), 1 1. lS(iil; pi. 2. tis- s, li;:. (i, var. 
Pack., Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., iii, p. 355. 18U4. 
Grote, New Check List N. .Vmor. Moths, p. 18, 1882. 
Smith. List Lep. Ror. .\mer., p. 30. 18!)]. 
Kirby, .Syn. Cat. Lep. Het., i, p. 613. 1892. 
Neum. and Dyar.Trans. Anier. Eut. .Soc. xxi. p. VM. 18n4 ; .Tonrn. X. Y. Ent. Soc. ii. p. 116. 1894. 


(Pl.XIV. tigs.7, 7«.7ft.') 

Angus in Grote and Rob., Proc. Ent. .Soc. Phil., vi, p. 14, 1866. (Fnll-fed iarva described.) 
lieutenmiiller, Can. Ent., xx, p. 134, 1888. (Fourth and last stage described.) 
Pnchml, ,T<mr. N. York Ent. Soc, i, p. 60, Jnne, 1893. (Full-fed larva described, i 

Moth. — Exterior margin of fore wings entire. Thoracic patch ochcrycllow shading into 
tawny behind; thorax a little paler than the fore wings, which are biift' (1?., V, 13); the costal 
shade lirighter, more ocherous; the wing rather thickly dusted with brown bhick scales, 
coHcolorous with the pulverulent line and with moderately tlistinct discal dots. Bordering the 
lines the irrorations arc absent for a short space, causing the lines to npi)ear as if bordered with 
obscure pale shades. Frequently lines 1 and 2 are joined or approximated on the internal 
margin, though the character is variable. Fringe mars l.'rown (I?., Ill, 13), not coiicolorous with 
the lines. Hiiid wings paler than the fore wings, slightly, powdered with brown scales most 
thickly toward the outer margin. Below pale, the terminal area of fore wings shaded with 
bright brown. 

Expanse of wings, 40-4.5 mm. (Dyar.) 

Larva before the last molt. — "Head and cervical shield jet black, shining. Body black, with 
four equidistant sordid white stripes along each side, being as wide as the intervening si)ace.s, 
except the dorsal sjjace, which is the widest. Body beneath coiicolorous with the ujiper side, with 
three longitudinal stripes, and the intervening sjiaces much broader. On each of the fourth, lifth, 
tenth, and clev'enth segments two reddish brown patches. Thoracic feet and clas))era of the 
al)dominal legs jet-black, with their bases reddish brown. Tlie body is also sjiar.sely covered 
with sordid white hairs. Length, about 30 mm."' (Beutenmiiller.) 

The larvaj were sent me by Mr. James Angus, and were received September 1. It feeds on 
the walnut, and will eat the or rose. 

Full ijroirn larra. — Ijcngth, .'>0 mm. Head large, as broad as the body, entirely black, includin-g 
the mouth parts. First thoracic segment with a distinct gamboge-colored transversely oliloiig 
]ilate, with three indistinct blackish clouds on it. The body is jet-black, with four continuous 
whitish yellow very distinct stripes on each side, and a lifth broken one between the bases of 
the legs, both thoracic and abdominal. The three upper stripes are equidistant, the upper or 
subdorsal one being slightly wider than the others. The fourth strijie is on the lateral ridge, ami 
is broader than the otlu^rs, and Mavy. The width of the dorsal black strijie is like that t>\' l> 
perspicita. There is a median ventral whitish yellow strijje which ends before reaching the anal 
legs. The thoracic legs are black, but gamboge-yellow at the enlarged fleshy base. The middle 
abdominal legs are gamboge-yellow, each with a large external black patch above the ])laiita. 
The two subdorsal \vhitish yellow lines end before reaching the suranal ])late, leaving a black 
space; l,he plate is also black, and the anal legs are wholly black above and beneath and on the 
sides. The head and body are clothed witii long white hairs, much longer and thicker than in T). 
perspicita and longer than flic body is thick. 


Mr. Anuus writes me tliat there seem to be two varieties of I>. coiitracta. 

One c,r tbcm is a li.'ht rUestnut-brown with the usual yellow Hues. au,l (he other is uiore the color of I), mmistra; 
in.leed. so much so that I thought they might iirove to be that species, but the lines are precisely the same as the 
other variety iu wiilth and color. 

7/„/„7s._Eoos, Au-ust 9; larvae, June, August, and September: adults, June. July. October, 
and November: localities, Missouri. District of Columbia, and New York. (Kiley.) 

Food plant.— Oix\i (Miss Morton and Mr. Angus) ; "Oak ((^ucrcm). chestnut ( Castania), hick.ay 
(0«»-i/«)'' (Beuteiimiiller); oak and witcli-liazel (Riley). 

'Ocographiml (/(4/»-/iH/(V»«.— Massachusetts (Very, Mus. Comp. Zool.); New York. New Jersey, 
Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, Illinois (French); West Farms, N. Y. (Angus),- New York (Palm); 
Newburg, N. Y. (Miss Morton and Mrs. Fernald): Buffalo, N. Y., and Chicago, 111. (Bolter); 
liacine. Wis.; Chicago, 111. (Westcott); New York, southwestern Arkansas (Palm). 

Subfamily IV.— Ichthyubix.e. 

Head larger than in the', but yet not so i>romineut as iu the succeeding 
subl'amilies; the front rather broad; clypeus (denuded) scutellate; eyes hairy; antennae .short, 
well pectinated to the tips; palpi large, long, ascending. Thorax usually with a dark median 
crest. Fore wings short and broad, apex slightly upturned: outer edge a little bent; no 
subcostal cell, the first three subcostal veiuiles turned abruptly up on the costa; usually marked 
by four cross lines, two of them forming a large V. Hind wings with a rounde.l apex. Legs 
very densely scaled. Abdomen in $ long and slender, with a spreading dark tuft at the end. 
" ^^/^/.—ilemispherical, with meridional ribs, ou the surface ornamented with polygonal areas. 

OocooH.— Thin and irregular in shai)e: spun between leaves. 

i«riY(.— Body rather long, sliglitly tlattened, striped with yellow and dark, and somewhat 
hairy, usually with a pair of twin tubercles ou first and eighth abdominal segments each. 
Presh'ly hatched larva with the hairs all tapering, at first without abdominal tubercles or hairs. 

i'i(j„(._Unusually thick, full and blunt at the end: crenuister ending in a si>ine bearing two 
l)road upcurved flattened hooks, each bearing four to five long setae. 

Ichthyura lliibuer. 
(PI. XL. tigs. 1-4, venation.) 

Mdalopha Hiibner, Tentamen, p. 1 (uo descr. ), ISOG (ISIO?). 
rminra Ochs., Schmett. Kut., ii, p. 224, 1810. 
Ichlhyura Iliibu., Verz. Schmett., ]>. 162, 1816. 
Mflahijihw Hiibn. (in part) Verz. Schmett., p. 162, 1816. 
Clustera Stephens, 111. Br. Ent. Haust., ii, p. 12, 1828. 
Boisduval, Gen. et Ind. Me'th.. p. 89, 1840. 
Dupouchel, Cat. Meth. L(?p. Eur., p. 95, 1844. 
Herr.-Schaeft".. Syst. Bearb. Schmett. Eur., 1845. 
h-hthijura Walk., Cat. Lep. Het. Br. JIus., v, p. 10.54, 1855. 
Pack., Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., iii, p. 351, 1864. 
Griite, Check List N. Amer. Moths, p. 18, 1882. 
Smith, List Lep. Bor. Amer., p. 29, 1891. 
Melalopha Kirby' Syn. Cat. Het., 1, p. 608, 1892. 

Neum. and Dyar, Can. Eut. xxxv, \i. 121, May 1. 1894. 

Xeum. and Dyar, Trans. Amer. Eut. Soc, xxi. p, 190, June, 1894. 

Moth.—U&m\ not prominent, the front rather broader than usual, squarish: the clypeus 
(d-^nuded) scutellate in shape, raised in the middle and on the edges in front. Eyes hairy; 
antenna- short, as long as the'thorax, thickly scaled above: branches long, slowly shortening 
toward the end, sparsely ciliated. In the S the branches short, but distinct. .Alaxilhv distinct, 

' The use of this name bv Kirbv iu place of Ichthyura seems scarcely justiaable, since in the Teutamen no 
description is given, and in theVerzeichniss the name Melalopha^ is the name of a stirps, under which are the groups 
or coitus 7'./y-ir(( and Irhlhijiira, t\w species under each being enumerated. Hiihuer also does not in the Yerzeichnis 
spell the word M.'lalupha.'the singular of Melaloiiha-; he simjily uses it to designate a group or coitus or genus 
(in the moderu seuse). To resurrect aud rehabilitate ilelalojthir under the name Mdalophu seems scarcely defensible 
or advisable. 


but sei)ai'ate. Palpi lais*'. long, ascending, appressed to the front below; second joint long» 
L'ontinnous, pilose beneath: third joint small, jwinted, not very distinct from the second. 

Thorax with a conical wcll-inarked uieiliau crest, which sends off a spur backward, and a 
slight ridge on each side. Wings: Primaries oblong, more than onelialf as broad as long; costa 
convex to beyond the luiddle, thence ascending to the nptiirned ai)cx, which is slightly pointed; 
outer margin a little bent, entire, nearly straight over halfway down, thence regularly rounded to 
the internal angle. Venation: No subcostal cell ; the first three branches of the subcostal vein 
turned abruptly uj) to the costa, and ending farther from the apex than in Gluphisia, Nadata, or 

Hind wings broad, apex rounded, outer edge rounded, longer than the internal margin. 

Legs densely haiiy: fore legs densely hairy to the ungues. Abdomen with a long spreading 
tuft on the upper side of the end, reaching beyond the genitals. 

Coloration: The species usually whitish ocherous, with oblique, in ])art dislocated, transverse 
lines, two of these usually forming a distinct large V-shaped mark; a deep brown patch 
extending from the vertex of the head between the antennie l)ack to the top of the crest; the 
outer line on the costa very distinct silvery white, more or less obli(|ue and sometimes S-shaped; 
beyond this mark is a subapical rust-red patch. 

The genus is readily identified by the broad front, the hairy eyes, the wellpectimited 
antennie of both sexeij, the large palpi, and the unusually short and broad fore wings, which are 
not falcate at the apex; also by the well-marked dark brown median crest on the thorax, and by 
the laterally tufted tip of the abdomen. 

Eiifj. — Hemispherical, moderately high, with irregular meridional swollen portions and the 
surface ornamented with polygonal areas inclosed by slightly thickened walls. 

Larva. — Body rather long, slightly flattened, ornamented with bright, usually yellow, and 
dark stripes, and usually with two twin darlc dorsal tubercles on the tirst and eighth abdominal 
segments, with numerous pale hairs. The tubercles (in apifaUs) obsolete, the body being smooth 
but striped, as usual. In Stage I cylindrical, with fine hairs all tapering; with indications at the 
end of the stage of lines and abdominal tubercles. 

CocooH. — Thin, irregular in shaiie, s])un between two leaves. 

i'«jjrt. — Body unusually thick, and full and blunt at the end, with a slender cylindrical 
cremaster, ending in two broad stout upcurvcd tlattened liooks, each bearing four to five long seta-. 

Geoyruphkal disirihuiivH. — The species are common to the Atlantic and Pacilic coasts and 
the intervening region, covering the Appalachian, Austroriparian, and Campestrian subprovinces. 
Whether any extends into the Mexican (Sonoran) is doubtful. The genus is represented in 
Europe and America by several species in each hennsphere, and does not occur in either Asia or 
Africa, nor in the tropics. 


A. Lines auastoiiiosiug; basal line dislocati'd on cubical veiu, not toothed; white eostal mark iibl]i|iie or 

more nearly straight. 

Basal line forming a sharp .angle; usually mouse colored /. apiialis 

Larger and paler than Eastern iipicalis var. omnia 

Pale, almost sordid white var. asiorUe 

I'ale pur]dish ; arms of V sinuous var bijiria 

J>argest ami palest si>ocies; white costal mark obli(]ue; apex of V formiug a looji; \w thoracic liand. 

/. iiionmla. 

.Smaller than incliisa : pale siibocherous; second, third, and fourlli lines much more sinuous than in 

(ipicalixor iiiclusa; subapical patch 2)alc ocherous; costal mark oblii|Ue, sinuous; lirown thoracic lian<l 

obscure /. siyit/osd 

Costal mark more ohlicjuc and distinct than in Hlriijoxa; no thoracic l>and var. Iiiriilciilu 

I'sually large; a white, nearly straight, costal mark; subapical patch ocherous /. iiiclidia 

Small, dark mouse-color; suba])ical jiatch rust-red var. ihitiwi 

Small, ])ale ocherous; subapical patch ocherous var. ptilla 

White <08tal mark oblique; subocherous, inner arm of V liruur, less sinuous var.Jocoad 

Xear apical in, jiale, linos subparallel, not anastomosing /. bnicci 

Unnsually dark, costal mark obscure var. mullnoma 

Smaller, basal lino bent and curved; subapical patch very obscure rar.utvthe 

B. Liui's nut anastomosing; V very narrow; white costal nuirk S-like f. iilhoKii/ma 

I'alcr subapical patch brown var. aixvijUui 



A. No tubercles on first aiul cigUtli abdumiiuil segments. 

A dorsal gray baud coutaiuiug three bro wu lines '. I. apicalia 

Like apicalis, but with a broad orange stigniatal band, inclosing a lilack line; body purplish 

Wack /. hnicei, var. miiUnoma 

Three faint dorsal red lines ; three dark lake- red lateral stripes, and two yellow lateral stripes. . /. strUjosa 

B. A dark tubercle on first and eighth abdominal segments. 

Body yellow, with three dorsal and three lateral bhu'k liues /. inclusa 

Body yellow, three dark dorsal liues, and a broad lateral dark baud, below which the warts are oeherous 

/. albosigyna 

Ichthyura apicalis Walker. 

(PI. Ill, figs. 1-8.) 

Ichilnjura apicalis Walk., Cat. Lep. Het. Br. JIus.. v, p. 10.58, 18.55. 
CtoKlera van Fitch, Fifth Rep. Nos. Ins. X. Y., p. 65, 18.59. 
IclHhijura indentata Pack., Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., iii, p. 352, 1864. 
Ichlhi/ura ornaia Gr. and Roll., Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc., ii. p. lyi. 1868. 
Closteni iitrnrcerald Boisd., Lep. Cal., p. 86, 1869. 

Ichthijiira indentata Grote, Check List N. Amer. Moths, p. IS. May, 1882. 
Ichllii/nrn astoria: Edw., Ent. Amer., ii, j). 14, April, 1886. 
Icktliijnra hijiria Edw., Ent. Amer., ii, p. 167, Dec., 1886. 
Pack., Eut. News, iv, p. 79, March, 1893. 
Ichtlnjura ran Smith, List Lep. Bor. Amer., p. 29, 1891. 

var. oriiata Pack., Eut. News, iv, p. 77, March, 1893. 
Metalopha van Kirby, Syn. Cat. Lep. Het., i, p. 611, 1892. 
Ichlhynva iiicarcerata Pack., Eut. News, iv, p. 78, March, 1893. 

var. aslorio' Pack., Ent. News, iv, p. 79, March, 1893. 
Melaloplia van Neum. and Dyar, Can. Eut., xxv, p. 123, May, 1893. 

var. ornata Neum. and Dyar, Can. Eut., xxv, p. 123, May 1893. 

var. hifiria Neum. and Dyar, Can. Ent., xxv, p. 123. May. 1893. 

WbT.asioriw Neum. and Dyar, Can. Ent.. xxv, ji. 123, May, 1893. 
Ichthynra apicalis Dyar, Can. Eut., xxv, p. 303, Dec. 1893. 

Mclaluj)ha apicalis Neum. and Dyar, Trans. Amer. Ent. .See, xxi, p. 192, 1894 ; Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc, ii, p. 115, 


(PI. XV, fig. 1; var. astoiia; figs. 2, 2a, 26, 2c, 2d, 3, 3a, 36, 3c, 3d, 3e, 3/.) 

/■Venc7(, Can. Eut., xvii, pp. 248-2.50, Dec, 1885. (Eggs, full life history; cocoon and pupa of /. ornata.) 

Beuienmilller, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., iv, p. 67, 1892. (Two last stages described.) 

Dyar, Ent. News, iii, p. 5, 1892. (Complete larval history of var. hifiria.) 

J'ackard, Journ. N. York Ent. Soc, i, p. 26, March, 1893. (Third and last stage described.) 

liijar, Can. Eut., 1892. (All the stages.) 

^[o^h. — Several S and 9 . Ground color of body and wings unusually dark mousea.sli, mucli 
darker as a rule than in I. inclma. Fore wings with tlie basal line straight in its general course, 
Tiiakiiig a more distinct and complete angle on the cubital vein tlian in I. inclusa or var. inversa. 
Second line slightly bowed inward, meeting the short third line on the cubital vein. The V-shaped 
mark (composed of the third and fourth Hue) distinct; its outer arm ending on the costa as a 
distinct white oblique sinuous mark, nuich more obliquely bent outward than in /. hicliisa and 
iiirt-rsa. This costal mark is bordered e.Kterually by a deep rusty reddish brown patch, much as 
in 7. inclusa, the patch often being more or less ftided and obsolete. A submargiual, slightly 
sinuous series of dark spots. Ilind wings mouse colored, witli a dark diffuse transverse line 
beyond the middle, \\liich is often wanting. 

Beneath, the wings are concoloroils with the hind wings above; the whitish costal mark 
distinct, and from it originates a darker diffuse line common to botli wings, and on the hind wings 
very sinuous, being bent outward behind the subco.stal vein and inward behind the cubital vein. 

Expanse of wings: i , 27 mm; 9 , 29 mm; length of body: $ , 13 mm; 9 , 12 mm. 

This common and variable species is usually considerably smaller than I. inclKsa, and I always 
recognize it by the very distinct and oblique white costal mark (as I will call this costal ending 


of tlie fomtli liiii'i. This mark is bent inwanl in ilii- iiiidillc, and thus forms a rounded loop 
(sometimes iiu anyle), which is directed outward, behind the costal edi;e, and becomes indistinct 
between the foiyth aiid fifth branches of the subcostal vein. 

That this speckles (Fitch's van) is Walker's /. apicdli.s is not to be doubted, sintx' I now have 
an excellent colored drawing of Walker's type in the IJritish ^luseuni which leaves no doubt as 
to its specific relations, ha\ing the markings and hue of normal cau from Maine. His type was 
collected by Dr. Barnston. 

This species is very variable, and what, with my present material, seem to constitute its 
varieties 1 will endeavor to point out, j)remisin.u that my views are subject to future correction 
after we have much fuller collections of the moths and after we know more of their transformations. 
Meanwhile it is to be ho])ed that there will not be a further mnltiplicatiou of nominal species in a 
genus already so burdened with synonyms. 

Walker's Ivhthi/iira (tpicdii.i' is the same as I. van, as 1 judge from an excellent colored figure 
(IM. N'll, fig. 4) made for me l)y I\Ir. II. Knight from Walker's type, but it is impossible to determine 
from his brief description, as he does not say whether tlie alblda iiutvitlnque costali is oblitpieor not. 
]Mr. Dyar has also come to the same conclusion from a pen-and-ink sketch of the type received 
from Mr. Butler. In Barnston's MS. description, quoted by Walker, the larva is described as 
"brown, thick, with l(i feet, and with a band on part of the back;" '• feeds on the poi)lar leaf" This 
description will apply better to van than to any other species known to me, as I have reared vau 
from the poplar, and the larva is brown, short, though not with '■ a band on i)art of the back." 

After examination of my type of I. indeutata in the Harris collection, I find it agrees with 
Fitch's description of van. 

I regard /. vrnata (i. &, 11. as only a climatic variety of Fitch's van, and a specimen of /. 
■oriiata G. & 11., so labeled by Mr. Edwards, is also labeled '•'■ incarcerata Boisd. ;"and on comparing 
Boisduval's description of inrarvcraia with specimens of ornaia^ from Calift)rnia, Truckee Valley, 
Eeuo, Xev., and Colorado, I do not see any specific differences. 

/. incarcerata (T. ornata), PI. II, figs. 4-7: While these represent snuill individuals, many are 
larger, and it is a larger and generally i)aler form than I. apicaUs (vatc) of tlie Eastern States, and 
1 think it is sinqdy a climatic variety of tlie Eastern form. One S and a 9 in the Edwards 
collection are as dark as the typical Eastern van, and tiie pale form may l)e a seasonal variety. 
Indeed, Mr. Beutenmiiller informs me that in I. apicalis {v>ii(), which he has reared, this i)ale form 
is the summer brood, the dark indi\iduals belonging to the winter brood. 

One 9 from Truckee and a small S from Sierra i!fevada, California, are very pale (expanse of 
wings, 33 mm.). Also from Alameda County, Cal. (U. S. Nat. Mus.). 

A large, well-preserved, fresh specimen from Lincoln, Nebr. (U. S. Nat. Mus.), collected May 21 
by Prof. L. Bruner, is unusually pale, having a faded-out look, and is evidently a form (astorup 
Edw.) of vav. incarcerata [ornata), being like one of that variety (a 9 ) from Colorado, but differing 
in having no reddish brown shade on it. (See PI. VII, fig. 3.) This form, subvar. asforiw, has 
also been reared by "Sir. Dyar from eggs sent him from INIiles City, Mont., and whose larval stages 
I have described beyond, my pupa- not liaving disclosed any moths. Although the rainfall at 
Astoria, Oreg., is very heavy (SO inches annually) and the clinmte humid, yet the Astoria specimen 
in the Edwards collection is no darker than those from .Montana and from Kansas. This is 
somewhat unexpected and remains to be explained, unless it be disccn ered that there is a dark 
winter brood. 

The young larva was found feeding on tlie as])en at Brunswick, Me., and molted August 
10-12, when it became 10 mm. in length. 

Young larva in third stage. — Length, 10. mm. Head black. The body is on the sides and at 
the end livid dark brown. The warts and humps on the first thoracic and first and eighth 

' Walker (Cat. Lep. Hct. British Museum, v, 105S) tlms refers to ii moth wliiph lio describes as Ichthi/iira apkalio: 
Mas. Ciiierea; caimt iiigro-f'nsciim; i'roiis (^t jialpi siibtus alliida; anteiiiiir cau;i^ ramis ciuereis; thorax vitta 

(lorsali uigro-fusca; ahu antica' fnsco-ciiicre;r, liiiea nmlulosa alliida iiiac'i.!a(|m' <-<)stali rufo-fusca; postica^ cinereso; 

subtus albidit fascia gracili discali uudiilosa i'usccscciitc. 

"Larva brown, thick, with 1(1 fuet, and with a l)aiid on ))art of tlio back; feeds ou the pophir loaf, which it 

draws together with silk. Cocoon slight and white. The moth appears in .Inne." — Harnston MSS. 
a, 6.— St. Martin's Falls, All)any Kivir, Hudson Ikiy. Presented by Hr. fSarnstou. 


abdominal segments are of tbe same color, but the other piliferous dorsal warts are yellow. There 
are four jtarallel whitish yray dorsal lines, or rather three dark, livid-brown, flue dt)rsal lines 
on a grayish wliite tiekl. 

Lant slage (PI. XV, lig. 1). — Length, 25 mm. Head brown black, flattened, as wide as the body ; 
with graj' hairs. The pi-othoracic plate is widely divided into two transversely oval brown-black 
plates. The body is marked with a broad, dorsal, ash-gray baud, containing three Vandyke brown 
more or less broken lines. The sides of the body darker and containing two darker, irregular, 
broken lines. On the first thoracic segment are no dorsal yellow warts, but two on each side, the 
n])per one in fiont of the spiracle, button like, prominent. On the second and third thoracic 
segments are four yellow tubercles, forming a transverse series. On the second to eighth abdom- 
inal segments tbe yellow warts are arranged in a very low trapezoid, and the two anterior ones 
are minute. Those on the ninth segment form a curved line. The suranal plate is broad and 
rounded, speckled with hlaclc. There are no humps or specialized warts on the first and eighth 
altdoiuinal segments, thus differing from the larva of /. indusa. The thoracic legs are blackish; 
the abdominal and anal legs livid ash. 

The larva differs decidedly from that of /. iiiclnsa, though the moth is nearly allied. 

The moth bred from this caterpillar is of the dark mouse-colored foi'in, normal, usual in Maine 
and Franconia, N. H. One like it from Illinois is in my collection. 

The following description is of a larva leared in Maine from eggs received from Jlr. Wilev. 
of Miles City, Mont., and, as Dr. Dyar states, is '-the pale Western form," and perhaps var. 
antorid- (Edw.). 

Life hisiorj/ of var. ornnta subvar. astorhc (PL XV, figs. 2, 3). — The eggs were kindly sent me 
by Mr. C. A. Wiley, of Miles City, Mont.; they were deposited on the willow May 24. 18!l.>, and 
were received June 5, but the larva had hatched out and must have been feeding several days, as 
the body was filled out, the head not being quite so wide as the body. The larviB feed on the 
underside of the leaf, and if transferi-ed to the upper side walk back beneath. 

Em/. — Diameter, 0.7 mm.; hemispherical or flattened conical, moderately high, very broad, 
broader than high; the surface not regular, having an irregular meridional swollen portion, the 
top being somewhat swollen. The surface is pitted as seen under a lens. Under a one-half-iuch 
objective it is divided into slightly convex polygonal areas, with definite thin raised edges. 

The liole eaten by the larva for its exit is characteristic, being round, with the edge 
crenulated, each concavity representing the incision made by the jaws; in some cases the disk cut 
out is connected by a stalk with the side of the hole. 

Larnt, St<i(je I. — Length, 4 mm.; head black; body long and full, with the segments rather 
full and convex, especially on the sides, particularly on the sides of the third abdominal segment. 
The frsf and cightli ahdoiitiHul .segment)! fuller, more convex ihnn the others, and dor.snll)/ .sivolleii, 
abnont humped, and dull, dark varnish or pitehy red, causing them to he very distinct in appearance 
from, the other abdominal segments. Along the sides of the body is a broad longitudinal band of 
tbe same pitchy red hue: it is most distinct and continuous on the abdominal segments, but 
divided into two broken lines oti the upper edge, and it is a little broken on the three thoracic 
segments, where it is most emphasized on the swollen sides of each segment, and wanting in the 
sutures between the segments. The body is greenish yellow, and in the dorsal yellow portion 
of tbe back are three faint broken parallel equidistant dorsal lines. On the side of the body 
low down are three broken reddish brown lines, the lower one the broadest, and i)assing along 
the base of tbe abdominal legs. The hairs are of unequal length, whitish. Protboracic plate 
short and wide, black, distinct. Suranal plate broad, short, triangular, black. Thoracic legs 
lilackish; abdominal legs (including the anal ones) pale greenish, the color of tbe body, but with 
a dark chitinous callosity on the outside just above the plauta. 

Tlic larva molted June 14-L5. 

Stage If. — Length. <S-11 mm. Head flattened, small, not so wide as the body. A short, broad. 
dark brown protboracic shield, not interrupted in the middle. The first and eighth abdominal 
segments decidedly swollen above, almost humped; the color chocolate-brown, and concolorous 
with the broad lateral band, which incloses two faint, pale, broken lines, and is often broken 


into rings inclosiiif-- wliitisli si)ace.s. Four straw-yellow dorsal bands, varyinji from whitish 
to straw-yellow, and iiiclosiufj three narrow, broken choeolate lines. Below the broad lateral 
clioeolate band are two whitish yellow irregular lines, one. just above and the other Just beneath 
the spiracles. Underside of the body with the abdominal legs pale livid-gray. On the outside 
of the abdominal legs above the plauta is a dark ehoeolate In-own i>atch. Suranal plate dark 
chocolate brown. The hairs are sparse and pale gray, uneven in length; the lew longest ones 
arise from the thoracic segments and from the eighth to ninth abdominal segments. The piliferous 
warts are yellow on the yellow ground and brown on the brown portions of the skin. On the 
eighth abdominal segment are two yellow i)iliferous tubercles situated on the brown skin. 

It molted June 22. 

It seems to l)e like the Eastern apicalis (van) in Stage III. 

Stafic III. — Length, 15 mm. Head cliitiuous brown, mottled with close set dark spots. 
Prothoracic shield divided into two parts by a pale median space. In general as in Stage II, 
liiii the four pale dorsal lines are ichiter than before, becoming straw-yellow around the bases 
of the yellow [)iliferous warts. The brown lines and lateral band and the brown swollen first and 
eighth abdominal segments are as before. Hairs long whitish. On the brown bands and segments 
the piliferous warts are pale, not prominent. 

The larvie have now sewed together two leaves and live between them much as does 
I. inelnsa. 

The larvffi molted into the last stage June 28 to July 12. 

The larva when of this stage is more like I. inelusa when about l-") mm. long than the iully 
grown Eastern apicalis (rau), though in /. iuchtsa the eighth abdominal segment is not blown, 
according to Bridgham's ligure, and is somewhat as is albosigmu in its thiid stage. 

Last staije. — Length, 30 mm. Body thick and fulL Head uot so wide as the body by a fifth; 
pale yellowish brown or chitin colored, (vith darker flecks; it is much flattened in front, the 
clyi)ens Hat and sunken. Jaws and ocelli lilackish, contrasting with the light-colored head. 
Body of a peculiar light yellowish sienna brown, with a grayish tinge. Skin somewhat rough, 
with fine minute warts giving rise to fine close-set pale gray hairs of uneipial length. On the 
prothoracic segment are two dusky dorsal flattened low warts elongated transversely, the 
corresponding ones on the succeeding segments being bright yellowish brown, each giving rise to 
one or two long thick pale hairs. A lateral yellowish brown wart in front of the i)rothoracic 
siiiracles. On the second thoracic segment are three yellowish l)rown warts on each side, forming 
a transversely straight line of six warts crossing the segment. On the third thoracic segment is 
a transverse row of eight similar warts, the additional ones being one Just above the base of 
each leg of the third i)air; corres])onding warts are ])resent on the prothoracic segment. No 
trace of a hump or of any other distinctive mark on tlir jirst or eighth abdominal segments, but in 
place of them are two small yellon-ish brown warts, situated Just in front of the line of six warts 
common to all the abdominal segments, though there are two similar but much smaller, nearly 
obsolete, warts which occur in the same ]>osition as on the other alxhuninal segments, those on 
the second abdominal segment being the most distinct. Three faint broken jiarallel dorsal lines 
and a faint lateral sjjiracular band, above and below which is a faint whitish line. The skin is 
covered with somewhat irregular continent colorless spots of irregular shape. All the legs are of 
the same color as the body. 

It pupated between the leaves July 12. 

Var. hifiria Kihvards. 
I'l. Ill, tig. 8. 

Var. Iclilhi/iira hifirin H. Edwards, Eiit. Ainericaiia. ii, lOT. December, 1886. 
Pack.. lOnt. News, iv, p. "it, March. ]s:i3. 

The single type differs from Mr. Edward.s's tyi)e of brueci in the oblique silver-white costal 
streak being more sinuous, as is also the line across the wing which forms the continuation of the 
streak. On the other hand, the other (inner) arm of the V is straight, not sinuous, the inner two 
lines about the same. The submarginal spots and streaks are the same in both species. 


I am inclined to agree with Mr. Dj'ar that this is a variety of I. (qricalis. I am unable, 
however, to see any important difference between I. ajncalis, var. iiicarvrnda, and alethc Xenm. 
and Dyar, though 1 leave it as a synonym of brucei, as Mr. Beutenmiiller suggests, Dyar agreeing 
with his view. 

The following account of the preparatory stages of TcJtthi/ura bifiria Hy. Edw., by Dr. Harrison 
C Dyar, is copied from the Entomological News, 1892, ]). .J: 

Eg;/. — Hemispberical or sliglitly conoidal, the base flat, but louuded at its edges ; smooth under a lens, but under 
the microscope covered with numerous, crowded, shallow depressions, which form by their edges narrow, rouuileilly. 
hexagonal reticulations. The color is dark gray before the egg hatclies. Diameter, 0.7 mm. 

First stage. — Head shining black, laljrum pale; width, 0.3.5 mm. Body slightly flattened, whitish; cervical shield 
black; a few pale hairs; joints .5 and 12 are slightly enlarged dorsally ; the lateral region .and joints 5, 7, and 12 
dorsally are wine red. Thoracic feet large, pale; the abdominal normal, all used in walking. Length, 2.5 mm. The 
larva hatches by eating a round hole in the vertex of the egg, leaving the rest of the sliell untouched. It lives, 
singly, in .a shelter constructed by spinning two or more leaves together. 

Second stage. — Head black and shining, the central suture deep; width, 0.(55 nnu. Body flattened, pale whitish 
yellow, with narrow triplicate dorsal, and very broad lateral bands of dull wine color, as are also the humps on joints 
5 and 12. Cervical shield and anal plate black; venter dull greenisli ; legs black. 

Third stage. — Head flat in front, slightly bilobed, brownish black, but paler centrally around the clypens; a few 
dark hairs; width, 1.4 mm. Body pale yellow; joints 5 and 12, a triple dorsal line, broad lateral and confused triple lines all dark brown. Cervical shield and anal plate blackish; scattered pale hairs arise from smooth, 
low, round tubercles, concolorons with the markings. 

Fourth stage. — Head pale brown, shaded with black in front; jaws and ocelli black; a white shade on each side 
of the clypens; width, 2.6 mm. Body as before, but the lateral band is faintly divided by a double yellowish line, and 
joint 13 is nearly all yellowish. The round, smooth, piliferous tubercles are distinctly yellow in the yellow markings. 
Cervical shield small, bisected, pale brown ; anal plate not distinguishable. Hair whitish, both from body and heiid. 
As the stage advances the colors become finite pale, and the .appe.ariince is nuich changed; humps on joints 5 and 12 
very slight, dark jiurplo. (iround color whitish gray, becoming pale purple, a tripliiate dark purple dorsal line, the 
central one most distinct, the others broader and diffuse. All these lines are more or less broken into mottlings. A 
similar stigmatal line with some purple mottlings subventrally ; venter paler; spiracles black. The piliferous 
tubercles are normal in arrangement, much as the warts in Halesidotu; row (4) sm.all, posteriorly to the spiracles, row 
(7) apiiarently absent. The head is held out flat, as in Ghiphinin. 

C'oeoim. — Composed of several leaves spun together and lined with threads. 

Pupa. — Xearly cylindrical, flattened a little ventrallj', gradually tapering posteriorly, but of nearly even width, 
•no part enlarged; last abdominal segments rounded, cremaster long and slender, terminating in a knob 'that, under 
the microscope, is seen to consist of a row of radiating, strongly recurved hooks, which hold flrmly to the silk of the 
■cocoon. Color dark red-brown, the thorax and cases nearly black. Length, 11 mm. ; width, 3.5 mm. 

Food i)lant. — Willow (.So^jj). 

Larva' from Yosemite Valley, California. These larva; had but four stages, and there are two broods in a year. 

Irhthi/iira bifiria, as well as /. brucei Hy. Edw., must come very near /. ran Fitch, if they are not merely Western 
forms of it, but the larva of /. ran is still unknown, so that it is impossible to compare the early stages. 

We now return to the normal /. apicalis. 

Cocoon. — The cocoon which I have is more completely formed tlian that of I. inelii.<f(t, the 
■surface iie.xt the leaves being a continuous firm web, more cocoon-like. It is tent-like and spun 
between two leaves, as in /. inclitsn. It measures 22 by 15 mm. 

Pupa. — Not so full, rounded, and blunt at the end as in that of I. iuchtsa. Abdominal 
segments with scattered coarse punctures, and the surface is dnll, not so .shining as in I. 
Cremaster slenderer than in I. inclma, the two dorsally curved hooks not so broad and thick as 
in I. tnclusa and about half as large. Length, 16 mm. 

Babif.s. — In general the same as those of /. inchi.m, the moth laying its eggs in northern 
New England probably late in June and in July, the larv;T occnrring throughout August. In Mdes 
City, Mont., the eggs are stated by Mr. Wiley to have been laid on the willow as early as May 24. 
Whether it is double brooded remains to be seen. It occurred in Kansas May 21. (Bruner). 

Food plant. — The normal New England form of apicaltfi feeds on the aspen, while "the pale 
western form asforicf^^ in Montana feeds on the willow. 

Gcogrophical (lisfribiition. — The species with its varieties range from New England, including 
the colder jwrtions, as Franconia, N. H., to the Pacific Coast. It is to be looked lor throughout 
the greater part of the "cold temperate subregion of Allen, or the boreal (Canadian) province 
■of authors from lower Canada (Quebec Province) westward to Alaska." It also spreads in its 
varieties [ornatn, bifirut, and asfori(f) through the Appalachian and Caini)estrian subi^rovinces, 
iu(;luding Montana, Washington, and California. Var. indentata, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, 
S. Mis. 50 9 


Arkansas {Palm'); noinial lonii, St. .Martins Falls, .Vlhanj- Itiver, Iliul.son Bay (Dr. Barustoa 
fide Walker); Brunswk-k, Jle. (Packard); Frauconia, N. H. (Slossoii); Boston, Mass.; Poii-'li- 
kccpsie, N. Y. (Dyar); Dublin, N. II. (Leonard, Harris coll.); Plattsburj;-, N. Y. (Hudson); 
Illinois, ilanhattan, Kans. (Popenoe); Colorado, a 9 about halfway between tlie normal form 
and iticnrcerula (Pack, coll.); Yo Semite, Cal.; i'ortland, Oreg.; Seattle, Wash.; Victoria, British 
Columbia; Denver, Colo., May li. The Western form incarcerata {onuita), Kansas (Bruner); 
Colorado (Pack. coll.). California (Morrison), in hue and size exactly like one fiom Truckee 
Valley (Mr. Glasham); a very small pale 9 from lieno, Nev. (Pack, coll.); a rather larj;e one 
from Olymijia, Wash. (T. Kiucaid); Seattle, ^Vasll. (Dyar); indenUita, Kittery, Me ; Xew 
Hampshire; vau, Maine, New York; ornuUt, Califoruia; bijiria, Soda Springs, Colo. (French); 
var. onuita. Fort Collins, Colo. (Baker). 

Ichthyura iuornata Neiimocgen. 
(VI. Ill, ligs. 9-11.) 

Ichthi/iiia innrnnta Neura., Papilio, ii, ji. 131, Oct. 7, 18S2. 

Pack,, Kilt. Xcws, iv, ji. 78, JIarcli, lS!t3. 

Ncniii. auil Dyar, Can. Eut., xxv, ji. IL'3, May, 1893. 
Melalopha inonuila Neiiiii. uiul D"ar, Trans. Amei'. Kiit, Soc, xxi, p. 192, 1891; .Tourn. N. Y, Ent. Soc, ii, ]>. 1 1."),^ 


Apparently, although at first sight this is a distinct species, it may prove to intergradc with 
apical is {imarveruta). Its characters are brought out in the following notes published in 
Entomological News, 189.'}. Until we know its larval history it may be better to regard it as a. 
distinct species. 

I am strongly incliued to regard this form as a climatic variety of I. ran var. oniata. One 
medium-sized oniuUt from southern California iiitergrades with I. inornafa, though it is much 
smaller. It has the large diffuse discal spot and pale leaden intcrvennlar patches of iiioriiafa. 

Of /. inoniuta Neuni., a ifialc and female from Arizona are in the Edwards collection. It is 
the largest and palest of all our forms. It scarcely differs from T. oniata in the situation of tiie 
lines and their relative distribution; the obliipie costal white line and its continuation across the 
wing are the same, and the obtuse almost rounded apex of the V does not (piite reach the edge, 
just as it does not in ornata, but the loop made by the obtuse apex is more marked in inoniata. 
The short middle line, ending on the hind edge of the wing, and the dislocated basal line are 
exactly as in oniata. 

I. inoniata, then, appears to be only a very large and unusually pale subocherous form of 
a2)icalis, following the same law of climatic variation, i. e., increase in size and a pale, faded 
api)earance in Pacific Coast examples (south of Oregon), due probably to a hot, dry, desert region, 
with a lightcoloi'ed surface soil. By adaptation to these conditions the moths are better jirotected 
from observation, and thus the life of the species is assured. 

Geoijraphical distrihution. — So far as known confined to southeastern Arizona. 'Sir. Neumoegen 
does not state the exact locality in "southeastern Arizona" whence this fcu-m was brought, but it 
would seem to be a member of the Mexican (Sonoran) subproviuce. Thus far uo spei'ies of 
Ichthyura is cited from Mexico by Mr. Druce in the Biologia Centrali-Americana. 

Ichthyura strigosa (Jiote. 
(PI. Ill, figs. 12-14), 

Ichllii/uni 8lri(ji>HaGn)to, linll. U. S, Geol. Oeojjr. Survey Terr., vi, j>. ."vS2, Aug. 30, 1882; Check N., 
Aiiicr. .Moths, ]), 18, 1SS2. 
Pack,, Filth ]{cp. IT, «. Knt. Com. I'oicst Trees, p. 453, 1890. 
Smith, Ust Lcp. IJor. Aiiier., )i. 29, 1S91. 
Kirhy, .Syn. Cat, Lcp. Hct., i, p. (ilO, 1S92. 
var. tiictilriila E(Uv. Eiit. .\iiicr., ii, 10, April. 1886. 
Pack., Ent. News, p. 78, March, 1S93. 
Melalopha strigosa Neiiiii. and Dyar, Trans. Amcr. Kiit. Soc, p. 191, 1894; .Tourn. N. Y. Ent. Soi'., ii, p. 115,. 

'All the species found by Mr. Palm in Arkansas were collected in the southwestera counties of that .State.. 



rackiirtl. Fifth Ut-p. U. S. Kiit. C'omiii. Ins. iii.j. Forest Trees, p. 453, 1890. 

Moth. — Oiu' iiKiIe. Sniallcr and (Uillcr brown tliaii T. aiiiculis, with a slight 4ilac tint on the 
head, tliorax, and t'oio wings. L'alpi whitisli lielow, dark blown above, as in I. (tpimlis; fiont of 
head sliglitiy Inoader and squarer; nie<lian thoracie l)rown band as in /. (ipichlis. Fore wings 
with tlie costal edge straighter and the apex less turned up than in f. (ijiicalis, the apex Ijeing 
sliglitly more rounded tliau in that speeies or in I. inclufid. IJasal line distinct, making a sluirp 
angle on tlie cubital vein, and more incurved in tlie subcubital space than iu I. ajncalis; second 
line much more suddenly incurved than iu I. (ipicalis, the same line being straight iu I. indusa; 
the sliort third line as in I. apicalis, but more sinuous. Fourth and outer line uuach as in I. 
apicalin, but the species differs from all the others known by the large conspicuous irregular 
whitish ocherous patch which fills in the costal curve of this line and extends halfway from the 
costal end of the line to the apex of the wing; no deep brickred discoloration on each side of 
costal half of lourth line, so distinct in f. (ipicalis, but a long distal blackish stripe extends along 
the tirst cubital venule to the submaiginal row of brown dots, which are not so distiuct as in /. 
apicalis or I. iHciuna, tlunigh the marginal row of dark brown lunules is as distinct as in I. indusa. 
Fringe as in I. hidufia, but tluit on tlie liind wings much darker. Hind wings darker tliau iu 
/. apicalis. Wings beneath much as in /. apicalix^ but there is no reddisli tint toward the apex» 
and the white oblique costal streak is mucli less distinct. There are traces of a common brown 
diffuse line. Abdomen a little shorter, the fan or tu It of scales perhaps shorter and expanding 

Expanse of wings, 25 mm.; length of body, 12 mm. 

This species differs from I. iitdu.'ia and apicalis in the transverse lines on the fore wings being 
very much more sinuous, and it need not be confounded with any of our other species. The white 
costal mark is oblique and curved much as iu apicalis. 

Larva before the last molt. — Head broader than tlie body, ffattened iu front, dull black, with 
long white hairs. Body flattened, with yellow and reddish longitudinal stripes; three dorsal faint 
red stripes on a yellowish ground, and three deep lake-red lateral stripes, the lowermost the 
broadest and deepest in hue. Two bright yellow lateral stripes. Five pairs of flesh-colored 
abdominal legs, which are pale amber, colored like the underside of the body. Length, 9 mm. 

Larca after the last molt. — Markings much as in the previous stage. Lengtli, 17 to IS mm. 

Cocoon. — The rude cocoon is formed by tying a few leaves together, gathering them by a web 
at the edges, thus forming a roomy chamber, partly lined with silk, within which the chrysalis 

Pupa. — Smaller aud not so full and rounded at the end as in I. iiicliisa; cremaster as in that 
species, ending iu two stout, very short, recurved spines. Length, 12 mm. 

Habits. — The caterpillar of this interesting species was lound July 30, at Brunswick, Me., 
feeding on the aspeii (Populus tremuloides). It molted August 10, and about the 20th began to 
spin a silken cocoon between two leaves. The moth (a male) appeared iu the breeding cage at 
Providence, ]May 20. Like I. indusa, it sits with the wings folded sharply over the back, with the 
fore legs held straight out in front and the tufted tail upcurved. 

Food plant. — Populus tremuloides. 

Geographical distribution. — This species is a member of the Ai>palachian fauna. Brunswick, 
Me. (Packard); Kittery Point, Me. (li. Thaxter); Maine (U. S. Nat. Mus.); Maine, Canada- 
(French); var. luculenta Indiana (French). 

Ichthyura iiiclusa Hiibuer. 
(PI. Ill, figs. 17-UI.) 

I'liahrna anantomona Alibot and Smith, Nat. Hist. Lep. Ills. Georgia, 1797. 
Irhlhijnra indusa Hiibu., Zutr. Drltt. Huud., p. 3(i, tigs. 5G1, 562, 1825. 

Cloftlera americana Harris, Kep. Ins. Mass., p. 311, 1811, 3il edit., PI. VI, fig. 12, aud figs. 213-215. 
Ichtliijura inci«s(i Walk., Cat. Lep. Het: Br. Mus., iv, p. 1059, 1855. 
Clonlera americana Fitch, Fifth Rep. Nox. Ins. N. York, p. 65, 1859. 
Ichthyura indusa Morris, Synopsis Lep. N. Auier., p. 244, 1800. 
Pack., Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., iii, p. 351, 1864. 


Ichthijunt iiihrxa I'ack., Pror. Kiit. Soc. Phil., p. 352, 1864. 

Giotc, Check List N. Aiiicr. Moths, )i. IS, 1SS2. 

Smith, ListLep. Bor. Aiiier.. p. L'!), 18i)l. 
Melalopha iiifhisn Xeiim. aiul Dyar, Traus. AmiT. Kiit. .Sue, xxi, p. 192, 1894 ; .Toiir.N.Y. Ent. Soc, ii, p. 115, 1894. 

Pack., Kilt. Ncw.s, iv, p. 79, .March, 189.^ 
Melalopha inclima var. iiivcraa Xciim. ami Dyar, Can. ICiit., xxv, ji. 127, Mav, 1893. 
Ivhthtjiira jmlla Ficncli, Can. Ent., xiv, p. 33, l"el>., ISX'2. 
Ichthijura iiicluaa Grote, Clieck List X. .\mer. Moth.s, p. 18, 1882. 

Smith, List Lep. Hor. Amer., p. 29, 1881. 
Melalopha inclii>ia Kirby, Syn. Cat. Lep. Het., i. ji. GIO, 1892. 

Nenm. and Dyar, Can. Ent. , xxv, p. 123. 1893. 
Ichtht/iii-tt jocosa H.Edw., Ent. Amer., ii, p. 10, Ajiril. 188(3. 

Pack., Ent. News, iv, p. 79. March. 1893. 
Melalopha jooosa Neuui. and Dyar, Traus. Amer. Ent. .'<oc., xxi, p. 193, 1894 ; .lour. X. V. Ent. Soc, ii, p. 115, 1894. 

(PI. XVI, iiss. 1. 1(1, 2, 2n.) 

Abbot and Smith, Lep. Ins. Georgia, p. 143, Tab. LXXII. 1797 (colored ligure). 

Harris, Ins. Inj. Vegetation, 1st edit., p. 314, 1841 ; 2d edit., ].. 333, 1852; 3d edit., p. 431 (colored figure), 18G2; 
Ent. Corr., p. 310 (PI. Ill, lig. 36), 1869. 

Fitch, 5th Rep. Nox. Ins., N. York, p. 845, 1858. 

H. Edwards, Papilio, iii, p. 24, 1883 (yonug larva). 

French (palla). Can. Ent., xiv, p. 34, 1882 (full-fed larva) ; Can. Ent., xvii, p. 41, 1885 (life history). 

Sottle, Pysche, v, p. 262, Aug.-Doc, 1S89 (life history). 

7'nc/.oirf, Bulletin II. S. Ent. Comm. 7, Forest Ins., p. 122 (quotes Harris); Proc. Host. .Soc. Xat. Hist., xxi v, 
p. 517, 1890; Jouru. N. York Ent. Soc, i, p. 22, 1893; 5th Kc)). U. S. Ent. Comm. Forest Ins.. p. 453, 1890 
(life history) ; .Jour. N. York Ent. Soc., i, p. 22, Marcli, 1S93 (eggs and life history!. 

Moth. — Nuiueious $ and 9 , Body and wiiio-s pale ciiKneous, with ochei'ou.s tints, and dii.stcd 
"with brown scahjs. I'al|)i brown on the .side and above. A bioad dark brown median band 
exteiidino' from between tlie antenine back to the .summit of the thoracic crest. Fore wings with 
a basal white line which is di.slocated upon the cubital iierviile, but not forming so distinct and 
regular an angle or point as in /. apiealis (rau). A short line beyond, meeting an obli(iue line 
■which passes from the basal third of the costa to the outer third of the inner (liiuder) margin of 
the wing, which, with the fourth line, forms a large V-shaped mark. Both lines are shaded within 
with brownish. The ibiuth line is slightly bent just below the costa on the last subcostal venule, 
but is not nearly so nuicli so as in 1. apiculis, and more distinct on the costa tlian in the middle of 
the wing; externally this costal white mark is shaded toward the costa with rust.v ocherous. 

A submarginal slightly undulating row of brown linear spots, which is dislocated inward on 
the second cubital interspace. Fringe with ilark spots at the ends of the venules. 

Hind wings with a darker waved line just beyond the middle; beneath they are lighter than 
the fore wings, with the submedian line present. 

Expanse of wings, i , '.W-X> mm.; 9 , 3.") mm.; length of body, $ , 18 nun.; 9 , 20 mm. 

This species is the most common in the Appalachian sub])rovince, being the largest of all, and 
is distinguished by the white costal iiuirk on the outer third of the wing being only slightly bent 
outward behind the costal edge, and not very obliipie, as it is in /. apiealis. 

It varies iu hue, some iiulividiuils being dark, almost mouse-colored, and others with i)ale 
ocherous as a ground color. Wliether there are seasonal varieties remains to be seen. 

Var. mcersa Pack. (PL II, figs. 120,21). Smaller, darker, more mouse-coloied than F. iiiclxsa, 
since tlie areas corresponding to the light portiiins of /. inrlunK are in the ])resent form densely 
dusted with mouse-brown scales. The fore wings are also more bent on the outer edge than in 
normal /. inclma. The dark reddish inadderbrowii thoracic band uai rower than in /. ijichisa. 
Fore wings with the basal line dislocated as in T. Diclitsii. but the lower portion is slightly waved, 
as on the outer lines. It differs from J. iiivliisa chietly in the costal itortion of the fourth line 
(outer arm of the V) being sinuous, and from /. apiealis in not being obliqiu-; the costal mark is 
bent outward near tlu> costal edge, and bent inward and outward again before leaving the rustv 
ocherous costal patch in which the mark is situated. The third ami fourth lines situated as in 


/. tncliisa, but the first and second lines are situated nearer together than in /. inclusa. Tlie 
subapical brownish-tiuged region bordering the upper half of the fourth line is narrower and of 
a deeper reddish brown line than in I. indusfi. The submarginal series of linear spots is not so 
distinct as in /. inchisti, wliile the dark line crossing the hind wings is paler than in that species. 

Beneath, the wings are aj little darker; the line common to both wings is much more distinct 
than in I. inchtsa, and the costa of the fore wings is margined with reddish. 

Expanse of wings, <? , 24 mm.; 9 , 32 mm.; length of body, i , 12 mm.; 5 , 1.3mm. 

This variety differs in its smaller size and in the costal portion of the fourth line being 
sinuous, bent outward near the costal edge, then bent inward and again bent outward. 

Gcof/rapMcal distrihution. — Thus far only known to myself from the Appalachian province; 
New York City (Elliot); Janeville, Md. (Mas. Comp. Zool.). Professor French sends me the 
following localities: Canada, Lincoln, Nebr., Colorado. 

Var. Ichthyura 2)alla French. — The caterpillar of this moth was found feeding on willows in 
southern Illinois through the most of September, resting in an inclosnre formed of several leaves 
fastened together at the ends of the twigs, but no more than half a dozen occurred in a nest. 
Those put in breeding cages pupated before the middle of October. The moths appeared in the 
following April and May. 

The moth is related to I. hirlusa Hiibn. and I. ovnata G. & II.; more nearly to the latter in 
size and coloration, but differs from both in several particulars. Besides size and color, it differs 
from T. inclusa in the coloring of its larva. It differs from /. ornata in the color of the scales 
sprinkled over the fore wings, the color of the spots outside the fourth line, and the continuation 
of that line, as it is seen here partially obsolete opposite the disk, as well as in some other points. 
The apices are no more produced than in /. inclusa, nor is the costa more bent (French). We 
would add that, judging from two specimens received from Professor French, we are inclined to 
think that this is a variety of /. inclusa Hiibner. 

Larva. — Length, 1.25 iucln'S when crawling; hody nearly cylindrical; two black tubercles, close together, on 
the top of third and eleventh sejjments. On the back are four bright but narrow yellow lines alternating with 
narrow black ones. The stigmatal line is black ; above this, on the subdorsal space, an irregular alternation of black 
and white. Below the stigmata a narrow yellow line; below this, on the substiguiatal space, the body is flesh, 
colored. Head shining black. A few gray hairs scattered over the l>ody. (French.) 

The moth. — Length of body, 0..51) inch ; expanse of wings, 1.10 inches. General color of body and fore Avings, pale 
gray, the latter rather sparsely sprinkled with dark brown scales. Palpi brown above, scarcely projecting beyond 
the head, third joint concealed by the hairs of the others. Front slightly brownish, a tuft of p.ale gray scales at the 
base of each antenn.a, the usual deep brown mark from the anteun;t to the top of the thoracic crest. Fore wings 
with the usual transverse lines almost white. The b.asal line makes a bend outwiird on the median vein ; from this 
it goes in a straight course to the submediau vein; from this to the posterior or inner margin it curves a little 
outward. A second line extends from the costa about one-fourth of the distance from the bcise obliquejy to the 
posterior margin, near the posterior angle. A third line passes straight across the wing from the posterior margin to 
the second, a little below the median vein. The fourth begins as a white spot on the costa a little more than two- 
thirds of the distance from the base, .and joins the second on the posterior margin, making the nsuiil "V" as in the 
allied species. The fourth line is slightly S-shnped in its costal third. Outside the fourth line is a subtermiual, 
somewhat zigzag row of black spots, some of which are often taint or obsolete. In the discal cell there is usually a 
faint oblniue line that seems to be a continuation of the third line, though it does not reach the costa, and the end 
of tlie cell sometimes appears like a short line. There are three oblique shades of brownish olive, more or less 
distinct, that cross the wing parallel to the second line ; the first, beginning on the costa inside the basal line, faintly 
borders that line to the subuu:dian vein, and is seeu belov,- that vein on the third line; the second, outside the second 
lino through its whole course, is darkest next the line; the third from both sides of the fourth line to the middle of 
the outer border faint, except along the line. .Just outside the S-part of the fourth liuo are three grayish yellow 
spots with a few reddish brown scales. Hind wings pale smoky gray with a faint whitish line from the fourth of 
the fore wings to the anal angle. Beneath, the fore wings are about the color of the hind wings above, pale along 
the costa and terminally ; the hind wings are paler, with a dark transverse line. (French, Can. Ent,, xiv, 33. ) 

Ichlln/umjocosa R.'EihY. (PI. Ill, fig. 22). One 2 type; Indian River, Florida. This i.s, as I 
have satisfied myself by an examination of the type in the American Mn.seum of Natural History, 
New York, only a small inclusa, dilVering from tlie normal form of the species in the inner arm 
of the V being firmer and less sinuous, being interrupted at the union with it of the short middle 
line which ends on the hind edge of the wing, while in inclusa the line is not usually interrupted, 
although two of the inclusa in Mr. Edwards's collection do have the line interrupted as in his 


type of T. jocosfi. The liittcr is also more genenilly subocberous tliaii usual, and without a line on 
the liiud wing. 

Kortlie op])ortiinity of examining" five alcoholic example.*; of tlie first stage of tins larva, I am 
indebted to I'rolessitr Itiley; those of the last stage 1 liave e(jllccted from the ])oplar. Mr. II. 
Edwards (Papilio, iii, 24) briefly de.seribes the second stage, and addti that it "feeds in conijjanies 
until after the .second molt; the larvu' then separate and act indei)endently of each other."' 

The eggs of the normal form of this sjiecies (i. e., I. inclKstt) were received from Mr. W. N. 
Tallant. of Columbus. Ohio. They were laid July -'() and the larva- hatched August 10 or 11. it 
feeds at first socuilly on the aspen, eating out j)atches on the under surface of the leaf. 

Ufff/. — Diameter about 0.0 mm. Hemi.spherical, rather high; the shell is tliiii. white (the egg 
is reddish just betore the larva hatches). The sliell under a Tolles lialf inch objective is seen to be 
covered with minute jiolygonal cells which are tolerably distinct, with slightly thickened walls. 

Larva, Stage I. — (Hatched August 10-11. Described two days after hatching, and from 
alcoholic s]>ecimens of the same brood.) Length, .'^ mm. The body is rather long. cyliii(lri<-al, 
head rounded, but little wider than the l)o(ly at first before the latter becomes filled out alter 
eating a few days, as later it is no wichu' than the body; it is shining jet-black, and provided with 
.scattered, long, stitt', tapering bristles. The i)rotlioracic and suranal plates are shining brown- 
black. The former is moderately large, about three timl^s as broad as long, irregularly trapezoidal, 
narrowing a little behind, and shows no signs of division into two halves; four hairs arise from 
the front and four from the hinder edge. QMie piliferous warts on the thoracic as well as 
abdominal segments are more or less conical, and none bear more than a single hair. The second 
thoracic segment bears two minute median dorsal tubercles, one on each side of the median line 
of the body, and smaller than those on the third segment, while the next one on each side of the 
body is larger than the homologous ones on the third thoracic segment. The tubercles on the 
second and third thoracic segments are arranged across the segment in a straight line, four of 
them being visible on each side above. On the abdominal segments the tour dorsal tubercles are 
arranged in a more or less curved line, the curve becoming more marked toward the end of the 
body, until on- abdominal segment S the curve is almost semicircular. On the first abdominal 
segment the two median tubercles are larger than any on the thoracic .segment, and arc larger 
than the subdorsal and lateral ones on the segment in question, and are decidedly larger than the 
Lomologous ones on the second to seventh abdominal segments. The four dorsal tubcr<'les on 
segments l! to 7 are all of the saiue size, but the two on the eighth segment are nearly as large as 
those on the first, -and are about twice as large as those on the seventh abdominal segment; on 
the eighth segment, however, the subdorsal tubercles are nearly as large, but are narrower than 
the two in the middle. This segment is slightly hiiini)ed. and bears a brown .spot surrounding the 
bases of the two twin tubercles, and a sinular spot occurs on the first abdomiual segment. The 
four dorsal warts on segment 9 are arranged in a trapezoid, the two in front being one-half as 
large as the two behind. The upper subdorsal row of tubercles are i>artly connected by short 
lines or streaks, and between this and the next row of warts lower down is a broken fine brown 
hue, which is, however, almost obsolete. A fine nearly obsolete (or is it inci])ient ?) dorsal brown 
line. In more advanced specimens the body is ])lainly stri])ed on each side with three interrniited 
dark reildish lines. The piliferous tubercles or warts are dark brown, and give rise all over the 
body to but a single hair. A pair of especially large long hairs arises from the second thoracic and 
ninth abdominal segments. The hairs are long and slender, and though under a low power they 
appear to be tapering, under a one tifth objective they are seen to be docked or blunt at the end 
and some at least slightly but distinctly bulbous at the tip; they are also seen to be hollow and 
truly glandular; tiie end apjiears to be Hattened; as seen sideways, the hairs appear to ta])er. The 
hairs vary much in length, some being longer than the body is thick. An unusual, if not uiii(|ue, 
feature, exce[)tional among bombycid larva' in the first stage, is the microscopic hirsiities clothing 
the body. Under a one fifth inch objective the microscopic hairs are very short, quite uniform in 
length, very dense, and ta|)er to a ])oiiit. 

The suramil i)late is distinct. l)lackish, nearly as long as broad, rounded triangular, and bears 
on the edge eight jjiliferous warts of nearl.\' equal size, besides two arising from the surface, a little 
in front of thc^ middle. The spiracles are round and reniaikalily small. 


The tlioracic legs are black, and at the end near the claw are two tenant hairs which are long 
and large, cnrved backward and somewhat knife shaped. The abdominal legs have a black 
•chitinous scale on the outside above the planta. These are at tirst crotchets. 

The general color of the body is deep straw-yellow, with a greenish tinge and a waxy 
appearance or gloss on the skin, while the obscurely marked strii^es are reddish. 

8ta<je II. — Length, 5-0 mm. (August 18-20). Xow the generic and part of the specific 
chairuters are assumed, the species in this stage being easily distinguishiil)le from the others of 
the genus. The larviB feed socially on the underside of the leaves, in coutinement hiding between 
the leaves in the breeding box. 

The head is black, as wide as the body. The jirothoracic shield is pitch-black, and now is 
divided by a pale median line. The body is bright yellowish green. There are tlaee dorsal dark 
brown lines, the median less broken than the others. The three lateral lines are now distinct, (he 
middle one being one half as wide as the others, the two others bearing the larger subdorsal and 
lateral tubercles, respectively. The situation and relative proportion in size of the tubercles 
(which are dark) are as described in Stage I; the two large twin dorsal pairs on abdominal seg- 
menis 1 and S are larger, higher, and more distinct than before, and each bears about four or five 
stiff, dark bristles of unequal size and length. The suraual plate is blackish. The hairs are now 
slender, pale or dull whitish, tapering, and in general about as long as the body is thick. The 
legs as before, but the abdominal ones Mith a larger and rather more distinct squarish chitinous 
patch above the planta. (Described soon after molting). 

»SY«(76' III. — (Described August 29, immediately after molting). Length, 12 mm. The head is 
now not so wide as the body, black. The prothoracic shield is distinctly divided. Body bright, 
glistening, yellowish green, with three narrow dorsal black lines, the median one less broken than 
the others. These are succeeded by a broad difl'use subdorsal, almost double black stripe, on 
whicli a black piliferous wart is situated, one for each segment. Below is a similar wart, 
including a broad line, and above and below this is a fine blaclc-brown, somewhat broken line; the 
lower one is the spiracular line, the dark spiracles being minute and interrupting the line, so that 
there are lour instead of three lateral lines in this stage, the additicmal line being the lowest or 
spiracular one. 

The two large twin tubercles on the first and eighth abdominal segments arise from a common 
fleshy hum]), that on the eighth segment being slightly the smaller of the two pairs. Each bears 
six ti> seven black hairs. The hairs are in general sordid white, and are not so long as the body is 
thick. The suraual plate is large, black, and the anal legs are nearly all black on the sides. 

Itccapitulation. — (Corrected from that published in Proc. Bost. Soc, xxiv, 517.) 

1. In Stage I the two median dorsal tubercles on the first and eighth abdominal segments are 
larger than the homologous ones on the second to seventh abdominal segments, and each pair is 
situated on a brown raised ground. 

2. The iirothoracic shield is undivided: in Stage II it begins to be divided, becoming separate 
in the last stages. 

3. Toward the end of Stage I the three lateral lines are faintly indicated. 

4. The hairs in Stage I are glandular and slightly bulbous. 

5. The tubercles in Stage I all give rise to but a single hair. 

G. The three dorsal dark reddish lines appear at the end of Stage II. 

7. Tlie spiracular line appears in Stage III. 

Cocoon. — The caterpillar, living during the last stages in a rude cocoon or tent spun between 
two leaves, or within a folded leaf, transforms within it, the cocoon being a loose web witli 
abundant brown silken strands. 

I'lipa. — Large and thick; wings not reaching to the hinder edge of tlie third abdominal 
segment; abdomen unusually full and rounded at the end; the two last segments smooth and 
polished, scarcely i)itted; the terminal spine (cremaster) forming a slender rounded spine scarcely 
thicker at the end than at the base, and terminating in two broad, stout, suddenly upcurved 
flattened hooks, with a broad sharp edge sending off three or four long, slender setiv, which are 
entangled in the silk strands of the cocoon. Length, 17 to 18 mm. (Fig. 00). 



Hahil.t.—])r. Harris, iii his "Treatise," quite fully describes the liabits of tliis tcntiuliabiting 
caterpillar, remarking: '' When young they sometimes fold up one side of a leaf for a nest, and 
eat the other half He also fully describes the tent made by the social mature larva-, which wo 
have also observed on the poplar, " nuide of a single leaf folded or curled at the sides, and lined 
■with a thin web of silk." He also states that ''the catcrjiillars go out to h cd ujion the leaves 
near to their nests." It thus ai)pears that from early larval life the caterpillars live in much the 
same way as the fully grown larva>, dwelling in tents, and, unlike most Notodontians, continuing 
to live socially in "swarms of twenty or more," until tliey tlisperse. preparatory to ])ni)ation. 
While feeding exposed, they are jjrobably not eaten by birds, as their colors and markings serve 
as "danger signals." 

The following account is copied from Harris's Corresjiondeiice (p. 210). He observed them on 
the r>alm of ( Ulead: 

August ami SepU'inlier, 1835: Gregarious catciiiillnrs on the BmIim of (lilcnd trc(^; foldiuf; ii|i tlic IciilaiKl lining 
it with sill;; as a romiiioii web. the i)etiole beiug also I'asteneil to tlic tnmk l)y silk. 

l.aria. — Color of tlie larva yellow; head, gcniiiiate ttihercles on the f'onrtli and eleventh segments, ti]i of last 
segment, and trne feet, hlaek; three narrow dorsal and tlueo hroader lateral vitta>, and spiracles, black. The larva 
is much like that of Closlera unacliurela (Krnst, Ki'i, tig. 214) and ('. recliisa (F.rnst, 1U5, (ig. 216) and closely resembles 

('. aimitomosii. Thin cocoon formed in ,a box October 4, 183."). Another cocoon 
formed in October, 18.37, disclosed the imago June 15, 18.38. 

August 10, 1838: Found the larvie in great abundance on the Balm of 
Gilead tree. These caterpillars are gregarious, and form a common shelter 
consisting of a leaf folded longitudinally and lined with a thick web of silk, 
beneath which the insects are sheltered when uot feeding. They cat tlie whole 
of the leaves except the veins, which remain untouclied. The petioles of the 
small leaves used as habitations are fastened with silk. The larger leaves sub- 
sequently used for shelter are not thus secured. Tlicy do not eat the leaves 
which serve for hal)itations, but sometimes fold one-balf of the leaf anil eat the 
corresponding side. When fully grown the caterjiillar measures lA inches or 
more in length. They do uot vary in color or markings at difl'erent ages. Body 
slightly hairy, light yellow; the head, true feet, a, ilonlile wart on the fourtlt, 
another on the eleventh anal valve, three slender dorsal stripes and three broader 
lateral ones on a dusky ground, and the spiracles, bbu'k. In the oldest caterpil- 
lars there is an orange-colored line at the sides of the body below the spiracles. 
The upper lateral black stripe is the broadest and becomes indistinct toward the 
second, which gives to the sides the appearance of .a broad, dusky stripe marked 
with three black lines. Tlio thinly scattered hairs on the body are whitish, and 
proceed indiscriminately from the surface, and not from regular tubercles. 

The caterpillar of this moth occurred on the poplar (B. grandl- 
(lentata), at Providence, Septend)er 11 to 15. They were living 
within a tent ma<lt' by drawing two or three leaves together, .several 
smaller branches of the tree having been defoliated by them. It ]iuiiatcd a few days after, the 
moth ajipeariug in the breeding cage June 1 of the iie.\t year. 

The eggs occur in April and May and July and August: the larva- from May to July and 
August to September; adults. March, April, and May, and .Inly and August ( ;ill winter months 
in confinement in breeding cages. (Riley.) 

Food plants. — Different si)ecies of i)oi)lar, especially /'. /rfHiM?oiV7c&. 7. y;«//« was reared by 
Professor French on the willow, po])lar, willow maple.) (Kiley.) 

Gcinjidpliicul ili.slribiiiioH. — It ranges fiiim IMaine and Canada to (ieorgia (Abbot) and 
Florida (Packard), thus extending tlu(iM.i;h the Ai)iiiilachian and Austroriparian snb])rovinces.^ 
Maine (Packard); Massachusetts (Harris, Sanborn. Slinrtlefl) ; Amherst, (Mrs. Kern;ild); 
lihode Islaiul (Packard); New York (H.Edwards, Elliot, Dyar); Kacine, Wis. ; Chicago, HI. 
(Westcott); southern Illinois (French); Georgia (Abbot); Jacksonville, Fla. (i'ackard); Indian 
River, Florida (H. Edwards); Te.\as (Hiley); Denver, Colo., Ai)ril ;5(), May!) ((lillette). Its western 
and soiithwestern limits are not exactly known. Professor Frencli .sends me tlie following 
localities of si>ecimens in his collection: /. inclxsa, Maine, New Vork, Pennsylvania, \N'isconsin, 
Ohio; var. invcrsa, Canada, Lincoln, Nebr. ; Colorado; var. pulla, normal, Carbondale, 111.; 
Lincoln, Nebr. 

Flfi. 62.— Hfjid oi' ]iup.l of h'hthyitra 


Ichthyura brucei H. Edwards. 
(PL III, figs. 23-25.) 

Ichthyura bnicei, li. Edw., Eiit. Amer., i, p. 17, April, 188.5. 

Dyar, Eut. News, iii, ji. ti, Jan., 1892. 

Kirby, Syn. Cat. Lep. Het.. i, p. 611, 1892. 

Pack.. Eiit. News, iv, p. 79, March, 1892. 

Dyar, Eut. News, iv, p. 170. May, 1893; Can. Eut., xxiv, p. 18(1, May, 1892, 
IcJithi/itra muUnoma, Dyar, Can. Eut., xxiv. p. 179, July, 1892. 
Mc'Uilojiha hi-iivei, Neiim. and Dyar, Can. Eut., xxv, p. 123, May, 1893; Trans. Anier. Eut. Soc, xxi, ji. 191, 

1894; Jonrn. N, V. Eut, Soc, ii, p. 115, 1894, 
Melalopha alcthe'Soam. and Dyar, Can. Eut., xxv, p. 122, May, 1893. 


Diinr. Psyche, vi, p. 403, Eeb., 1893. 

Moili. — I will first copy Mr. Edwards's description of this form, and tlien add some observa- 
tions of my own : 

Ground color of primaries sordid white, with the liues and marks rich brown. X basal aud subbasal line, the 
former whiti-sh, edged with brown, and dentate in the middle, the latter almost straight. Beliiud the middle is a 
broad brown shade through which from costa to internal angle runs a clear white line, which on costa is broadly 
produced iuto the distinct white mark usual in the genus. Between this aud the margin a row of seven brown spots, 
iu the middle of which is a brownish (doud resting on posterior margin, which with the friuge is lirowuish. 
Secondaries wholly mouse-color; thorax sordid white at the sides, the center broadly brown. Abdomen dull sordid 
white; antennic and palpi brown, the shaft of the former whitish. Underside mouse-color, with darker bent 
median baud common to both wings, and the white costal mark on ijrimaries indicated by a pale dash. 

I. bntccl differs from T. apicdlis {tniu) in the V being abont one-lialf as wide, the base of the 
inner arm of the V ending just abont the middle of the wing, hence the four lines are much more 
jiarallel to each other than in I. apicaUs or I. In J. hrucei the oblique costal white mark 
is less sinuous and in var. muHnoma less bent behind the costa than in hrucei. 

Grixjfaphical (listribution. — Franconia, N. II. (Mrs. Slosson); Brunswick, Me. (Packard, Mus. 
Comp. Zool.); Kittery, Me. (E. Thaxter); Plattsburg, N. Y. (Hudson); Colorado (Bruce, tide 
Edwards, French). 

Var. miiltiioma Dyar (PI. Ill, fig. 20). I regard this as a dark variety of I. brucei. The 
markings of a male kindly loaned me by Mr. Dyar are identical in ])ositiou with those of a si)ecimen 
of I. brucei from Franconia, N. H.; it only difl'ers in the much darker colors. The basal line is 
widely dislocated in the same way. In my J. hrucei the fourth or outermost line is situated a little 
nearer the outer edge of the wing, and the incomplete V mark is a little narrower than in lu ultnoma, 
but this is a common variation. In size, in the marginal dark spots, and the subapical reddish 
orange patch the two forms are identical. 

First larral slar/c. — Head round, shining black, with a few hairs; width, 0.5 mm. Body somewhat flattened, 
with long pale and black hairs rising singly from large concolorous tubercles; color sordid grayish, tinged with dark 
vinous on joints 2, 5, 7, 8, 11, aud 12 over the dorsum. Feet normal, the thoracic dark, the abdominal eoucolorous with 
the body. As the stage advances the whitish spaces on the back become ne.arly white and the piliferous tubercles 
come out black and distiuct iu three rows ou each side. At the end of this, and of each following stage, the larva 
spins a house of thread .aiul leaves in which it molts, aud in which it remains during the succeeding stage, wheu uo^ 
eating. The larva' are solitary. 

Second stage. — Head as before; width, 0.9 mm. Body flattened, with deep segmental incisures; piliferous 
tubercles large, concolorous at first, but later black; setip short, black. Color blackish vinous, except the dorsum 
of joints 3, 4, 6, 9, 10, and 13, which is greenish white, containing tubercle 1 aud a very narrow dark dorsal line. The 
anal plate (i. e., joint 14 or the tenth abdondnal segment) is viuous. Lateral and subveutral tubercles pale. Thoracic 
feet black. 

Third stage. — Head rounded, me<lian suture deep, shiny black, hairy ; wi<lth, 1.8 mm. Warts r.ather large, each 
with a hair, aud other somewhat shorter hairs' arise from the body. Color vinous black with pale yellow dorsal 
patches im joints 3, 4, 6, 9, 10, and 13 anteriorly, iuclosing warts i and ii. A dark dorsal line, each side of which 
are a few yellow nmttliiigs ou the dark segments; subveutral warts largely yellow, the others concolorous -n ith 
the markings, except row i, which is dark on the yellow segments. Seta; all blackish. Later, joints 5 and 12 are 
Been to be a little enlarged dorsally ; a narrow, broken, ■waved line appears along warts i in the yellow markings; 
the yellow patch on joints 9 and 10 extends faintly on joint 11; there is a broken, irregular, yellow, 
line, distinct only ou the yellow-marked segments, and some rather more continuous yellow mottlings along the- 
Bubstigmatal ridge. 


Fourth s/flje. — Ileail roiimletl, cl.vpeus depressed, iniMlian siitiin' d.ep ; liaii- short, douse, wliiti': color liiaok, 
sli^ilitly shiny, l)rowiiish centrally in tlie depression around the median sntnre; width, '.i mm. Warts ratlur larjie, 
rows i and ii on joints S, 4, 6, 9, 10, and 13 ami all the siilivnitral warts yellow, the others black. Jidiits .'i an4l 12 
enlarj;rd dorsally, velvety Idack. Color purplish black, a broad, yellow, dorsal baud, except on joints o .and 12, 
eontainiiiit a lirokeu, triple, dor.sal line, fainter on joints 7, 8. and 11. The rest of the body is purplish black, the 
subvcntral region included. Hair dense, white, consisting of line slnirt hairs from the body, with single, slightly 
longer and larger ones from the warts. As the stage advances a marked change takes jilace. Abroad ])ale gr:iy 
dorsal band, containing very faint triple dark line, obsolescent and broken ; warts i and ii orange, e.xci'iit on joints 2 
and 5, row ii on joints 3, 4, G, 9, 10, and 13 broadly orange ; a broad, pali^ bluish, sulidorsal band, heavily mottlc<l with 
vinous black; joints 5 and 12 dorsally, and lateral spots on all seguu'uts (most distinct on joints 3-.5). velvety black. 
A broad, broken, deep orange, stigmatal band, divided by an irregular black stigmatal line and consisting of orange 
spots spreading from the warts of rows iv and v and adjacent mottliugs, barely confluent. Venter blackish ; thoracic 
feet shiuy black. 

CoeooH. — Not dift'erent from the house made at the end of each stage, excej)! tliat there arc- .-i few transverse 
threads to support the pupa. 

I'lijia. — Small but robust. Dorsal outline arched, ventral nearly straight, rcunidccl at liothcnds; crcniastcr, a 
long spine of even thickness throughout, smooth, shining; abdomen very slightly puncturi'd. ( olor reil-brown, 
darker ventrally and dorsally, nearly black on the thorax an<l cases, with a green tinge on the latter. Length, 
13 mm. ; width, 4.5 mm. There are two broods each year. 

Food plant. — Willow (Salix). 

Ilah'itat. — Oregjn ami Washington west of the Ca.scade range and, probably, also western I'.ritisb Columbia. 
I'ouud by Prof. O. B. Johuson at Seattle, Wash. Larva from Portland, Ureg. (Dyar.) 

Ichthyura albosigma (Pitch). 
(PI. Ill, llgs. 27-30\ 

Clontera albosiijma Fitch, 2d Kep. Nox. Ins. N. Viuk. )>. 274, pi. 2, tig. 4, ISra; 5th liep. Nox. Ins. N. York, 

p. 64, 18,59. 
lohthyiira alhosiijma Morris, Synopsis Lep. N. Amer., p. 244, ist)2. 

Pack., Proc. Ent. Soe. Phil., iii, p. 3.52, 1864. 

Grote, Check List N'. Amer. Moths, p. IS, 1882. 

Pack., 5th Kej). U. S. Knt. Com. Forest lus.. p. 4.54, 1890 (ligure of moth in text). 

Smith, List Lep. Por. Amer.. p. 29, 1891. 
Melalopha allwHUjina (sic) Ivirby, Syn. Cat. Lep. Het., i, p. 610, 1892. 

var. upecijica, Dyar, Can. Ent.,xxiv, p. ISO, .Inly, 1892. 

Neura. and Dyar, Can. I'.nt.. xxv, p. 122. 1893; Trans. Amer. Eut. Soe., xxi. p. 191, 1894; 
.lourn. X. V. Ent. Soe. p. 114. 1S94. 


(PI. XVL ligs. 3. 3o, 36. 4. 5.) 

Fitch, 2cl Rep. Nox. Ins., p. 274, 18.55 (egg, full-fed larva, cocoou); 5th liej). Nox. Ins. N. York. p. (l\. 18,59. 
I'ackard, .Jour. N. York ICnt. ."^oc. i, p. 27, March. 1893 (three last stages descrilH'd). 

A[i>th. — Several S and 9 . Wiug.s less ocherinis tliaii in /. iiii-hisn. (|niti' clear, ;inil liatlicd witli 
a slifjlit lilac tiii}>e. The dai-k brown tlioracic band is wider, inoie trianoiilar in liDnt tliaii in 
/. iiiclusti and upkalis, extendinjj on the low thoracic tult as n broad coidate concolorous unirk. 
Fore wings, with the basal and vseeond lines distinct and parallel, crossing; the entire wino-, the basal 
line not beino- dislocated. The third line, reachinj;- only as far as the subcostal vein, slii;litly 
bent, connected at its base with the lonrth line and forining a narrow obscurer V, very ditVerent in 
shape from that of the other species. Tin; onter or tbnrth line, jjassing linward from the hinder 
edge of the wing, cnrves outward on the fotirih subcostal venule, wiiere it becomes a wliite Vshajied 
mark, the deep, large sinns being filled in with a large patidi of reildish Vandyke brown, the patch 
being bounded behind by the cubical \('in. Fioui tliis .sinus the line ol)]it|neIy retreats to the 
costa. jiftrr forndng a very distinct snbci)st;il loop. 15eyond the loops and sinus the wing is 
brownish to the edge, including tlu^ ai)ical region. Discal s])ot forminu a faint line with a second 
inner parallel one. An obsolete dark submarginal dilfiise line, paler within. Iliinl wings with 
no line, quite i)ale. 

Beneath, light clay-yellow, with no common line; the outer line shows faintly, while the 
broad costal whitish mark is quite distinct tlirough the wing: costa ferruginous. Tiie abdominal 
tuft edged with dark brown, miudi ;is in the other siiecies. 


Expanse of wiugs. i , 30 nun.; length of body, i , 14 nun. 

Tliis not nncoraniou spt'cies differs from all the others in the distinct S-shaped ]iortion of the 
fourth or outer line, situated between the costal edge and the cubital vein, the outer curves of 
the S being tilled in with reddish brown. Also the basal line is not dislocated, both tiiis an<l the 
second line crossing the entire wing aud being ])arallel. 

Var. sjiecifica Dyar. Under this name Dr. Dyar briefly mentions a form of this species 
cajitured at Manitou, Colo., May 2, ''whit'h differs from the type l)y its jiuuh ]ialer color." 
Colorado (French). 

J'JiJII- — '"Of a heuiispheric form and dark brown, with a wide glaucous gray ring on the outer 
margin." (Fitch, p. 275.) 

Larra. — The following description is drawn up from Mr. Bridghaui's colored drawings of the 
three last stages and an alcDholic specimen of the mature larva. It occurred on the i)oplar, July 9 
to 13, those in the three last stages occurring at these dates. Other specimens were reared by 
Mr. Bridgham and the moths obtained from them. (For stage II see Appendix A.) 

Larra in Stage III. — Length, 20 mm. Head as wide as the body, reddish. The body reddish 
on the sides, and green along the back, interrupted by a reddish patch on the first and one on the 
eighth abdominal segments, each of which incloses a median tubercle. The greenback incloses 
three parallel daik green, indistinct, interrui)ted lines. There are two greenish tubercles on the 
side of the body, one above and the other below the spiracle. 

Stuf/e IV. — Length, 30 mm. The hair is still reddish, but the body has now lost its green 
shade on the back, which is pale, with three darker parallel dorsal lines. The two median 
tubercles are now as well developed as in the last stage. The side of the body is pale reddish, 
with dark lateral tubercles on the thoracic and first abdominal segments, those on the succeeding 
segments being yellowish, as on the abdominal legs, including the anal pair and suianal i)hite. 
The thoracic legs are pale. 

Full-fed larra. — Length, 30 mm. Head hardly as wide as the body, black, with a y-sha])cd, 
pale brown line in front, formed of a median line extending down from the vertex to the apex of the 
clypeus, aud then dividing so as to extend down ou each .side, ending before reaching the anteniue. 
The head is flattened and densely covered with grayish hairs. The three thoracic segments bear 
each six lateral, rather large, yellowish warts, the lowest one the largest, ea -h bearing about six or 
seven hairs of unequal length. There is a high median finger-shaped, tleshy nutaut black tubercle 
on the first abdominal segment, bearing numerous short, unequal hairs; it is rather high, finger- 
shaped, and bent over backward. Ou the eighth segment is a shorter, smaller, paler one. It is 
evidently of double origin, its longest diameter being transverse to the bod}', and somewhnt 
wedge-shaped; the end is somewhat swollen on each side, with a slight valley between the 
swellings, showing that it was originally formed of two separate tubercles, and this is also 
suggested by the fact that each swelling bears eight or ten short uuequal hairs. The thoracic legs 
are black; the abdominal legs are dark, especially toward the planta. 

Colors (described fiom Bridghnm's figure): Body straw-yellow, with three dorsal, more or less 
interrupted grayish or pearly j)ale brown lines and a broad lateral stripe, below which the 
tubercles are yellow ocherous. The suranal jilate is flattened, rounded in outline, and hairy, with 
the surface rather rough and hairy. In my single alcoholic sjiecimeu there is no sign of a 
prothoracic shield or plate. 

Although the imago of /. apicalis is very near that of I. inclusa in markings, the larva is verj- 
different, there being no mediau dorsal tubercle on the first abdominal segment. In the lack of 
these tubercles /. strUjnua resembles /. apicalis. On the other hand, the larva of I. alboxiyma, in 
respect to the presence of the two ilorsal abdominal tubercles, approaches that of J. 
These two species, then, as larviv, belong to the same genus, while the two other species (apicalis and 
stri(jo.'<a), as respects the larva-, differ generically from inclusa and albosigma, though the nuiths 
are congeneric. It is evident that the larvaM)frt^)/«(//.s' and strir/osa are more generalized, since they 
lack the rather highly specialized dorsal tubercles so prominent in the two other species of the 
genus. If we regarded the moths alone we might erroneously consider that apicalis and inclusa were 
both coeval, whereas apicalis must be a much older, more generalized form: hence, speculations on 
the phylogcny of Lepidoptcra based ou the imagines alone may often be uucertaiu. 

140 :\ii:.M()ii;s of tiik national academy of sciences. 

Tlie larva of 1. alboHigma is closely alli('<l in shape and in the two dorsal abdominal dark 
tubercles to the European I.'reelimt, excejit that the tubercles in the American species are nnu'h 
larger and more prominent. 

Fitch states that the ''white stripes alonu each side form dixcrs shaped rings an<.l letter like' 
marks. The stripes upon the back are intci rnptcd upon the two humped segments.'' 

Cocoon. — "Formed of yellowish gray silk, loosely w(»vcn and attached to the umlerside of a 
leaf." (Fitch, p. 27.-).) 

Food plunt. — Species of Populns, the aspen, etc.; i)oplar and willow (Beutenmiiller). 

Gcofirnphical distrihutioti. — This tine species extends througliont the Appalachian into the 
Canii)estrian subprovinee as far as the Kocky .Afountains, in this region, however, varying from 
the type in being "much paler."' Orono, Me.; Andierst, Mass. (Mrs. Feruald, Kiley, U. S. Nat. 
Mas.); Maine (Mas. Comp. Zool.); Massachusetts, July 15 (Sanborn); I'rovidence, R. I. (J. 
Bridgham); New York (Fitch); IMattsburg', N. Y. (Hudson); Ohio, July (Kiley); Seattle, Wash, 
(coll. of Professor Johnson, tide Dyar); Portland, Oreg. (Dyar); Canada, Maine, Newton, Mass.; 
New Y'ork, Wisconsin, Tiffin, Ohio (French); var. xpcvitica, Manitou, Colo. (l>yar, French). 

Habits. — Fitch, who has carefully observed the habits of this species, states that the 
caterpillar attains its full size about the middle of July. 

Several of the catei'iiillars roimiionly live together upon :i iiiirticuho' limb, which tliey strip of its leaves, 
eatiug all the leaf except its meiliau ami portions of the otlier course veins. They construct a kind of nest by 
drawing two or more leaves togethi'r with tlie sillien tlireads wliich tlicy spin from their mouths, forming a hollow, 
ball-IiUe cavity witliin. in which they rcjiose wlien not engaged in feeding. Three of these caterpillars which I 
transferred with their nests to a feciling cage on the 14th of .July all s[)un their cocoon within the nest a day or two 
afterward. Tlie moths all came out on the 25th of July, tlius remaining in their puiia state hut a little over a week. 
The moth crawls from its cocoon, and, with its fore feet clinging to a twig, hangs perpendicularly downward, 
swinging -with the breezes until its wings become dry and stilf. It then discharges one or more drops of an opaijue 
birch-red fluid and takes to flight. (Fitch.) 

Subfamily V. NoTODONTiNiE. 

Motli. — Head moderately large, but not prominent; £ antenna' often feebly pectinated to the 
tips, often with short stout branches ciliated at the tips; in the 9 either ciliated or simple 
(Symmerista). Palpi moderately long, reaching to the front of the head, or unusually long 
(Synunerista). Thorax either smooth or with a high tuft. Fore wings usually broad, with the 
costa often convex and the apex well rounded; internal edge with a tuft in the more tyi)ical 
genera; costal region usually rather wide or sometimes narrower (Pheosia). Subcostal cell cither 
absent or present. Abdomen full, not fo^k(^d at the end in the <? . 

JJf/fl, — Low licmispheiical; shell finely i)ittcd with polygonal areas. 

Larva. — The body cither smooth, subnoctuiform, with no nuirkings except a lateral line 
(Nadata and Lophodonta), or humped either on the eighth abdominal (Pheosia, Dasylophia, 
Symmerista) or on second and third or on .several {-i-'t) of the abdominal segments (Notodonta), 
or on abdondnal segnumts 1-S (Nerice); the dcu'sal humps in I'heosia bearing a horn in the 
American species. All except Nadata and Lophodonta gaily banded, spotted, or otherwise 
cons))icuously colored and marked, with bright longitudinal stripes. 

Cocoon. — Either thin and slight or the larva enters the ground to pupate; in IMieosia a 
subterranean earthen cell lined with silk. 

2>i(l>a. — Body somewhat elongated; head not pronunent; crennister either obsolete, without 
spines (Lophodonta), or ending in a broad spinulated stout i)l;ite or ending in two stout .spines 
(Symmerista), or arnu'd with four spines (Nadata); or the spine is very long, slender, cylindrical, 
and ending in two hooks (Nerice), no subfamily |)Ui)al characters being i)rcscnt. 

SYNOPSIS OF rilK ia;XKI!A OF N(jr01)0XTlX.E. 

Avery higli tlioracie tuff; palpi large; species yellow ocherous, with two twin silvery white discal sjiots; outer 

edge of wings scalloiicil Xadala 

Fore wings with a tuft on the inner edge; palpi large; antenna' with slightly larger branches than in Notodonta. 



Antennie heavily pectiuatiMl; palpi larger than in IjOphodonta — Dri/munia 

Fore wings acute at apex, and with a large tuft; with no cross lines; outer edge of fore wings scalloped. 

Antenna^ well jiectiuated; palpi small; fore wings long, much produced toward the rounded apes; dark brown 

iuterveuular streaks ; no cross lines I'heoxhi 

Antenna' snbsiuiple; apex of fore wings well rounded; no subcostal cell; tuft rather small Xotodonla 

Antcuna' more widely [jectiuated tlian in Notodouta; fore wings squarer, less roun<led at apex Ellida 

Antenna; pectinated to the tips; palpi large and long; a high thoracic tuft; apex of fore wings well rounded ; inner 

edge wi til no tuft •- Nrricc 

Head with a high tuft; pa.l])i long sleiuler, fore wings acute, with black longitudinal slashes Dasi/Iojihia 

Head with a high tuft; ajiex of forewings square; costal edge of fore wings white /Si/mmerista 


A. Body not humped, noctuiform. 

Body cylindrical ; not hairy; with two faint yellow subdorsal lines Kaiiain 

As in Nadata, but more wrinkled; a faint double dorsal line and a lateral jiink line extending alongside of 

head Lojihuilonfa 

Body as in Lophodonta, green, a lateral yellow siiiracular line besides tlie subdorsal oue Dri/mvnia 

f Larva of American species not known) Kuroiieau larva' with two separate large high dorsal papilhe on eighth 
abdouiiual segment — Lophopterijx 

B. Body sphinx-like, with a caudal horn or only a hump. 

Xo lines or bands; skin smooth, ])oreelain-like Pheo.siii 

C. Body with from three to five humps on abdominal region. 

Head large, square; anal legs used in walking Xolodoiila 

D. Abdominal segments 1 to 8 with a forked hump. 

Divisions of the humps opened and closed like a bird's bill Xerice 

E. A low dorsal knob on the eighth abdominal segment. 

Anal legs with no hoidvs; end of liody uplifted ; body gaily striped Ikixjilophia 

F. Eighth abdominal segment swollen on sides and above. 

Head small, rounded; liody conspicuously banded; suranal plateluuate; anal legs with hooks Si/mmcrinlii 

Nadata Walker. 
(PI. XLI, fig. 1, venation.) 

rhalnna Abbot and Smith, Lep. Ins. Georgia, p. 163, 1797. . 
Cosmoiricha (in part) Hiibner, Samral. Exot. Schmett., iii, 1816. 
Xddata Walk., Cat. Lep. Het. Br. Mus., v, p. 1062, 18.55. 

Pack., Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., iii, p. 356, 1864. 
Alastor Boisd., Lep. Cal., p. 87, 1869. 
Nadata Grote. New Check List N. Amer. Moths, p. 18, 1882. 

Smith, List Lep. Bor. Amer., p. 30, 1891. 

Kirby, Syu. Cat. Lep. Het., i, p. 614, 1892. 

Neum. and Dyar, Trans. Amer. Eut. Soc. xxi, p. 18.5, 1894; Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc, p. 113, Sept., 1894. 

Moth. — Head inodcrntely iiroiniiient; front trianijular, broad above; below tlie base of each 
aiiteuua is a large si)readinj;' tuft of long scales reaching halfway down the front and jiartially 
covering the eyes, which are naked, not hairy. Antenna- in S with long slender pectinations, the 
branches extending to the tips; in the 9 the pectiiuitions hardly longer than the joints. Palpi 
large, long, stout, ascending porrect, the third joint rather short, thick, but distinct; second joint 
not hairy at the end. JNIa.xilhe small, rather short. 

Thorax with a remarkably high pointed tuft on the front i)art and sending a ridge down each 
side to the end of the tegulre; beneath, very hairy. Fore wings distinctly pointed at the apex, 
Aviiich is somewhat more so than in Datana; costa convex on the outer half, especially in the 9 ; 
outer edge regularly convex behind the apex, but little shorter than the internal edge, more 
oblique in 9 than in c? ; in 9 slightly scalloped. Discal veins situated within the middle of the 
wing, so that all the venules are longer than usual. A rather short subcostal cell; apical region 
of the costa very narrow, the first, second, third, and fourth subcostal venules ending very near 
each other and near the apex. Hind wings somewhat produced toward the apex; outer edge 
regularly convex, much longer than the internal edge; the lower discal vein oblique, much 
curved; both discal venules, as in Datana and Gluphisia, situated nearer the base of the wing 
than usual. 


Legs hairy, the hind tibiic with h)iis' scales spreading out\v;ii(l: two i)airs of si)urs, the apiual 
ones niui-h larger tliaii tlic tirst jiaii'. AIkIomicii in i rather bi-oad, witii rather jjroniinent hiteral 
tnl'ts, adding to tlie breadth of the hind body. 

The genns dift'ers from its allies in the well pectinated antenna', the hirge palpi, the high 
sharp thoracic tuft, and the scalloped tore wings, the species being yellow odierous, with two twin 
silvery white discal dots. 

Effg. — Hemispherical. 

Lan-ii. — r.ody cylindrical; piliferons warts minnte; no tubercles or linni]>s present: the 
ornamentation consisting only of two yellowish subdorsal bands, with no spots. Freshly hatched 
larva in shape like the mature larva, only the heail is larger in jiroportion and the body is 
provided with bulbous glandular hairs. 

The larva does not spin a cocoon, probably entering the earth to pni)ate. 

I'lqxi. — Stout, thick; cremaster ending in a conical stout spine, with four u])cnrved spinules. 

(ieofiraphical distribution. — The single species known ranges from .Maine and Canada to Oregon 
and southward on the Pacific Coast to California, and on the Atlantic Coast to the Gulf States, 
including Florida and Texas. The genus thus prevails over the Appalachian, Austroripariau, 
and Campestrian subprovinces, spreading throughout the whole of America north of Mexico 
and south of the Iludsonian fauual limits. 

Nadata gibbosa .\libot and .Smith. 
(I'l. .WII, tig. 3.) 

I'luihiiiK (iilili:i>in Alibot and Smith. Lt'i). Ins. (ieorgia. p. 1G3, Tali. I^XXXII. 1797. 
('immuirU-liii'fiihhosti Hiilju.. .S.animl. Kxot. .Schmctt., iii, Taf. XIX, fig. 1-4, Penii.. ISll!. 
XmlalK (jihhusa Walk., Cat. Lep. lU-t. Br. Mas., v, p. lOGl', 1855. 

Pack., Proc. Eiit. Soc Phil., iii, )). .356. 1804. 
Aliistiir gihhosa Hoisd., Lep. C'al., p. 87, 18130. 

Grote, Check List N. Anier. Moths, p. 18, 1882. 
Xaitatu ijibbosa Smith, List Lep. Bor. Atner., p. 30, 1891. 

Neum. and Dyar. Trans. Anier. Ent. .Soc, xxi, p. 180, .Inue, 1894 ; Jomiii. X. V. Eut. Soc, 11, p. 
113, Sept. 1894. 
Xaduta dotihledai/i Pack., Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., iii, p, 365, 1864. 

Grote, Check List X. .\nier. Moths, p. 18, 1882. 
Smith, List Lep. Bor. Amer., p. 30, 1891. 
Kirby, Syn, Cat, Lop, Het., i, p. 614, 1892. 
yadidd donbUdaiji, var. oregonenxis, Butler, Ann. and Nat. Hist., Oct. 1881, p. 317. 

.Smith, List Lep. Bor. Amer., p. 30, 1891. 
Xadalii bihreiisii H. Edwards, Ent. Amer, i, ]>. 49, .lunc, 1885. 

Xaddia (jihhosa, var. ntbripennin Xeum. and Uyar, Jonrn. N. Y. Ent. Soc, i. ji. 24, >Iarch, 1893; Trans. .Vnier. 
Ent. Soc, xxi, p, 186, 1894; Jour. X, Y. Eut. Soc.,ii, p. 113, Sept. 1894. 


(PI. XVII. ligs. 1. la, l/i, 2, 2<i.) 

Abbot and Smith, Lep. Ins. Georgia, PI. LX.X.XII. 1797 (colored tig.). 1 iill-lcd larv.i. 

JJariiK, Ent. Corresp., p. 308, 1869. 

BoUduval, Lep. Cal., p, 87, 1869. 

TJnItier, Ent. Contr., iii, p. 150, 1874, tig. 8 (nncolorcd fig.). Full-fed larva, 

I'achaid, American Naturalist, viii, p. 691, 1874. ((||uotes Lintner,) 

I{ikii, 5th Rep. li. S. Ent. Comm. ou Forest aud Shade Tree Insects, iip. 153, 424, 1890, PI. XI; ibid. (fig. 6, 

colored fig. from drawing b.v Lintner). 
Soiile, P.syche, vi. p. 197, Dec, 1891, (Description of egg, five larval stages, and jiupa.) 
I'ackitid, Journ. N. York Ent. Soc, i, pp. 57, .5S, ,)une, 1893. (Five stages described.) 

Motli. — Of a uniform light but!', with a rusty tinge; fore wings a little deei)er in tone, with an 
extnidiscal slightly curved ferruginous line, parallel with the margin. Two small silvery discal 
dots, varying m size; the di.scal space within these dots clearer than the rest of the wmg. An 
inner straight rusty line, which is slightly bent below the cubital vein. The wings beneath much 
paler. Tlie fringe between the points of the .scallops is white. Hind wings above of the .same 
pale hue as the underside of both jjairs of wings. 


Expanse of wings, 3 , 40— t.") luii!. : 9 , 4G mm. ; lengtli of body, S , 17 mm. : 9 , 21 mm. 

Xadftta behnnsii 11. Edwards (types examined. 2 (?,12),from Siskiyou County and Butte 
County, Cal. It does not seem to difier from X yihhom. The 9 Las a paler body and wings; the 
fore wings are more pointed, and, as in a number of Pacific Coast moths, it is on the whole larger 
than the Eastern form of (jibhom. 

On examining my type of X. doubkflayi in the collection of the American Entomological 
Society I find that it is not even a variety of (jibbosn. It only ditt'ers in having the underside of 
the i)alpi and of the fore legs dusky, characters -which are not of varietal importance. 

The three examples labeled X. doiibledayi in the United States Xational 3Iuseum are without 
diseal dots, there being only a dusky shade iu their place. A single 9 from Washington, D. C, 
has only one diseal dot, and there is another 9 without any. One 9 in the same collection from the 
St. Cruz Mountains, California, is as large as any specimen I have seen, and with two diseal dots 
larger than in any of the other fourteen specimens examined; it is less deep ocherous than usual. 

The eggs were received from Mr. H. Meeske, and hatched June 12. They were laid on the 
oak, and the larvte were raised on the leaves of that tree. Compare also the description of the 
five stages by Miss Sonle in Psyche, Vol. VI, p. 197. 

£,),/, — Described by Miss Sonle (Psyche, vi. 197) as hemispherical and opaque yellow, with a 
white bloom all over them. 1 still need specimens for examination under high powers of the 
microscope. (Sec Aiipendix A for a fuller description of the egg.) 

Larra. Stage I. — Length, 2..j mm. The head is large, full, and rounded, pale green, witli a 
yellowish tinge like the body, only clearer, more amberlike; it is wider than the body, which is 
pale yellowish green. The body is smooth, without distinct piliferous tubercles, though there are 
scattered long, fine glandular hairs, which are ocherous brown in color, arising from microscopic 
tubercles. These hairs under a i inch objective at first appear to be simple tapering hairs, but 
after close observation are seen to be clear and slightly flattened and bifid at the tip. The body 
talkers regularly from the piothoracic segment to the end. 

Stage II (end of stage ?). — Lengtli. 12 mm., June 20. The head is rounded, smooth, as wide as 
the body where it is thickest; yellowish green. The body is cylindrical, tapering decidedly 
toward the end: the segments are distinctly wrinkled above. The body is pale green, with two 
broad ditfuse yellowish longitudinal bands, one on each side froiu the protlioracic segment to the 
end of the body. The hairs are minute, and, with the tubercles they arise from, not easily seen. 

Stnye III. — Length, 13 mm., June 23. Of the same shape as before. The head is still much 
wider than the body; it is a little deeper green, but the color of the body differs from that of the 
previous stage iu being whitish glaucous green, since the body is covered with a soft wliitish 
exudation or bloom, so as to obscure the lateral faint yellow stripe. 

Stage IV. — Length. 18 mm., June 29. The head is very large, wider than the body, and 
pea-green in color, wliile the body is more whitish, covered with a white bloom. The lateral pale, 
Straw-yellow line is not very distinct. There is a faint, very narrow, vascular median dorsal line 
over the dorsal vessel. The skin is wrinkled above, and flecked above and on the sides with white. 
The suranal ]ilate is well rounded and edged with straw-yellow. The prothoracic segment is much 
wider than those behind, and the body tapers rapidly toward the end. The s]>iracles are ringeil 
with light sienna brown, rendering them rather conspicuou.s. The thoracic and abdominal legs are 
pale green. 

Stage V and last. — Body green, large: head very large, full, rounded, high toward the vertex, 
as wide as the body, deep pea-green: the labrum whitish green; mandibles bright yellow, tipped 
with black, making them very conspicuous. Body glaucous pea-green, thick, full, soft, tapering 
toward the end. and the surface with minute, raised, flattened, more or less confluent granu- 
lations. A lateral yellow line formed of yellow, raised, flattened areas. Spiracles deep red. 
Supraanal plate conical, flattened, apex much rounded, the edge colored bright yellow. Thoracic 
and abdominal feet pale pea-green ; all coucolorous. Length, 33 mm.; thickness, 6 mm. 


The freshly hatched larva is in shape like the adult, only the head is larger in proportion, and: 
the body is provided with bulbous glandular hairs. There are no lines nor white dots. 



Tbetwo subdorsal yellowish loiiiiitndiiuil stripes i)r«>l);il)l\- n]i|i(';ir at tiie cini of tlie second 
In Stajic III tlic wliitisli Vjlnoni ai)iK'ars. In Stai;'e IV the siiranal jilate is edf;ed with yellow. 

Tliis is, next to (llKpliinia, t\[0, simplest, least specialized Notodontian larva; iiioie so tlian 
thatof Lophotlontn. The body is without tubercles or huini)S; the ])iliferous warts are minute and 
the simplest markings are colorational, i.e., two yellowish subdorsal bands, with no spots. In the 
Notodontians tlie subdorsal lines are the lirst to appear, before the lateral ones. 

The followiuji is a copy of an article entitled "The number of larval stages in the genus 
Nadata," by Mr. Harrison G. Dyar, Psyche, October, 1892, which we rejiroduce, as it gives a full 
account of the transformations of this species in California, and contains interesting notes on the 

In I'syclie, recently, I expressed the opinion tliat species of .V(U?«7a had more than six larviil stajfes, which was 
fonniled on certain nieasureni ^nts made troiii Xadiila <jihhi»>a. I liave not since obt.-iined this sjiecies iu the early 
(itages, ' hnt have bred another from the (\i{j;, whicli is ^V. oreijoni-nsis liiitl. In this 8))ecies, the unmber of stages 
appears to be normally six; but two individuals carefully bred in eonfineiiient and two bred in the o]hu air had but 
live stages, while another specimen, less carefully reared in conlinement beside another bred in the o]>en air on its 
growing food plant nuder .a net exhibited six stages, but not tlio normal ones. All the larvae appeared to omit the 
normal second stage, even those that had six stages. Tliese latter inserte<l an extra stage between the fourth and 
fifth, not differing in markings from the fourth, as will be seen iu what follows. The growth dnring the lirst stage 
was very great, out of all proportion to the subsccinent growth, and, ])revious to molting, the new head, in iirocess 
of formation behind the old one, caused au enormous projection of the body. 

The calculated normal series for the widths of head stands .as follows: I, 0.7!' [11. l.lo] ; 111. i.ilL': I\'. 2.31; V, 
3.3; VI, 4.7 mm.; ratio. 0.70 mm. 

From the larva' that had live stages I obtained the following measurements: First, 0.7."! ; second, !..")."> ; third, 
2.3i5; fourth, 3.3; fifth, 4.7 mm. 

From those that had six stages — lirst example: First. — ;■ second, 1.4; third. 2.2; fourth. 2.7; tilth. 3.2: sixth, 
■ — mm.^ Second example: First, — ;- second, 1..5; third, 2.3; fourth, 2.S; tilth, 3.7; sixth, 4.8 mm. 

It will be seen that in the first example an e.xtra st.age occurred between the normal Stages IV and \'. and this 
is verified by tlie changes in markings; for iu those that had live stages, the markings changed in tlm fourth stage, 
while in this the fourth stage was like the third and the change did not occur till the fifth stage. 

In the second example the fifth stage was abnormally large, so much so that the last four stages in this case 
present a good series with the ratio 0.77, and, .judging from these stages only, it would certainly be inferred that 
the species had eight larval stages/ with the following series of widths of head (calculated): 0.77, 1.0, 1.3. 1.7, 2.2, 
2.8, 3.7, 4.8 mm; ratio, 0.77 mm. Compare with this the last four measurements of the second example. 

The s]iecies of Nadata, then, jiresent examples of variation in the number of larval stages, as well as an 
abnormal develojiment. 

It is jirobable that Edema uUiirosIa acts in a, similar though less pnmounced m.'inuer.'^ 

The following descriptions apply to the species of Nadata that is counnon iu the Yosemite Valley, California. 

'Miss Soule has recently written the life history of X. r/ihhosa (Psyche, v. 6, 197) and found five 8tage.s, as did 
also Dr. Hiley (see 5th Kept. V. S. Knt. Com., 18110) . Unfortunately, Miss Soule has given no measurements of the 
head, but she has given the length of the larva iu all its stages, and the numbers she gives correspond W(dl with a 
series deriveil with the ratio 0.60. This does not corroborate my ob.servations (on -V. oregovcimis), as to do so a stage 
should appear lacking between .Stages I and II, provided that the measurements were made at the first of each stage. 
Miss 8oulc.'s figures are 3.16 (=19), i ( = .25), i ( = .50), f ( = .75), and 1^ (^1.25) inches, while the calculated series 
would bo .16, .27, .45, .75, 1.25 inches, thus showing no gap in the series anywhere. To suit my observations the 
newly hatched larva should have measured 0.10 inch instead of 0.16 inch. Miss Soule says "not quite i'„ inches,'' 
which is certainly nearer 0.16 th;oi 0.10, .as the latter would be not quite | inch. 

But I do not think the length of the larva is a reliable measurement to take, as it is subject to great ch.ange 
throughout the stage, and, even if taken as nearly as possible at the same time in each stage, is subject to inaccu- 
racies tlirongh the expansion or contraction of the larval segments. Moreover, it takes no account of the growth 
during either the lirst or the last stage, according as the measurements are made at the end or beginning of eai-h 
stage, and I should hesitate to assume that the growth was always strictly projiortional. In fact. 1 believe that 
iu Nadata it is not so, for double growth seems to take place iu the first stage. 

The measun'im^nt of the width of head is open to none of the above objections and i)ossesses besides several 
advantages not shown by measurements of the length of the larva. 

-Measurement not recorded. 

^This larva died before molting the last time. 

'From similar measurements made iu the case of X i/ibbosa, I inferred that that species had more than six 
Dtages (see Psyche, v. 6, p. 147), but this inference is not justified by the facts. It will bo found, however; to hiive 
Dccasion;iIly .as many as six stages. 

■''The series of widths of head as observed by nui for Eilrmn alhiroxln were 0.40, 0.70, 1.30, 1.7, 2.3, 3.2, and I have 
twice attempted In the pages of Psyche to make tluim fit :i series iu regular geometrical {jrogression, but without 



Pupa. — Eoily stout and tliick, not tapering mucli to tlie end. Surface of the abdominal 
sesnients moderately punctured, tbe two last segments quite smootli. The cremaster ends in a 
conical stout spine, broad at the base and sharp at the end, the point terminating in an unusual 
Uiiid of armature which, seen from above or beneath, consists pf four laterally radiating, slightly 
ui)turned, stout spinules, the lower ones considerably smaller than the distal ones. Length, 
L>2-23 mm. 

Habits. — The caterpillar is most commonly found on the oak. Dr. Harris found it on the 
oak, the moth occurring June 20. By the middle or last of September, in New England (Maine 
and liliode Island), it begins to pupate, not spinning a cocoon, and jirobably entering the ground 
before assuming the chrysalis state. In Providence it occurred on the white oalc, in Maine on the 
red oak. In Georgia, according to Smith and Abbot, it ''feeds on the chestnut oak and other 
oaks. It went into the ground October 10 and came out March 1.3. Another went in June 1 and 
came out the lOtli of the same month." It is theiefore double-brooded in the Gulf States and 
single brooded in the North. The following notes ou 
its habits have been given us by Professor Riley: 

A ]iaii' of this moth were taken May 2, 1882, from the eggs 
of whicli larra' hatched on the 9th. They went through tlieir 
first molt May 15; second, May 22; third, May 20, and fourth, 
May 31. Pupated June 12 to 14. The moths issued from ,Tuue 
26 to ,TuIy 10. Several larvie of tliis moth were found by beat- 
ing ou oak .lune 2H and July 10. 18S2. The larvie are now Tery 
plentiful and of all sizes, on several oaks. (5th Rep. U. S. 
Ent. Comiu.) 

Food pJanU. — Oak (Quercusof different species), 
maple (Lintner), maple, white birch, sugar filum 
(Dyar). (The statement in my Forest Insects, p. 4:14, 
that Mr. Eeed had found it on the maple, is an error.) 

Gi'oiirnphical (li.sirihntion. — Eanges from Maine 
and Canada northward to Oregon and Califorida, 
occurring southward on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts to Florida, Georgia, and Texas. 

Amherst, Mass. (^Irs. Fernald). I have a S collected June 21 on the Vermejo Eiver, 
northeastern New Mexico, by Lieut. AV. L. Carpenter, of the Wheeler survey. Plattsburg, N. Y. 

Fig. 0:i.— Pupa of Xadata gibbosa. 

marked success. A series calculated with the ratio 0..55 would give 0.41, 0.75, 1.27, 2. ,30, 4.3, and one with the ratio 
0.73 or thereabout would interitolato a term between each one and give 0.41, 0..55, 0.7.5, 0.96, 1.27, 1.7, 2.3, 3.15, 4.3. 
Thus it might be ctmsidered either that the species normally had eight stages (r.atio, 0.73) and omitted the second and 
fourtli normal stages, or that it had normally live stages (ratio, 0.55); but interpolated a stage between the third and 
fourth normal stages, and reduced the measurement in the last stage to correspond with the ratio between those 
that immediately preceded it. The latter seems the more probable, but the fact is that the growth of the head at 
the first and second molts is double wliat it is at the third, fourth, and fifth. It is a curious case. 

Xadata oregoiiensis Butler. 

This was described as a variety of X douhledayi Pack.; but Mr. Butler writes me under date of June 30, 1892: 
"The types « » * have pale creamy bulf-colored palpi; quite uniform in tint * * » if there is a brown line 
above it must be on the second joint, but I do not think there is one « ' • looliing at the moth without a lens 
you would say the fringe was dark ferruginous ou primaries « • • and white tipped ou interspaces." , These 
are the characters used to separate X. gibbosa from D. doubhdagi in Dr. Packard's description, and Mr. Butler's words 
show that his form is not a variety of X doubledai/i, but the same as Hy. Edwards's X. behrensii. 
1881— Butler, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., p. 317. 
bihrensii Hy. Edwards. 
188.5— Hy. Edw., Ent. Amer., i, 49. 
Eijij. — Rather more than hemispherical, the base flattened; smooth, not shiny, white with a yellowish tiuge; 
diameter, 1.2 mm. I'nder a microscope the surface is seen to be covered with very slight, obscure, rouuded depres- 
sions, Iiut, is in fact, almost smooth. 

Laid singly on the underside of the leaves of its food plants in early summer. 

Normal Stage I (first larval stage). — Head slightly bilobed, rounded, shining pale greeuish with a (e-K hairs; 
mouth brownish, ocelli black; width, 0.75 mm. Body .slender, no tubercles or humps: feet normal, smooth, shiny, 
pale yellowish green. Setit minnte, rather long but not evident, color blackish. As the stage advances great 
S. Mis. 50 10 


(Hudson); New York, Wisconsin, Ohio, ^lissouri, Alabiuna, Colorado, and California (U.S.Nat. 
Mas.); Elaine, Massachusetts, New York, Pcnnsj^lvania, Ohio. Wisconsin, Carbondale. 111.; North 
Carolina, New Mexico (Freucb); Dallas, Tex. (Boll, Mus. Conip. Zool.); Topeka and JIanhattan, 
Kans. (Popenoe); Kaciue, Wis.; Chicago, ill. (Wcstcott); Colorado Springs, Colo., June 2.5 
(Gillette); Yo Semite, Cal. ; Portland, Oreg.; Seattle, Wash.; Nanainio, British Coluiubia (Dyar). 
It thus appears to extend throughout the Ajipalachiau, Austroriparian, and Canqjestriau 
subprovinces; wiiether it occurs in the Mexican (Sonoran) subi)roviuce remains yet to be 
determined, as well as its extreme northern limits. 

Lopbodouta Patkard. 
(PI. XIJ, liss. 2-3, venatiou.) 

rhaJirnu (in part) Abbot anil Smith, Nat. Hist. Lep. Georgia, p. 105. Tab. LXXXIII. 1707. 
I'eriiha Stcjiheiis. 111. Brit. Eut. Haust , ii, p. 32, 1829. 
yoludunta (iu part) Walk., Cat. I.cp. Br. Mus., v, p. 995, 1855. 

Herr-Sebaeft'., Sainiul. aiissereur. Scbiiiett., )>. (>(!, 1855. 

Morris, Synopsis Lep. N. Anier., p. 239, 1862. 

growth takes plaoe; the color becomes green with a yellow subdorsal line much as in the mature larva. The boilj- 
is transversely creased. Duration of this stage about lour days. 

yornuil Sttiije II. — Not exhibited in any specimen seen by me, and prob.ably does not occur. 

Xormal Stage III (second stage). — Head large, slightly bilobed. narrowing a little to vertex and Ihittencd iu 
front, pale green, hardly shiny, moutli white, ocelli and tips of jaws black; width, 1.4 to 1.55 mm. Body slender 
smooth, no ))erceptible hairs; legs normal, green, somewhat shiny; a broad yellowish green subdorsal line; spiracle* 

Xornutl Staijc I r {third stage). — ^Head as before; width, 2 to 2.35 nun. Body slender, nuiform green: a very 
distinct, rather broad, pale yellow, subdorsal band from joint 2 to the anal plate ; spiracles black, faintly surrounded 
by yellowish. Scattered, very small, and short seta-. 

yormal Star/v I V {(ourth st.age iu same larvte). — Head large, liatteued iu front, very slightly bilobed, smooth, 
not shiny, pale green; ocelli black, labrum wliite, jaws black at tips, otherwise green; width, 2.7 to 2.8 mm. Body 
transversely creased, leaf-green, with yellow piliferous dots bearing very small seta-. A slightly darker dorsal lino 
and broad yellow subdorsal lino from joint 2 to the end of the anal j)late. .Spiracles black, with small white 

formal Stage F (fourth or lifth stage;. — shaped as before, pale green, not shiny; ocelli black on a white 
ground, labrum white at tip, jaws green tipped with black, antenn;o yellowish; width, 3.2 to 3.7 mm. Body 
yellow-ish green with many yellow irregular elliptical granulations and a distinct broad yellow subdorsal line,, 
continuous from joint 2 to joint 13 and bordering the anal plate, which is rounded. Joint 2 is narrowly edged with 
yellow in front. Spiracles dark brown, paler centrally. Feet green, without any yellow spots. 

Xormal Stage VI (fifth or sixth stage). — Hea<l full, rounded, slightly shiny, and absolutely shagrcened; jiartly 
retracted under joint 2; uniform leaf-green, ocelli black on a white ground, mouth-parts whitish, jaws straw- 
yellow, tipped with black; clypeus small, triangular; width, 4.6 to 4.8 mm. Body cylindrical, full, and roinided, 
tapering slightly to the last segment, which is smaller than the rest, leaf-green or whitish green, densely covered 
with white, irregular, liatteued elliptical granulations, which on the venter become transverse streaks. In siiecimens 
in which the ground color is suffused with whitish, joint 2, joint 13 posteriorly, and the anal feet remain leaf-green. 
A broad, distinct, white subdorsal line, faint on the anterior part of joint 2. The anterior edge of joint 2 and the 
border of the anal plate are bright yellow. Feet green, the abdominal ones covered with white granulations, and 
a wnite line before claspers. Spiracles orange-red, faintly bordered with white. The edges of the white 
band are not even, but more or less incised, on the anterior segments being narrowly broken into contiguous elliptical 
areas, or in some specimens broken througliout the whole length. 

Cocoon. — The larvae enter the ground to pupate and form a rough cocoon of a t'uw strong silken threads. 

/'«j)«.— Cylindrical, tajjcriug, rather thick posteriorly to the thorax, the ends rouniled, most so anteriorly; 
movable sutures of abdomen deep; cremaster long, rather thick, tapering, and ending in two short divergent points. 
Body shiny, densely punctured; cases creased and also shiny. Color black, with a shade of brown on the abdomen. 
Length, 22 mm. ; width, 7 mm. 

Food plant. — Black oak {Quercua Icelloggii Newberry). 

Nadaia orcgonennh is not well distinguished from X. gihhoaa Sm. & Abb., especially iu the larval state. It seems 
to be related to gibbona much as I'apiVio riiliiliis is related to P. tuniiis among the bntterllies. Its habitat is very 
probably coextensive with that of its food plant, which is said to be "on the coast ranges and on the wistern slope 
of the Sierra Nevada throughout California and as far north as the middle of Oregon; on mountain sides and 
summits only or in the elevated valleys, not on the i)laius or near the sea.'' Mr. Edwards recorded it from Siskiyou 
and Butte counties, and I found it iu Mariposa County and at Portland, Oreg., but I am not aware that any record 
of its capture iu the coast ranges has yet been made. 


Lophodonta Pack., Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., iii, p. 358, 1864. 

Gi-ote, Check List N. Amer. Moths, p. 19, 1882. 

Smith, List Lep. Bor. Amer., p. 30,1891. 

Kirby, Syn.Cat. Lep. Het., i, p. 601, 1892. 
Luphvdoiila and I'heosia in part, Neum. and Dyar, Trans. Amer. Eut. Soc., xxi. p. 196, June, 1894; Journ. N. Y.. 

Eut. Soc, ii, p. 115, Sept., 1894. 

Head larger than in Notodonta, with the front in c5 , the hair.s passing a little beyond 
the front. The autennie are more broadly pectinated than in Notodonta, hut in the 9 simple, 
though densely ciliated. The eyes .ire naked. The thorax is slightly crested in front, with a 
posterior low median tuft of pale blue and black metallic scales. 

Fore wings more triangular than usual; the costa straight, apex produced, though rounded 
at the tip; internal edge nearly straight, tufted much as in Notodonta. Venation: Very similar 
to that of Notodonta (N. hasiiriens), there being no subcostal cell, only differing in the second and 
third subcostal venules, originating very near each other; venation of the hind wings the same 
as in Notodonta. Hind wings with the costa straight; the outer margin much shorter than in 

Although the larva is so different from that of Notodonta, the adult is very similar, differing 
chiefly in the longer palpi and the longer branches of the antenna-. 

Coloration much as in Notodonta, with transverse waved lines on the fore wings. Our 
species are congeneric with Notodonta (Iroiitedttrla of Europe, L. fcn-uf/inea resembling it closely 
in markings and colors. I find that the European Feridea trepida Esp. tremula (S. V., Hiibu.) 
has the same venation, with no subcostal cell, as our three species of Lophodonta, and when the 
European genera undergo the necessary revision the genus Lophodonta may have to be dropped 
for Stephen's Peridea. 

Egg. — Hemispherical, rather high; shell finely pitted, with microscopic, dense, crowded 
granulations; no polygonal areas. 

Larva. — Body much as in Nadata, but the head is smaller and it has no such suranal iilate, 
this being small and rounded at tlie end, while the body is smooth, the skin not granulated. 
From Notodonta it differs in the body being noctuiform, not humped. A faint double median 
dorsal line and a lateral line; the whole body peagreen. Spins no cocoon. "When young the 
caterpillars, according to Dyar, rest on a perch. 

Pupa. — Body full and plump, the end of the abdomen very much rounded and obtuse, with 
no distinct cremaster. 

Geographical distributlnn. — So far as is yet known, this genus is confined to the Appalachian 
subproviuce and to western Europe. 


Mouse-gray, with no reddish band on the fore wings; extradiscal line not sinuous L. anqiilosa 

Brick-reddish; a broad median brick-red baud on fore wings; extradiscal lino sinuous L. ferriujinea 

Ash-gray ; base of fore wings witliin the extrabasilar sca,lloped lino rusty brown L. hasitriens 

Lophodonta aiigulosa (Abbot and Smith). 

(Plate IV, fig. 3.) 

rhalwna aiigulosti Abbot and Smith, Nat. Hist. Lep. Ins. Georgia, p. 165, Tab. LXXXIII, 1797. 
yotodonta aiiijulusa Walk., Cat. Lep. Het. Br. Mus., v, p. 999, 1855. 
Morris, Synopsis Lep. N. Amer., p. 239, 1862. 
Lophodonta aiiijiilosa I'aek., Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., iii, p. 3.58, 1864. 

Grote, Check List. N. Amer. Moths, p. 19, 1S82. 

Smith, List Lep. Bor. Amer., p. 30, 1891. 

Kirby, Syu. Cat. Lep. Het., i, p. 601, 1892. 

Neum. and Dyar, Traus. Amer. Eut. Soc, xxi, p. 196, .Juno, 1894; .louru. N. Y. Ent.. 

Soc, ii, p. 115, Sept., 1894. 

(PI. XVII, fig. 5.) 
Dyar, Proc. Host. Soc. Nat. Hist., xxvi, p. 162, 1894. 

Moth. — Two 9 . Body and wings mouse or ash-gray, with no brick-reddish scales except on 
the lines. Thorax mouse-gray, behind the middle a rounded subtriangular area inclosing paler 
tawny scales, and bordered with steel-blue scales. Fore wings with a basal angulated line bent 




Fig. G4. Ptipa of Lophodonta angulosa 

cr, rmliiilcnt^irv irfinastcr. 

outward in the median space, and widely bordered with a pale reddish tawny patch, the lino not 

continned to the iniuT (hinder) edge of the wing. The middle (intradiscal) line very distinctly 

bent outward on the c(t,stal edge, making a large rectangle on the cubital vein, ending, alter 

making a small tooth, on the distiuet reddish brown tuft on the hinder edge oftlie wing. Within 

the costal i)ortion of this line is a small white i)atch, anil a very large while jiatcli on the outside 

extending from the ape.x of the angle in the median space to the costa. 

Extradiscal line wavy, forming about eight fine teeth, reddish brown, edged externally with 

white, the line itself nearly straight, not wavy nor very obliipie (much less sinuous than in J^. 

/crnir/iiua), and on e.ich sid(; of the costal end the wing is more or 
less marked with white. The space between tbcse two lines does 
not differ in shade from the ground color of the wing (while in L. 
fcrrudint'd the space forms a distinct broad reddish brown band). 
A very faint submarginal difiuse line composed of very obscure 
dark colored luuules. Fringe of the same hue as the wings, with 
linear white marks at the ei\d of the venules. 

Hind wings and abdomen pale soft Hesh whitish, the costal 
edge broadly margined with mouse color, interrupted by a trans- 
verse broad costal band, and another at the ajjcx, not reaching 
inward beyond the second subcostal venule. 

Beneath, both wings uniformly whitish, the costal edge slightly 
and irregularly clouded, but the lines not reproduced beneath. 
Expanse of wings, 9 , 40-45 mm.; length of body, 9,17 mm. 
Effy. — IJemisplierical, rather high, uot liattened; the empty shell chalky white, under a 

lens appearing to be very finely pitted; under .J-inch objective seen to be ornamented with dense 

close-.set rounded granulations, with no space between them, and no polygonal areas; mieropyle 

ai>ical, distinct. Diameter, 0.7 mm. The oriUce eaten by the larva is irregularly oval. 

Jjarvit. — Somewhat like Nadala gibbosa, but "^he head is smaller, and it has no supraaual 

plate, and the body is smooth, not graiuilated. Head nearly as wide as the prothoiacic segment, 

but not so wide as the body; full and rounded, though a little flattened 

above; deep pea-green, but concolorous with the body. On the side a 

pink line edged above with white extending to base of the antenna'. 

Mandibles green at base, with an orange-red line along u])peredge. Tijis 

black. A short black line above at base of antenna'. Body noctniform, 

tapering towai'd the anal legs, which are short and small, no larger than 

the other abdominal legs, supraanal jilate small, rounded at the end, not 

large and corispieuous as in Nadata gibbosa. Segments not convex, but 

the sutures distinct. A faint double median, whitish, somewhat broken 

line, the two lines converging and forming a single one on Die middli' of 

the supraanal plate and tinged slightly with pink. A di.stinct lateral pink 

line begins on side of the head and extends to end of the body along 

the edge of supraanal plate. The line is somewhat linely brown, and is 

edged below with white. The whole body and legs pea-green, slightly 

darker below than along the back. Thoracic feet, greenish amber, spotted 

extermdly Mith black. Length, 0.40 mm. 

The following description of the larval stages, pupa, etc., are copied 

from Mr. Dyar's paper in Troceedings of the I'joston Society of Natural 

History, November, 1804: 

^'■FirHt larval stage. — The newly hatched larva is entirely shining yellow, 3 mm. long. Head 

cordate, as wide as high, pale brown, slightly shining; eyes black, mouth brown; width, 0.6 mm. 

Body slender, long, smooth, with minute blai^k seta; arising from inconsijicnous black dots. Anal 

feet extended nearly backward, slender, ])artly aborted. Color, leaf-green, shining, ayeUow shade 

stigmatally. All the feet black, contrasting. 

Fig. o:)._Hi-ail of pupa of 
Lophodvnta tui'tulotta. 


"Second stiuje. — Head only very slifflitly depressed ou top; rouuded, green, uot sliining; jaws 
reddisb ; a black stripe extends from the ocelli up tlie side of each lobe, running posteriorly, not 
attaining the vertex and diminishing in width upward; width, 1.1 mm. Body smooth, with 
minute dark set*; green; a faint stigmatal yellow line; all the feet except the anal ones are black. 

'•Third stage. — Head flattened before, clypeus small, depressed; median suture deep, but the 
head not bilobed. Light green, not shining; a mottled brown band from jaw on each side, not 
attaining the vertex, but narrowing upward, black at its extremities; ocelli black, jaws green, 
tipped with brown ; width, 1.8 mm. Body smooth, the setiB minute, green, with four narrow yellow 
bands on each side the lower substigmatal and bordered above narrowly with red-brown. 
Thoracic feet blackish; abdominal ones black-tipped. The anal feet are uot elevated, and are 
used in walking, but they are small, and joint 13 is tapering. 

"Fourth stage. — Head shaped as before, always large for the body, held out nearly flat, recalling 
the position of the head in tilnphisia. The line on the side is red-brown, bordered on both sides 
with yellow, and is continuous with the stigmatal line of the body in theuormal position. It does 
uot attain the vertex of the head, terminating in a black point at each end. Jaws yellow, with 
two small reddish lines. Later the sides of the clypeus are defined by a pale yellow line andthei-e 
are two little yellow streaks at the vertex of each lobe continuing the lines on the body. Width, 
2.6 mm. Body green, including the feet, which are only faintly tinged with blackish, the thoracic 
ones most strongly so. Slender, tapering posteriorly, the last segment small, though the feet are 
used in walking and are not elevated in the normal position of rest. No cervical shield nor anal 
plate distinguishable. There is a broad, double, dorsal, and single, waved, subdorsal, whitish line; 
a lateral row of yellowish dots, obsoletely connected into a waved line, and a distinct, straight, 
narrow, stigmatal, yellow line, bordered above with red-brown. Spiracle on joint 2 large, black- 
ringed, the others reddish. The larva eats away the substance of the leaf from a midrib or vein 
which it leaves and rests upon with the head generally turned toward the base of the leaf. 

"Fifth stage. — Head full, rounded, a little higher than wide, flattened in front, the sutures not 
deej); smooth, shining green, under the lens minutely granular; jaws yellow, with a broad central 
reddish baud, and tipped with black; antenniTB white, the last joint reddish; a red-brown at joint 
3 posteriorly; the second widens rapidly, reaching below the band over the ocelli, running 
posteriorly to about the middle of the' side of the head, in line with the stigmatal band of the 
body, bordered on both sides narrowly with yellow; ocelli black; labrum pale, a whitish line ou 
each side of the clypeal sutures, and a faint double mark at the vertex, continuing the double 
dorsal line of the body. Width, 1.2 mm. Body cylindrical, smooth, tapering posteriorly; joint 
13 small, the last feet no larger than the others. Set;B not distinguishable. Dorsum leaf-green, 
with a suffusion of white, a distinct white geminate dorsal line; a very faint, narrow, waved and 
broken subdorsal one; a lateral row of yellowish dots, obsolete at the extremities, three on each 
segment, the central one higher than the others; a distinct yellow stigmatal line bordered above 
narrowly and irregularly with red brown. Spiracle on joint 2 large, white, black-ringed, the 
others whitish and brown ringed. Subventral space clear green, unspotted. Thoracic feet pale, 
testaceous, with a few black dots outwardly. 

"The larva seems a close ally of Nadata, but differs in habit, for it rests on the edge of the 
leaf instead of the back, as Nadata does. In its normal position the clear green of the subventral 
space joins nicely with the green of the leaf, and the distinct stigmatal line seems to represent an 
edge or rib of the leaf. 

'• Cocoon. — Found beneath the surface of the earth; composed of silk mixed with grains of dirt; 
elliptical, thin, complete; size, 2.") by 12 mm. 

'•JP»7Jrt.— Cylindrical, rounded at both ends, thickest through the fourth abdominal segment; 
anal end almost flat; no cremastcr, but a low rounded prominence. Cases creased; abdomen 
sparsely punctured; color dark mahogany brown, shining. Length, 21 mm.; width, 7 mm. 

"Food plant. — Oak (Quercus). 

"Larva- from Clinton County, N. Y."' (Dyar). 

Pitpa. — Body full and plump, but not very thick at the end; of the usual form and color; the 
end of the abdomen very much rounded and obtuse, with no rudiment of a cremaster, only a 
rounded knob. The segments slightly, not ileeply or coarsely, punctured. Length, IS mm. 


"TIk- ]Mip;i of this sjn'cit's is ([uitc similar to tluit of others of tlie genus, presenting little 
if any good (listinguishing cliiiriicters. Tiie specimen in the collection is a shell only, and the 
anterior half is destroyed by the emergence of the perfect insect. The general shape is robust 
and the posterior extremity is obtusely trnncate, and there is a slight obtuse undivided elevation 
at the extreme tip."' (Riley MS.) 

Cocoon. — "This is composed of scattering, coarse threads of reddish brown silk, in whicli 
particles of earth and sand arc incorporated. Length, 2,5 nun.; width, 10 inni." (Riley IMS.) 

JIfihita. — It occurred on Qucrcns alba O(!tober 7, at Providence, when it began to pupate, the 
moth appearing the following June. The larva is less common than that of Xadafa gihbom. 
Abbot and Smith remark that iu Georgia it "feeds on the overcup oak and other kinds of the 
same genus. Some went into the ground May 30 and came out the 1.5th of June. Others that 
went in tlie Kith of October remained till the iiOth of April." From this it appesirs that in the 
Southern States tliis species is double brooded. 

Dr. narris found it at Milton, Mass., June 17, "inactive on trunk of an oak." Larva occurs 
in September and October; the moths in June, July, and August. (Kiley). 

FiHiii plants. — Different species of oak. 

Geographical (Ustribution. — It ranges from Massachusetts (Harris) to Georgia (Abbot) ; Ithaca, 
N. Y. (Mrs. Fernald); Plattsburg, N. Y. (Hudson); Texas, Missouri, Georgia, and District of 
Columbia (IT. S. Nat. JIus.); Maine, Massachusetts, Georgia (French); New Jersey, Arkansas 
(Palm); Illinois, Florida (Strecker). 

Lophodonta ferrugiuea I'.ackanl. 
(PI. IV, figs. 1, 2.) 

Lophodiiiila fcrrufiinca Pack., Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., iii, p. 357, 1864. 
Grote, Check List N. Amer. Lep., p. 19, 1882. 
Smith, List Lep. Bor. Amer., p. 30, 1801. 
Kirby, Syn. Cat. Lep. Het., i, p. G02, 1S92. 

Neum. aud Dyar, Tr.aus. Auier. Ent. Soc, xxi, p. 196, June, 1894, Journ. N. Y. Eut. Soc. ii, 
p. 115, Sept., 1894. 

(PI. XVIII, (iss. l-4o.) 

TkuTler, Can. Ent., xxiii, p. 31, Fob., 1891. (Eood plant .stated.) 
Ihj<ii-, Proc. I5ost. Soc. Nat., xxvi, p. 394, Nov., 1894. 

Moih. — i and 9 . Ferruginous or brick-red, with ashen scales. The head and 
prothorax are blackish ashen, while the red of the thorax, together with most of the fore wings 
is ferruginous; the latter are ferruginous at base, interrui)ted on the costa by two short white 
lines forming the eml of a single line. Beyond is a dark band shaded within with ashen, and lined 
without by four rusty, whitish lunnlcs, margined beyond by a ferruginous line. Toward the 
costa beyond this lino and within the twin united rusty white discal si>ots are some transverse 
irregular whitish patches. The outer third of the wing is darker than the middle, while the 
veins ar<; abnost black. There is a submarginal waved lunate rusty white line, and while the 
fringe is dark, tlierc are some white scales, and, wliat is generally not the case, the ends of the 
venules are white. The tuft on the inner margin of the wing is broad and dark. 

Hind wings rusty white, with an obscure middle band which becomes l)ro\vn toward tlie costa, 
which is margined without with whitish; beyond these is a broail diislvy band, most distinct upon 
the costa, where it is twice waved, and limited externally with a short white line. The margin is 
black, while the fringe is dusky cinereous and coiuiolorons with tlu^ abdomen. 

Beneath, the body is much lighter in hue, and the wings are still paler, being dirty white and 
crossed by ii common middle obscure dusky line, while the margin next to the fringe is dark brown 
and interrupted by venules. 

Expanse of wings, i , -l.T mm.; length of body, 3 ,1S mm. 

This species is closely allied to the European L. (h-omedarius, not being congeneric with the 
European .A', zizac, which is a true Notodonta. Jjojihodonta, pJxmona Edwards is a species of 


Hnhils. — Tlie niotli was collected at Kitterj^, Me., July 18, by Mr. E. Thaxter, aud at IMan- 
«liester, Vt., August 3, by Mr. C. H. Roberts (as by labels in U. S. Nat. JIus., Wasbiugton), 
Pujia ill August; motli. May, Jane, and August (Riley MS.). 

"Tlie species is doubled-brooded at Plattsburg, N. Y., siugle-brooded in the Adirondacks, 
though a single $ emerged the same season " (Dyar). 

Food plants. — Betula (Thaxter, Can. Ent., xxiii, p. 34, Feb., 1891); Bctula luipurifera (Dyar). 

Geographical (UstribHtion. — Thus far only known to inhabit the Appalachian subprovince. 
The Ibllowing localities are the only ones yet known to me: Orono, JVIe. (Mrs. Fernald); Kittery, 
Me. (Thaxter); Vermont, New York (U. S. Nat. 3Ius.); New Hampshire (C. A.Walker); Catskill, 
N. Y. (Mus. Comp. Zool.); Plattsburg, N. Y., Keens Valley, Essex Co., N. Y., (Dyar); Boston, 
]\Iass. (Sanborn); ^Manchester, Vt. (Roberts, U. S. Nat. Mus.); Maine, Canada, New York, North 
Caroliiux (French) ; Plattsburg, N. Y. (Hudson) ; Fort Collins, Colo., June 21, at light (C. H. Baker). 

E(ig. — Flattened hemispherical ; shell under a hand lens appears almost smooth, but under 
a ^ inch A eyepiece seen to be ornamented with six-sided areas, with raised, beaded edges. 
Diameter, 0.7 mm. 

Larva, Stage I. — Just hatched. Length, 3 mm. Head large, much wider than the body, black- 
brown, smooth, polished, with a few scattered long slender hairs. Body uniformly pale yellowish 
green, tapering to the end, the segments transveivsely wrinkled, hairs long and dark, slender and 
tapering. A faint darker dusty greenish i^rothoracic subcresceutiform plate. Body witli no 
markings; no lines or spots. 

Providence, June 10. Eggs kindly given me by Mr. W. Dearden. All the eggs hatched at 
nearly the same time and on the same day. 

The larva eats a hole out of one side, of the usual irregular kidney shape. 

Pupa, August; adults, May, July, and August; localities. New York, Vermont, and District 
of Columbia. 

Papa. — About 19 mm. long, robust, tip truncate, very slightly tapering; a very slight and 
blunt projection at tip scarcely noticeable; general surface shiny, somewhat rugose, aud remotelj'' 
punctate. No processes or teeth at sutures between meso and metathorax. 

'■'■ Eyg^. — Laid singly, usually on the upjier side, near the middle of the leaf of its food plant 
[Betula papyrifera). Rounded, somewhat flattened, about the shape of two-thirds of a spliere 
with flat base; diameter, 1 mm.; heiglit, 0.(5 mm. Slightly shining, fine tur(iuoise-blue or more 
rarely of a greenish lilue tint. Microscopic reticulations neatly defined, but rounded, scarcely 
angular, becoming small and indistinct at the micropylar region. On tlie sides the reticulating 
edges of the cells become broad, flat, almost like bands, reducing the inclosed depressions to 
shallow pits. Found during the early part of July at Keene Valley, Essex County, N. Y. 

'■'■First larval stage. — On hatching the larva leaves the shell largely intact and takes up a 
position at the extreme apex of the leaf, where it eats the upper epidermis and parenchyma. 
Head cordate, entirely sliining black; widtli, 0.(i mm. Body rather bright greenish yellow, thoracic 
feet black, cervical shield transverse, dusky. Setai fine, short, black, distinct, but without evident 
tubercles; not glandular; 1 and 2 nearly in line, 3 above spiracle, 4 substigmatal posteriorly, 5 
subventral anteriorly, (i absent as usual in the first stage. Feet all used; leg plates concohn-ous 
witli the body. No anal plate. Length, about 3 mm. 

'■Second stage. — The larva eats away the substance from the midrib of tlie leaf at the apex, 
using the midrib as a perch on which it rests. Head slightly bilobed, greenish; a smoky black 
shade covers the side, including the ocelli, and a narrow smoky band reaches tlie apex in front of 
the lateral angle; mouth brown; a few setie; width, about 1 mm. Body cylindrical, sniootli, feet 
normal, all used. Thoracic feet and leg plates black, except the anal pair. Setre short and fine, 
dark, from minute black tubercles, very inconspicuous; arrangement normal, six present. Body 
green, witli very faintly indicated addorsal, subdorsal, lateral and superstigmatal waved whitish 
lines. Spiracles pale. 

'^ Third stage. — Head rounded, flat before and lield out flat; leaf-green; a smoky black band 
behind ocelli extends backward and upward to the side of the head, where it ends tapering; mouth 
reddisli; width, 1.1! mm. Body as before, but the flue dark setaj have no tubercles. Color pale 
leaf green ; on joints 2-3 a yellowish line edged above with red extends up from below the spiracles 

'Tho followiug notos ou the transformations are copied from Dyar. 


to the lateral line. N'oiy obscure lines as before, waved, wliitisli. Thoracic feet black, except at 
joints; abdominal ones all green, theclaspers smoky. Spiracles reddish centered. T-ater there is- 
a broken obscure substigniatal line, comi)()sed of obli(iue, ])ulverulent, yellowish dashes; the 
stigmatal line forms undulations over the spiracles, and the addorsal line becomes broad, white, 
sometimes with a median red mark on joint 13. 

'■'■Fourth stutje. — The larva rests on the petiole of a leaf and eats all but the midrib on which it 
rests. When the leaf is consumed the stem is bitten off. Head light green, not shining; behind 
the black ocelli a dark reddisli band extends to nuddle of side itosteriorly, ending in a blackish 
shade and continuous with an oblique line on the body, which extends over the spiracle on joint 2 
and ends on joint ■> at the lateral line; ])ali)i reddish; width, 2.5 mm. Body smooth, green, with a 
broad, geminate, white dorsal band (addorsal lines), tilled in with dull red in some specimens; a 
narrow waved subdorsal line; a row of white dots in i)lacc of the lateral line and a few yellow 
dots for the stigmatal line. Spiracles light reddish. The obliciue line on joints 2-3 is yellow below 
and smoky red above, and may be faintly repeated on joint -1. Seta^ minute, dark. Feet green, 
the thoracic ones marked with black on the joints. 

'■'■Fifth stage. — Head rouiuled, broad, flattened before; light green; a white line on each side of 
clypeus and another from palpi converging slightly to vertex of each lobe; lateral band smoky 
purplish red, fading to yellowish on its lower side, continuous with the line on joints 2-3. Body 
soft, yellowish leaf-green, tapering ]>osteriorly, full, plump, cylindrical. A broad, yellowish white- 
geminate dorsal band, the space tilled in with reddish on joint 13; faint traces of a broken 
subdorsal and two or three round yellow dots laterally and superstigniatally. Dorsum faintly 
white shaded; subventral region clear, soft green. Thoracic feet reddish, bhu'k at tiji. Setie 
extremely minute except on the legs. Claspers brownish. Length, about 30 mm. 

" The species is donble-brooded at Plattsburg, N. Y., single-brooded in the Adirondacks,. 
though a single $ emerged the same season." (Dyar.) 

Lophodoiita basitrieiis (Walker). 

(I'l. IV, fig. 5.) 

Xotodonta basitrieiis Wallc. Cat. Le]). Het. I'.r. Mas., v, ]). 1000, 1855. 
Mdiiis, .Synopsis Lep. N. Aiuer., p. 239, 18(32. 
Grote, Pioc. Ent. Soc. Phil., iii, p. 93, I'l. XI, fig. 1, .June 186t; Cbeek List N. Auier. 

Moths, i>. 18, 1882. 
I'ai U., Proc. Eut. .Soc. Phil., iii, p. 305, Nov., 1864. 
.Smith, List Lep. Bor. AuKn., p. 29, 1891. 
Kiiliy, Cat. Lep. Het., i, p. 601, 1892. 
I'heosia basitrieiis Nenm. and Uyar, Traus. xVuier. Eut. Son., xxi, p. 190, Junt', 1894: .lourn. N. Y. Ent. .Soc, ii, 
p. 115, .Sept., 1894. 

Moth. — Three S . (iround color, esi)ecially of the thorax and fore wings, ash-gray. Head 
and thorax ash-gray sprinkled with reddish brown scales; a distinct line extending across the 
thorax between the fore wings. Palpi with a dark brown line on the outside. Antenna! very 
slightly ]>ectinated, as'in L. minidosa 

I'oic wings moie jjointcd at the apex tlian in L. (oujuJom, with an ol)lique dark line crossing 
the wing from the basal third of the costa to the outer fourth of the inner edge, and inclosing it 
dark rusty brown patch which fades out on the costa, and is deepest in hue next to the large but 
short iuid broad tuft, which is not acute as in ,V. strdf/ula, but with the distal edge veiy broad, as 
in L. ((iH/idomi. Beyond the patch and tuft is a short sinuous or bent whitish line, the continuation 
of a faint sinuous line extending from the costa, but which becomes much more distinct behind 
the third cubital venule, ending on the inner edge of the wing, and continued on the costa of the 
hind wings, thence extending as a scalloped line across the hind wings, which are pale, thougli 
somewhat dusky on the outer margin. No brown marginal and apical brown spots like those- 
of N. stnir/uln, and the wing is not so clear, but dusted with brown scales. Underside pale 
suboeherous, with a common dift'iise scalloped line. 

Expanse of wings, <J , 40-4!) mm.; length of body, S , 19-20 mm. 

:MEM0IES op the XATI0]S"AL academy of SCIEl^CES. 153 

This species has the veuatioii (uo subcostal cell) of Lophodoiita, and also agrees in the 
anteuure aud shape of both pairs of wiugs. Dr. Dyar having called my attention to the absence 
of a cell, I have reviewed the generic characters. 

In its color and markings it is more like N. sfniejuhi than a Lophodonta, and it is this 
superficial resemblance to Notodonta which doubtless has led to its reference to that genus. This 
species in general appearance, color, aud markings is allied to and represents in our fauna the 
European L. trepidn(trcmnla). Thus the genus Lophodonta is represented in the European fauna. 
Its larva, jiidging by Buckler's flgure, is like our L. aiu/ulosa in shape, but marked with obliipie 
yellow and red bars. It is to be seen whether the European genus Peridea, to which trvphla is 
referred, is synonymous with the American Lophodonta. 

Geographical (listribiifion. — Xot known out of the Appalachian subprovince. Augusta, Me. 
(C. G. Atkins); Maine (Mus. Comp. Zool.); Williamstown, Mass. (Grote); Amherst, Mass. (Mrs. 
Feruald); New York (French); New Jersey, Pennsylvania (Palm). 

Drymonia Hiibiier. 
(PI. XLI, lig. 5, ven.itiou.) 

Drjimotiia Hiibn., Verz. Schmett., p. 144, ISIfi. 
Cliaoiiia Stepb., 111. Brit. Eut., Haiist., ii, p. 10, 1829. 
Notodonta Boisd., Geu. et lud. Mcth., p. 87, 1840. 

Dup., Cat. Mdth. L^p. Eur., p. 93, 1844. 

Herr.-Scliaeff., Syst. Bearbeit. Schmett. Eiir., li, 1845. 

Staiuliuger, Cat. Lep. Eur., ji. 73, 1871. 

Neum. ami Dyar, Trans. Aiuer. Ent. 8oc., xxi, p. 184, June, 1894; Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. ii, p. 113, 
Sept., 1894. 

Moth. — $ and 9 . Antenna? heavily pectinated to tip, more so than in Lophodonta, LophopteryXy 
or Xotodonta, and only less so than in Dasi/lophia (simple in 2 frhnaciila). 

Palpi stout, slightly longer than in Lophodonta, and extending a little farther beyond the 
front. Eyes naked (both in the European trimacula and in geoi-f/ica), as they are in Lophodonta. 

Fore wings rather shorter and broader than in Lophodonta, less produced at the squarish 
apex; outer edge less oblique; a large broad tuft on the inner edge. A subcostal cell present in 
i). (jeorgica (but absent in the European trimacula). 

Hind wings a little shorter and rounder at the apex than in Notodonta or Lophopteryx. 

Larra. — That of the European species noctuiform, with no tubercles, and much as in that of 

Our I>. georgica is very nearly allied to the European D. trimacula in structure and in 
markings, only differing in a remarkable and unexpected way, considering the close similarity in 
other respects in the two species, there being in the latter no subcostal cell, the venation being- 
much as in Lophodonta. 

Hiibner founded his genus on D. crenosa, chaonia, querna, and dodonam, not mentioning 
trimacula (dodoiiwa being a synonym of it),. which is closely allied with our species. Whether all 
these species are truly congeneric I can not state, since I have only trimacula to refer to, and since 
European authors do not seem to have critically examined the structural features of these species. 

Drymonia georgica (Herrich-Schaeffer). 

(PI. IV, fig. 7.) 

Plialana angulosa Abbot aud Smith, Lep. Ins. Georgia, 1797. 

Xol()(}iiiila (iroriiica Herr.-.'^chaetf.. Samml. anssereur. Schmett.. p. 66. fig. 384, 1856. 

Drt/nohia tortiiiisii Tepper, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, Iv. p. 2, May. 1881, PI. — , fig. 2 

Grote, New Check List X. Amer. Moths, p. 19, 1882. 

Smith, List Lep. Bor. Amer., p. 30, 1891, 

Kirby, Syu. Cat, Lep. Het„ i, p, 601, 1892, 
Xoiodonia neonjica Xeum. and Dyar, Trans. Amer. Ent, Soc, xxi, p, 185, June, 1894; Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc, ii, 

p. 113, Sept., 1894. 
Xotodonta tsrtiiosa Xeum. aud Dyar, Trans, Amer, Ent, Soc. xxi, p, 185, June, 1894; Journ. N. Y. Eut, Soc, ii, 
p, 11^ Sept., 1894. 


Thaller, Can. Ent., xxiii, y>. 34, Feb.. 1891. 

^[oth. — One (? . AiiteiintB well pectinated to the tips; ]iiilpi itassinj;- heymid the front, lonjjer 
than in L. angiiloaa m- fcrriKjinea. Uody and fore wings ocheroiis gray, with black lines and 
patches. Collar edged with black; over the scutelluni a transverse wliite stripe, behind which is 
{I black i)atcli. 

Fore wings (jnite broad, shorter and broader than in any Lophodoiita or Notodonta, and pointed 
at the apex. On base of wing, at origin of cubital vein, a short silvery white stripe, from which 
a black line passes along the whole cubital vein, this and its branches being black, and the base 
of the wing in front of the line dusky black. Wing covered by two white lines more or less edged 
with black, the linear black discal mark being nearest to the extradiscal line; inner (extrabasilar) 
line ninch curved aiul dentate, sending a tooth inward along the internal vein. Extradiscal line 
much curved outwar<l oi)posite the discal mark and but slightly scallojied. Three subapical black 
iutervenular black slashes, one in nearly each space behind, that in the second cubital space 
beiu"- large and distinct. The sjjace between the two lines tilled iu behind the third cubital venule 
with black, relieved by fawn-brown on each side of the internal vein. Tuft on inner edge black. 
Fringe fawn color, with venular spots. Ilind wings sordid white; no discal mark or extradi.-^cal 
line. Beneath, sordid white: fore wings with faint discal mark and extradiscal line; hind wings 
■with two neaily parallel oblique dusky costal stripes on outer half of the wing. 

Expanse of wings, $ 40 mm.; length of body, <? IG mm. 

Larva. — "Length, 30 to 40 mm.; very robust; tapers slightly at either extremity; 
uoticeablv i)i>steriorly. Anal legs moderately long. Color green, more or less lined and dashed 
with yellowish white and very thickly and irregularly longitudinally dotted with dull wine-red dots, 
more numerous along lower lateral margin, coalescing into a nu>re or less distinct line; trophi, 
thoracic feet, and tips of abdominal prolegs more or less marked with the same red color. Head 
wirh a broad central yellow area bordered with reddish brown, tapering toward posterior margin 
and continuous with very characteristic j'ellow stripe along the dorsum of the body, which is also 
bordered, though narrowly, with wine-red, and more or less dotted and suflused with same color, 
particularly on segments 1, .5, and fi. This stripe narrows rapidly on first segment, is uniform 
on second, widens very considerably to fifth, extending down on the side, narrows again to the 
posterior margin of the seventh, widens gradually from anterior margin of eighth, and narrows 
again slightly toward tip of anal plate. In the broadest portion, on segments 3-7 and 8 to tip, the 
central space is green, irregularly lined, and dotted with whitish. 

"Three specimens from Atlanta, Ga.; two from St. Louis, Mo., and one from Fortress TNIonroe, 
Va." (Riley MS.) 

Pupa. — " Similar to that of L. ferruffinea, but somewhat more tapering, and projecting at the 
til) in two dorsally directed, very strong, short widely separated si)urs. (Anterior half of i>n|>al 
shell wanting.") (Riley MS.) 

Tlahiis. — Larva occurs in September; the moths in May, June, and July. (Riley MS.) 

Fond phint. — Quercus. (Thaxter and Riley.) 

This is evidently Tepjier's Drynohia tortitosa and Herrich-Schaefter's species, as 1 have 
believed for several years past, and now feel sure after seeing specimens of it in Mr. Edwards's 

(li'Of/rdphietd ili.sfrihntiiiii. — liangor. Me. (Neumoegen); New Jersey, (Palm); San Antonio, Tex. 
{Bolter); Dallas, Tex. (Boll, Mus. Comp. Zool.); Georgia (Al)bot); Colorado (Coll. Tep])er, 
French); "Wisconsin, Missouri, Virginia, Florida, and Georgia (U. S. Nat. Mus.), Kittery Point, 
Me. (French); riattsburg, N. Y. (Hudson); Fort Collins, Colo. (Baker). 

Lophopteryx Stiplieus. 
(PI. XLII, fig. 2, vcii.ition. 2(1, 26, foreleg.) 

Loplioptenjx Stephens, 111. Brit. Ent. Itanst., ii, p. 2<i, 1829. 
Odnntosia, (in p.irt) Hiil>ncr, Verz. Schnu'tt., p. M."i, 1816, 
Loplioptevyx Dupoucbel, Cut. M(''tli. I.^'p. Eiir., p. 90, 1844. 


Lopliopteri/.r Staiuliuger, Cat. Lpj). Eur., p. 73, 1871. 

Grote, New Check List N. Aiiier. Moths, p. 18, 1882. 

Smith, List Lep. Hor. Amer., p. 30, 1891. 

Kirby, Syn. Cat. Lep. Het., i, p. GO."), 1892. 
Kolinlotiiu. (in part) and Lophojitrriix 'Nemu. and Dyar, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, xxi, pp. ISi, 196, .June, 1891: 
.lonrn. N. Y. Ent. Soc., ii, pp. 113, 11.5, Sept., 1894. 

]\foih. — Head modeiatcly proiiiiiieiit; front moderately wide, the .scales long and, 
projecting irregnlai-ly and forming a slight median crest (most marked in L. americana and the 
European L. camcUna); vertex slightly crested or very moderately so (in the European cucidla 
and mmdina); \n\\\n varying in not extending bej'ond (eJefjavH) or surpassing the front (cnmeUna, 
American example), loosely hairy, not very distinct from the front (much larger in camelina than 
in clajans) ; third joint not very distinct in elegans, but quite so in camelina. Eyes naked in elegans, 
but in the European camelina and the American example distinctly hairy. AnYenna; in $ with 
short, stout, ciliated branches; in 9 thick, with more or less rudimentary branches (in clefjans they 
are slender, but distinct, acute, ciliated, but in the 9 of the two above-named European species 
the branches are undeveloped). 

Thorax either simple (elef/ans) or somewhat crested, or (as in the European species camelina 
and the Wisconsin example) witli a high distinct crest, sloping backward and slightly inclined 
forward. Fore wings with the costa regularly but slightly curved (eler/ans), or straight (in the 
Eurojjean species camelina, etc.); apex acute, square, outer edge a little bent and scalloped (less 
distinctly so in c^icnlla); inner edge with a distinct or quite \avge [camelina) tuft. Hind wings 
triangular, produced toward the apex; internal angle full and marked witli a brown patch 
{elegans) or with two short parallel lines (in the European species camelina and cveulla). Venation : 
Fore wings with a short scale; no triangular subco.stal cell; anterior di.scal venule very oldique, 
directed inward, the hinder ones curved, not oblique; the costal region very narrow in both wings. 

Legs very hairy, ratlier long, hinder pair with a long stout tibial spur arising from the basal 

Coloration: The species are wood or reddish graj^, witli hmgitudinal streaks, especially 
toward the costa, and either with (European species) or without transverse scalloi^ed lines. Hind 
wings clear whitish, with (in elegans) a dark black patch at the internal angle. 

The species difter from those of Notodonta in the larger tuft on the internal edge of the fore 
wings, in the more pointed fore wings which are square at the apex, and in the'preseuce of a 
subcostal cell, as well as in the distinctly scalloped outer edge of the wing. 

The genus is on the whole nearly allied to Pbeosia, as seen in the venation, the shape of the 
wings, the anterior pair being pointed toward tlie apex, with the outer edge very oblique, and 
also in the markings, the fore wings in both having (in elegans) no cross lines, and being striped 
longitudinally with dark browu in the subcostal interspace, and (iu elegans) with a conspicuous 
bent silvery white stripe extending from the base of the wing along the internal vein. In camelina 
there are two scalloped cross lines on the fore wings, converg;jug from the costa to the tuft ou 
the inner edge; there are also no silvery white markings. 

While we unfortunately know nothing of the transformations of our Amei'ican species, those 
of Europe have been figured and described. The larva of the European L. camelina, whicli I owe 
to the kindness of Dr. Heylaerts, of Breda, Holland, is characterized by two twin diverging high 
dorsal papilliie or tubercles ou the eighth abdominal segment, a very interesting feature, since they 
probably represent what may have been the primitive double nature of the hump or horn of 
Pheosia and other larvit! with a "caudal horn." Tlie larva is not humped ou any other segment, 
and the body increases in thickness toward the eighth abdominal segment, as in Pheosia. I 
should regard, therefore, Loi^hopteryx as the more primitive genus, and standing below Pheosia 
and above Lophodonta, which has no hump at all. 

Mv. Helliiis says the larva of 7^. camelina spins a cocoon of line silk, covered with line earth, 
etc. The pupa ends iu a small straight spike, tipped with four diverging tiny sharp points 
(P.ncklcr's Larva" of British Butterflies and Moths, ii, p. 103). The lawn of L. enculla has on 
aljdominal segments 3 to 7 sliglitly raised dorsal luimiis, and on segment 8 "a more prominent and 
sliari)er hump, ending in twin points, which are set with .six hairs. "The larva of i. earmeliia is 

15(3 mi:moirs of the national academy of sciences. 

not humped, the skin is polished and much wrinkled, and tlie end oC the pupa is rounded, with 
no creinaster, thougli the larva spins a tough cocoon of dirty gray silk, stuck over with fine 
earth'' (Ilellius). (Is it possible that L, carmcJita belongs to a different genus {Odontosis) from 
L. canu'linit f L. ouiilla and camdhia are closely related in structure and coloration. I have 
not a specimen of cannelitx to examine.) 

liophopteryz elegans Strecker. 

(PI. IV, lig. 8.) 

Lopkopteryjc elegans Strecker, Proc. Aoail. Nat. Sci. Phil., 1884, p. 255, Jan., 1885. 
Xotodonta notaria Edwards, Ent. Auier, i, \\. 17, April, 1885. 

Smith, List Lep. Bor. Amer., p. 30, 1891. 
Notodonia elegans Kirby, Syii. Cat. Lep. Het., i, p. 606, 1892. 

Neuiu. and Dyar, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, xxi, p. 184, June, 1894 ; Journ. X. V. Ent. Soc, 
ii.p. 113, .Sept., 1894. 

Moth. — Two (J , one 5 . Heail and thorax mouse color, the head, and the breast directly under 
the former, darker than the thorax above; thorax behind the scutum edged with silvery white 
.scales, while the teguhe are edged with brown scales. Fore wings of a uniform pale vandyke 
brown, darker on the costal region than on the outer margin, the limits extending between the apex 
and the middle of the inner edge. Veins and their branches darker than the rest of the wing. 
There are no cross lines. Four reddish brown streaks on the outer fourth of the costa, one ending- 
very near the apex; a large one in the fourth subcostal interspace, and a smaller, very narrow 
streak in the fifth subcostal inter.sijace. 

Tlie distinctive mark is the conspicuous silvery white stripe shaded with brown in front, 
beginning at the base of the wing at the origin of the subcostal and cubital veins and extending 
along the internal vein to its basal third, not reaching a point opposite the tnft. The latter is 
small, subacute, and consists of pale ocherous and brown scales. Hind wings i)ale ocherous, dusky 
at the inner angle, which is full and prominent, and brown in tint. There is no line on the wing. 
At the base of the pale fringe in both wings is a distinct scalloped brown line. Underneath, the 
fore wings are pale mouse-gray; the hind wings mouse color on the costal region, while the rest 
of the wing is whitish ocherous with no spots or lines. 

Expanse of wings, S , 50 mm.; 2 , o7 mm.; length of body, $ , 20 nun.; 9 , 2-1: mm. 

Mr. Edwards's Colorado specimens do not essentially differ from Maine examples. 

This is an exceedingly richly colored moth, and easily recognized by its mouse-brown hue and 
the conspicuous but silvery white shade on the base of the tore wings. The Colorado examples 
are frosty ash rather than reddish brown, as Eastern specimens are. 

Geogruphk-nl distribution. — Oldtown, Me. (Fish, fide Strecker); Umbagog Ijake, ^Mainc, July 
■4 (Packard); Lonsdale, It. I. (W. Dearden); JManhattan, Kans., June 15 (Popeuoe); Colorado 
(Edwards Coll., also iStrecker); Fort Collins, Colo., June 22 (Baker); Lincoln, Nebr., June 
(I'.runer, U. S. Nat. Mus.); Colorado (French); Colorado, Nebraska, June (U. S. Nat. Mus.); New 
York, Colorado (French); eJeijans \iu\ (jrisca, Miles City, Mont. (Dyar). 

So far as known, confined to tiie Appalachian subprovince and to the IJocky Mountain region 
of the Campestrian. 

Lophopteryx camelina Liuu. 

Lophoptcnix amcricaita Harv., Can. Ent., ix, p. 95, May, 1877. 

Grot.', New Check List Lep. N. Amer. Moths, p. IS, 1882. 
Smith, List Lep. Bor. Amer., p. 30, 1891. 
Kirby, .Syn. Cat. Lep. Het., i, p. 606, 1892. 
Lophopteryx capucina Ncum. and Dyar, Trans. Amer. Eut. Soc., xxi, p. I'.Ki, .Inne, 1894; ,Ionrn. N. V. Ent. Soc., 
ii, p. 115, Sept., 1894. 

Molli. — " c? . Eyes hairy; antennae sliort, with long ]iencils of bristly hair from each joint. 
Primaries with uneven external margin. Bright brown in color, allit'd to camelina, but less rusty 
or reddish. Nervules interruptedly iiiarktMl in very dark brown. Transverse anterior line single, 
forming two approximate obtuse teeth on the cell, dentate below cubital vein. Transverse 


posterior line double, obliterate, with included paler shades which traverse the wing obli(|Hdy, 
marked on costal region; a series of anteapical pale dots; purplish brown subtermiual shade. 
Median space diffused, shaded with puri)lish brown, more appareutly so before the outer line, and 
interiorly where the median lines approximate; a terminal brown line, interrujjted on the veins 
o]jposite to the extremities of which the exserted fringe is dark brown. Hind wings ochery, with 
concolorous fringes, becoming brown toward anal angles; a median pale shade, which intersects at 
internal margin a blackish patch. Beneath, yellowish immaculate, the dots on costa of primaries 
before apices repeated; fringe brown. Body rusty brown. Tooth on internal margin of primaries 
not prominent. Exjianse, 36 mm. Collection Buff. Soc. Nat. Sci." 

''This seems to be a stouter and broader winged form than the European, in which it would 
conform to Dr. Speyer's law of variation in the Noctua% The outer line is less distinct than in the 
European species, of which it may be a modification." (Harvey.) 

I have received a S from Mr. O. S. Westcott, taken in Wisconsin, and he writes me: "I got 
the name Loplwpteryx americana Harv. from Grote." I can not see that it differs from the 
European L. camelhia. 

Geographical distribution. — Found by Mr. C. A. JJlake m New Jersey, near Philadel|)hia 
(Harvey). The following localities have been sent me by correspondents in whose collection the 
species is contained: New Jersey (Professor French); New Jersey, Pennsylvania (C. Palm); 
Chicago (A. Bolter); Racine, Wis. (Westcott); Manhattan, Kans. (E. A. Popenoe). In Europe 
and Asia L. camelina ranges from central and southern Europe to Turkey, Siberia, and Amoor. 

Larva — We copy the following account from Hellins in Buckler's Larvse of British Butterflies 
and Moths (ii, p. 102). 

I have no notes of tlio egg or young larva. By the time the larva is 10 ram. in length it has a good deal of the 
adnlt appearance, colors brighter than afterward, no red dots yet on the spiracular line. The full grown larva is 
about 3;^ mm. in length, stout in figure, tapormg slightly forward, the head much deeper and a little wider than 2; 
there arc no humps ; on 12 a pair of very prominent warts, the places of the usual dots marked by hairs ; to use Albin's 
words, "ill repose it always lifts up its hinder part,'' and also throws back its front part till the back of the head 
and segment 2 are quite bent over segments 5 and 6. There are several varieties of coloring; one mealy whitey- 
grecuish on the back, with the dorsal vessel like a blue thread, a subdorsal line of a faint bluish tinge, t)ie side 
below more green, the spiracular line, which extends around the anal flap, yellow, edged above with violet, and 
bearing a red spot behind each spiracle; the spiracles black, the belly green, with a tinge of plum color, and showing 
the usual ventral dots distinctly of a pale yellow, the head smooth, green, the mouth yellow, with a black line, the 
warts on 12 bright red, thoracic legs pink, ventral prolegs green with red feet. 

Another variety had the head and sides of a pale yellowish pink, " the back after .". more 
whitey-i)ink, with a darker tinted dorsal thread;" the warts on the eighth abdominal segment full 
deep pink, the spiracular line yellowish, with the red spots behind the black spiracles. 

This larva is remarkable for the double twinned high conical tubercles on the eighth 
abdominal segment, whereas in Pheosia the horn is single. Possibly the double tubercles of 
Lophoptcryx camelina is the primitive condition, the single hump of L. cuenllina " ending in the 
twin points," being intermeiliate between the twin tubercles of L. camelina and Pheosia. It will 
now be a matter of great interest to discover the larva of our American Lophopieryx elet/anK. In 
England the food plant of L. camelinais the poplar, oak, alder, and hazel (Hellins). It should be 
observed that the larva of the Euroiieau L. carmelita is smooth, uoctuiform, with no hump on the 
eighth abdominal segment. 

Pheosia Hiiebner. 
(PI. XLII, fig. 3, venation.) 

Notodonta (in part) Ochs., Schmett. Eur., iii, pp. 45 and 63, 1810. 
Pheosia Hiibn., Verz. Schmett, p. 145, 1816. 
(Leiocampa) Boisd., Gen. ct Ind. Meth., p. 86, 1840. 

Zetterstedt, lusecta Lapponica, 1840. 
Leiocampa Stephens, 111., Brit. Eut. Haust., ii, 24, 1829. 
Duponchel, Cat. Meth. Lep. Eiir., p. 91, 1844. 
Drfimonia (in part) H.-Sch., Samml. aussereur., Schmett., p. 66, 1856. 
Nolodonlu (Leiocampa) Staudinger. Cat. Lep. Eur., p. 72, 1871. 
Pheosia Grote, New Check List X. Amer. Moths, p. 19, 1882. 


Smith, List. Lep. Hor. Aiiii-r., p. :iO, 1890. 
Kirby, C;it. Lep. Uet., p. GOT, 1S'.)2. 
PItiosia and Solodonta, (in part) Nruiii. aii<l Dyar, Trims. Aincr. Kiit. Sor., xxi, p. 195, June, 1894; Jonrn. 
N. Y. Eut. Soc, ii, p. 115, Sept., 189L 

Moth. — nead moderately prominent, much as in Notodoiita, rather .small, IVont narrower than 
nsnal. Antenna^ in S narrowly pectinated to the tips, with fine short pectinations, not beiny 
simple. I'alpi unusually snuill, rather slender, not reaching to the front, porrect. Eyes mdved. 

Thorax not very stout, subglobose; not tufted. 

Fore wings unusually long and narrow; costal edge very convex, apex much ])rodnced and 
rounded subacute; outer edge very obli(iue, in 9 , more convex than in the i ; inner edge full at the 
base, straight toward the angle, the slight tuft on this angle being continuous with the edge and 
projecting outward rather than downward. The hind wings rea<'h when expanded tliree-fourth.s 
of the distance to end of abdomen; produced toward the rounded apex; costa nearly straight; 
internal angle much produced on the end of Vein VI, with a well-marked tuft. 

Venation: No subcostal cell, though the first subcostol venule approaches its main vein very 
closely at the origin of the tifth; anterior discal vein very oblique, directed inward; in the hind 
wings, venation much as in Notodonta, except that both discal veins are directed inward, forming 
a V,Avhereas in Notodonta the two form one straight line directed outward. 

Legs not very stout; tibi;e with a flat broad tuft. Abdomen cylindrical, rather long, tip 
obtuse, rounded. 

Coloration: The species are whitish and browniish, with dark brown longitudinal intervennlar 
streaks; no cross wavy lines or discal spots. 

The genus is characterized by the $ anteniue being pectinated to the tip, by the small palpi, 
by the long wings pointed at the apex, and by the small tuft on the edge of the fore wings, 

E(jg, — Ileniisp&erical; shell ornamented with dense microscopic granulations. 

Zari-a. — Head rather small, nan-ower than the segments behind; body gradually increasing 
in width to the eighth abdominal segment, which is either humped or bears a horn ; suranal plate 
long, lunate, coarsely granulated; skin smooth, polished; no distinct stripes or bands. Freshly 
hatched htrra: Head rather large, flattened, subcordate; a broad black prothoracic plate; on the 
eighth abdominal segment a single dorsal oval wart; end of the body held up m walking. 

Cocoon. — A subterranean cell lined with silk. 

PffjM.— Body rafher slender; cremaster divided into two very short divergent spines. 

Gconraphicul rli.'itrihiition. — This genus is common to Europe and temperate North America 
from the Atlantic to the Pacific; occurring in the North American region, including both the 
Humid and Arid provinces, but not yet known to inhabit the Austroriparian or Mexican (Sonoran) 

Pheosia dimidiata (Herricli-Scliaeffer). 
(PL VII, lig. 11.) 

Drymonia dimidiata II.-Soli., SaiiiiuL auasoreur. Sclimett., )). 6(1, lijj. 51.5, 1856. 

I'heosia rimosa Pack., Proc. Eut. Soc. Pliil., iii, p. 358, 1861. 

Notodonta californiia Stretch, 111. Zyg. anil Romlj. N. Anier., i, p. 116, PL IV, fig. 5; larva, ])lato 10, fig. 9, 1872. 

rhconia dictaa Lintucr, Eut. Contr., iv, p. 76, .lune, 1878. 

Kotodoiita (Pheosia) rimosa Tepper, Bull. Hrooklyn Eut. Soc., i, p. 3, 1878. 

VUeoaia riinom Groto, New Check List. N. Amer. Moth.s, p. 19, 1882. . 

Pheosia dimidiata Grote, Now Check List N. Anier. Moths, ]). 19, 1882. 

I'heosia californica Groto, Now Check List N. Anier. Jlotlis, p. 19, 1882. 

I'heosia rimosa Pack., Fil'tli Rep. U. S. Ent. Comui., p. 455, 1890. (Fig. of larva in text.) 

Pheosia rimosa Smith, Cat. Lep. Dor. Amer., p. 30, 1891. 

Dyar Psyche, vi, p. 128, 1891. 

Kirby, Syu. Cat. Lep. llet.,i, p. 607, 1892. 

Pack., Journ. N. York Ent. Soc, i, p. 63, 1893. (Life history.) 
Pheosia portlandia Edwards, Ent. Amer., ii, p. 168, 1886. 
Smith, List Lep. Bor. Amer., p. 30, 1891. 
Dyar, Psycho, vi. pp. ,351-3.53, Nov., 1892. 
Sotodonta deacherei Neumogen, Can. Ent., xxiv, 5. 227, September, 1892. 

Pheosia dimidiata Neum. and Dyar, Trans. Amer. Eut. Soc, xxi, p. 195, ,Tune, 1894; .Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc, 
ii, p. 115, .Sept., 1894. 



(PI. XX, figs. 1-7.) 

Stretch, 111. Zyg. aiul Bomb. N. Amer., 1, p. 110, pi. 10, tig. 9, 1872. 

Lintnri; Eut. Coiilr., i\', p. 70, 1878. 

Tei>2)er, Bnll. Brooklyu Eut. Soo., i, p. 3, 1878. 

Goodhue, Can. Eiit., xiv, p. 78, 1882. 

I'aclard, EiftU Rep. U. S. Eut. Comiu., lus. Inj. Forest Trees, p. 455, 1890. (Fig.) 

Proc. Bust. Soc. Nat. Hist., xxiv, pp. 522-523, 1890. (Stage lU-V.) 

.fourn. N. York. Eut. Soc, i, pp. 03-08, 1893. 
Dyar, Psyche, vi, pp. 191-190, Dec., 1891. 

Psycbe, vi, pp. 351-353, Nov., 1892. (Description in full of egg auil of the live larval stages of var. 


Moth. — Thorax and head cineieou.s; the tuft on the patagia or shoukler tippets tipped with 
dark brown. Fore wings rounded aud somewhat produced toward the apex; of a delicate frosty 
white aud browu. Ak^ng the ends of the subco.stal venules of the fore wings are long streaks of 
brown; in the apical and subapical .spaces are two long, longitudinal, broad streaks, oblique and 
parallel to the costa, which terminate just below the apex; middle of the wing white. A long, 
broad line extends from the base to just above the inner angle on the outer margin, lined below 
with white, aud deflected upward along the outer edge. Tuft cinereous. Beneath, cinereous, 
costa darker. The female darker than the male. Hind wings white, the region of the internal 
angle and tuft dark browu. Legs aud abdomen cinereous. 

Four examples from Colorado are slightly darker aud less fulvous than in Wisconsin aud New 
England individuals. 

AS ? from Francouin, N. H., received from Mrs. Slosson, is very large, expanding GO mm. 
It has more dark brown on the fore wings than usual, a lai-ge costo-apical dark brown jiatch 
contaiuing a white slash and a large wide brown region on the internal edge, extending up the 
outer edge to near the apex, the ends of the independent and cubital venules white; but it is not 
nearly so dark in the middle of the wing as in \ar. j^ortlandki. 

The imago of Stretch's ert7i/br;;8Cff. does not seem to differ from the Eastern form, aud by Messrs. 
Liutner and Dyar it is regarded as cospecitic with the Eastern form. In respect to P. portlandia., 
I also regard this as only a climatic, melanotic variety of the Califoruiau and Eastern dimidiata. 
I am indebted to Mr. Dyar for a specimen, though it is somewhat rubbed. 

The Oregon form is much darker aud slightly larger than the Eastern form, and thus 
conforms to the law iu geograjihical distribution which obtains in the Geometrids, that ou the 
Pacific Coast, where the climate is humid, there is a tendency to greater size and darker, almost 
melanistic coloration. Var. portlandia is a melanotic form, aud is dark mouse or sable-brown. 
The fore wings are mai'ked precisely as iu the normal forms, but the brown marks and slashes are 
blacker, and the ground color of the wings smoky or dusky, not being frosted with white scales. 
Hind wings dark mouse color on the inner edge, forming a broad band, extending to the heavy 
dark patch at the inner angle, while the rest of the wing is sordid or smoky white, not frosty 
white. While the length of the fore wing of my type from Maine is 25 mm., thaX of imrtlundia 
is 26 mm., the entire expanse being 54 mm. 

I find that the venation of porthoidia does not differ from that of the Eastern dhmdiatn. 

Mr. Liutner gives at length his reasons for regarding our diinidiata (rimona) as cospecific with 
the European dicUea. Specimens were sent by Mr. von Meske to Dr. Speyer, who did not doubt 
that the two species were identical, the difterence being very slight. He also gives at length the 
results of his own comparisons. He likewise refers to the fact, which I have verified, that there 
are two forms of the larva, both iu Europe and in the United States, both on the Atlantic and 
Pacific coasts, one being without and the other with a yellow lateral stripe. I should not hesitate 
to regard the species as commou both to Europe aud America, were it not that the European 
species is without a horn. 

Iu the figures of the British larva of dictcva iu Buckler's work, published b^' the Kay Society, 
(his fig. 16, PI. XXXV) the stripe is present on the eighth abdominal segment, while the large horn 
of our form is represented by only a hump. In one of Buckler's figures the hump of the green 


variety is almost obsolete, and tlie black line is wanting. In Bnckler's tignies of tlie allied 
dicta'oidcs there is only a luun[), ihulj;ing- by tlie liynies, none of tbe IJritish spceies seem 
identical with ours. In Dnponcbel and Guenee's Iconograpliie et Distoire Naturelle des Chenilles 
t. ii, the larva is very well fi<>iu'ed, but there is no horn, not even a marked latci-al blai-k line, and 
the hump is not partiiulaily well developed. We have not seen other iigures of the European 

Mr. Meske also wrote me in 1877 as follows: 

The imago of Xotodoiila riinona Packard stands very near to tlio Kuropcan Xulndnnla diclaa I-inur, but the 
larv.'P of those two species ai'e entirely different. The larva of the former is very slender, light green, and has a 
caudal horn like a sphinx larva; it feeds on I'opulus tremuloides. This is the second case in the North American 
fauna where the imago stands very near to its allied European Ibrm, while the larva is entirely ditforent. The lirst 
case 18 Acronijctn occidenialh as compared with Jcioni/cla psi Linne. 

It is well to keep the species thus distinct to em])hasize the fact that tlie full-fed European 
larva is more like the younger stages, having lagged in its development behind the American 

Dgg. — Diameter, 1.3 mm. Low hemispherical, about one-half as high as broad. Under a 
Tolles triplet the micropyle in the center is distinctly seen, and the snow-white shell is distinctly, 
though very finely, pitted or granulated. Under a i inch objective tlie markings are seen to 
be very peculiar, the surface not being divided into polygonal areas, but studded with microscopic 
beads, which form near the micropyle at the apex radiating series, and lower down lines of beads 
more or less parallel with the equatorial diameter. From three to seven eggs are laid on a single 
leaf. Probably the moth flies from one ])lant to another, laying a few eggs at a time. 

Freshly-hatched larva, Stat/c I. — Described a few hours alter hatching, before they began to 
feed. Length, 3.5-4 mm. The head is rather large, shining black, smooth, and considerably 
wider than the body; not spherical in shape, but somewhat flattened and subccnnlate or bilobed, 
as the occiput is deeply indented. A large, broad, but antero-posteriorly rather short, black, 
mostly smooth, prothoracic plate, with slight roughnesses near the front edge where the hairs 
take their origin; the hinder edge slightly indented on the median line. On each side of the 
l)late is a lateral black piliferous wart. The second and tliiid thoracic segments each with a pair 
of conspicuous, oval, black, flattened, pililerous warts, and two small, round ones on each side, 
the lower one being about one-half as large as the upper. Abdominal segments 1 to C each 
with four dorsal, piliferous, flattened black warts, the hinder ones a little farther apart than the 
anterior ones, hut yet close to the latter. On segment 7 the four corresponding warts are 
arranged in a regular trapezoid, the two anterior ones being much nearer together than the 
two hinder ones. On the eighth segment is a single central dorsal, black, oval, nnnlerately 
prominent wart, which is twice as large as the largest on the ninth segment; it is transverse, 
bearing a bristle at each end, thus having plainly originated from what was once two separate 
warts. The latter segment bears four black warts, arranged in a regular trapezoid. The ninth 
and tenth segments are held up when the larva walks. The anal legs are black and a little 
smaller and shorter than the middle abdominal legs. The black suranal plate is subtriangnlar, 
being obtusely pointed in front; the surface is rough, bearing a rough, low tubercle in fronton 
which are minute piliferous warts. The body is somewhat flattened, being broader than high, 
and of a ijcculiar, pale glaucous or sea green, the skin being polished like i>orcelaiii. 

The hairs under a .1 inch objective are seen to be slightly bulbous at the tip, and therefore 
glandular, but under a lower power appear to taper like ordinary setaj. In Stage II the hairs 
are also slightly bullions, and clear at the tij). 

At the end of IStaye J. — Length, o-(i mm. The body is much longer tiian before, so that the 
tubercles are farther apart, ami now the eightli segment has the dorsal wart surrounded by an 
amber-yellow spot, rendering it more conspicuous, and also the lateral concolorous line has 
appeared; the same tint occurs on the base of the abdominal legs. 

(Specimens described in part from life, August 2.) Length at the end of the stage, just before 
exuviation, mm. Tln^ head is moderately large, in the single larva oliserved not so wide as the 
body, as it was about to molt, the jjrothoracic segment being greatly swollen. (In alcoholic 
specimens the head and black piliferous tubercles of the larva in the next stage can be seen 
through.) The head is now black and slightly bilobed, and L5 mm. wide. 


The prothoracic plate is rather broad, but quite short antero posteriorly, with four piliferous 
warts oil the front and four on the hinder edge. The piliferous waits on the sueeeeding segments 
are large, distinct, black, and bear but a single hair. The tubercles on the second and third tho- 
racic warts are arranged in a straight transverse row ; the two dorsal ones are slightly larger than 
those on the third thoracic segment. On the abdominal segments the four dorsal tubercles are all 
of the sajne size and arranged in a trapezoid, which becomes longer, going backward to segment 7. 
On the eighth segment there is a double large black tubercle bearing two bristles; the tubercle is 
several times larger than any of the others, and is evidently the result of the coalescence of the 
homologues of the two dorsal warts occurring on the segments in front. The ninth segment with 
the four dorsal tubercles arranged in a square, with the lateral ones farther up on the back than 
the homologous ones in front, and in a subdorsal position. The suranal plate is black-brown, nearly 
three-fourths as long as broad, bearing six marginal and two dorsal median hairs. The thoracic 
legs are black; the abdominal legs pale, with an external dark chitiiious plate aljove tlie i)lanta. 

The general color of the body is glaucous green, being of the same hue as the color of the 
underside of the aspeu leaf, on which it feeds. There is a brown dorsal spot on the eighth 
abdominal segment, on which the tubercle rests, while along the sides, low down, at the base of 
The al)domiiial legs, and in corresponding places where the legs are wanting, is a row of irregular 
reddish spots. The skiu under a J-inch objective is seen to be studded with fine, dark, short, 
conical sette or granulations which are largest and thickest on the sides of and at the base of the 
middle abdominal legs. The hairs over the body are glandular, slightly bulbous, and about half 
as long as the body is thick. 

The two tenant hairs on the thoracic feet are knife shaped, somewhat as in Ichfhyura inclusa. 
The plantaj of the abdominal legs have a much larger uuml)er of crochets than usual in larva' of 
Stage I, as there are twenty-six of them, forming a nearly complete but broken circle, and the 
crochets themselves are rather short and blunt. 

Stage II. — Length, 8 mm. Molted August 3. The Pheosui characters are now declared, 
owing to the transformation of the dorsal tubercle on tlie eighth abdominal segment into a fleshy 
cone or low horn. The larva feeds on the edge of the hole which it eats out of the leaf, and at first 
sight may be mistaken for a sawfly larva, owing to the dark reddish brown spots and baud on 
the sides, which resemble abdominal legs and assimilate it in appearance to the edge of the hole, 
which turns dark after it has been eaten out by the caterpillar. 

The prothoracic shield has now disappeared. — The head slightly narrows above and is slightly 
bilobed, smooth, and shining, a little wider than the body, which narrows a little toward the end; 
it is a dark chestnut-brown on the sides, pale chestnut in front. The body is pale green above, 
still of the same hue as the underside of the leaf. The underside is peculiar in the thoracic and 
short, thick abdominal legs being dark livid brown; with a large chestnut-brown patch on the 
base of each, and on the first and second abdominal segments is a dark brown bUitch where the 
base of the legs would be if they were present; farther along in the space between the fourth 
pair of legs and the anal legs is an irregular dark brown broad line extending along the side of 
the body to the sides of the anal legs. The latter are used in creeping, but are about half as 
large as the middle ones. 

The huraiJ on the eighth abdominal segment is now well developed, liiijh, conical, andfcshy, 
slif/hily inclined haclcirard, dark at tip, and still bearing two bristles, though the dark chitiuous 
spine is oVisolete; the horn-like tubercle is half as high as the segment is thick. The body behind 
the "caudal horn" nari'ows rather rapidly to the end of the suranal i)late, which is larger than 
before, but pale and of the same color as the body. 

The annl legs are used, but are about half as large as the middle ones and with much fewer 
crochets, which are very numerous in the middle legs, forming a nearly complete cii-cle. The 
piliferous warts in general are now very much smaller and paler than in Stage I, being green, like 
the body, and scarcely visible under a strong lens. The hairs are, only one arising from 
a wart, and they are short and fine. 

In this stage the subprothoracic eversible gland was observed in an alcoholic specimen. It 
forms a large transverse sack, bleached white by the alcohol, and contrasting with the red skin 
of the side of the segment. It sends oft" two lateral siphon-like long and slender finger-shaped 
S. Mis. oO 11 


diverging tubes, out of wliidi the spraj' is probably forced. Tlieir ends do not reach to the sides 
and are not visible from them, but the gland is nuicli as tliat of Ceiiua as figured by I'onltou 
(Trans. Ent. Soc. London, 1887, PI. X, fig, 7.) 

littKje III. — August (i. Length, 11 mm. The head is now pale amber, but still dusky on the 
vertex, and it is also still wider tlian the body. On each side of the body is a faint whitish 
subdorsal line. The "caudal horn" is dark brown, now nearly as long as the eighth segment is 
thick vertically. The horn is slightly retractile in tliis stage, and the base is movable, being 
capable of withdrawal and extension and is distinctly nutant, the apex sometimes hanging over 
backward. The sides of the body along the base of both the thoracic and abdoniina! legs are 
now dark reddish chocolate brown, being of the same color as the horn. 

Till- liitcrul ydluw line is ircll iiiarl,-ciL The body beneath is pale green. The spiracles form 
a dark dot surrounded by pale greenish. 

Stage IV. — Length, 20 mm. August L'o. The body is now thicker than before. The head 
is distinctly bilobed, lounded, narrowing a little toward the vertex. The caudal horn is now 
large!', higher, and more acute than in the preceding stage; it is freely elevated or allowed to fall 
over backward, is soft and flexible, but very slightly retractile, and bears a few scattered fine 
bristles. It has a blackish shade extending up from a point above the last spiracle to the apex, 
which is dark. The bodj' is chocolate colored; the head redder, finely mottled with i)alcr 
reddish. The suranal plate is well rounded behind, the surface roughened, witli no piliferous 
warts, and this and the anal legs are nuire reddish than the body, being of a reddish pink hue. 
The spiracles are much larger than in Stage 111, and are blackish, surrounded by a broad, jjale, 
Hesh-colored ring. The middle abdominal legs have a shining chitinous black patch above the 
l)lanta. there being no such jjatch on the anal legs. The thoracic legs are dark, pitchy and)er. 

Mature larva. — Length, -Id mm. The head is usually of the reddish color of the body, but 
ligiiter and mottled. Now all the characters of the larva are assumed. The body is of a iicculiar 
pearly hue, with a porcelain like polish, the head being of the same tint as the body. The head 
is smooth, not quite so wide as the ])rothoracic segment, which is much smaller than the 
somewhat swollen second thoracic segment. All the segments are sliglitly swollen in the nuddle. 
The eighth abdonnnal segment is swollen dorsally, and is surmuuuted by a high, rather stiff, well- 
deveh>ped horn, which is not granulated, but somewhat annulated; it is black, this tint extending 
as a blaek lateral line below and l)ehind the si>iracle. The suranal plate is of |)eculiar shape, 
being long crescentie, and l)earing a small knob in front, the surface of the whole plate being 
coarsely granulated, rust-red, beconnng greenish in front. The thoracic feet are deep amber-red 
or saluKin color. Of the alxlominal feet the first four i)airs are large and thick, conical, blackish 
in tlie middle, while the anal pair are very small, with a rustred callous spot exteinally. On the 
underside of the abdominal segments is an irregular greenish median line. Spiracles conspicuous, 
black, ringed with yellowish white or nearly white. One observed August .'50, immediately after 
nn)lting, had a very large head, nearly twice as wide as the slender body, and the suranal jtlate 
was enormous, very wide in i)roport,ion to the width of the body. Horn freely movable, wrinkled 
around the base, veiy black, and tlie black line on each side descends nearly to the spiracle, and 
is very distinct on the purplish reddish skin. 

Rfcapifuldtion. — I. (Congenital characters.) The median dorsal tubercle or incipient "horn" 
on the eighth abdominal segment is in Stage I plainly seen to be double, the result of the 
coalescence and specialization of wdnit wei-e originally two dorsal warts. In Stage II this 
tubercle becomes a well developed, high, conical, liesliy horn. 

li. (xVcipiired or adaptational characters). The prothoracic plate of Stage I disappears in 
Stage II. 

.'}. Ajiijcaranee in Stage II of the dark reddish brown spots and band on the sides of the body. 

4. A])pearance in Stage III of traces of a whitish subdorsal line, while the lateral yellow line 
is well marked. 

5. Horn in Stage IV becoming mui'li as in the last stage, though more flexible. 

Cocoon. — "While ."Mr. (ioodiiue states that "the transformation takes i)lace in a slight cocoon of 
dead leaves fastened together with a few silken threads, on the surface of the ground, nuich in the 
nmnner of Darapsa myron,"' Mw Tepper remarks that the caterpillar enters the ground to jjupate. 


Dr. Dyar, in liis account of the Calitbriiiaii iusect. .states tliat '-tlie larv:e turn bluisli and enter 
the grouiul to pupate, forming' a i-ell lined with sillc." 

Pitpa. — Dark brown. Head case smooth, deeply incised between the abdominal segments. 
Anal segment large and smooth, the cremaster ending in two short points "projecting almost 
laterally from the last segment, which, nevertheless, hold to the silken web with considerable 
tiriniiess. Length, !'<; mm.; width, S mm." (Dyar). 

Food plants. — Feeds on the poplar, aspen, P.alm of Gilead, and willow, both in Maine and in 

Ihdiits. — I first found the singular sphinx-like caterpillar of this moth over twenty-five years 
ago at Brunswick on the Balm of Gilead, September 28. The general color was a purplish lead; 
head and first segment greenish; the horn on tlie eighth segment black, the dark shade prolonged 
into a lateral line; a kiduey-sha])ed spot on the last segment; si)iracles black, encircled with white; 
below a yellow line. Beneath greenish and yellowish straw. October ii it pupated. 

The remarkable larva recalls those of the Sphingidte, and I confess when I first saw it I was 
uncertain whether to regard it as a Sphingiil or not. The horn is slightly retractile, and thus 
being movable, must add to its efficiency as a terrifying appendage, while the black streak on 
the sides heightens the effect of the horn. The spiracles also are so large and conspicuous that 
it is possible that they may add to a visage not altogether prepossessing to those insects or birds 
which may desii-e to lie too intimate with it. Many years ago, when a boy, I found this larva on 
the Balm of Gilead poplar, and well remember the peculiar porcelain polish and lilac tints of 
the glaucous green skin and the iirominent horn. Dr. Lintner (Ent. Contr., iv, 76) has given an 
interesting acconnt of this caterpillar, which he found both on the aspen and the willow, and he 
also at first, as he says, mistook it for some Sphinx larva. 

Dr. Dyar has described (Psyche, Vol. VI, p. 196) at length all the stages (five) of this species 
(P. dimidiatu H. S.) from California, wheie it feeds on poplar and willow. His larva; were found 
iu the Yoseniite Valley, California, and he says that in that region there are two broods a year, 
the winter being passed in the pupa state. (In New York there seem to be also two broods, from 
the statement of Mr. Tepper, given below.) It seems to differ in Stage I from the normal form in 
the eighth abdominal segment having "a single large dorsal dot instead of row 1, but it bears two 
setffi" (p. 351). 

In ]Maine I observed the eggs and freshly hatched young on the underside of the leaves of 
the aspen the 2(\t\i of July and 1st of August. The female lays usually three eggs near together 
on a leaf. The larva does not appear to eat them np, as the eggs are found throughout the 
month, with simply the hole gnawed by the larva in making its exit. The young larva is solitary, 
and eats a patch on the underside of the leaf. The larva in the second and later stages were 
unusually frequent iu Maine in 1800. 

The larva has been described by Jfr. C. F. Goodhue, who has found it on the poplar and 
willow in New Hampshire late in September. "The transformation tfikes place in a slight cocoon 
of dead leaves fastened together with a few silken threads, on the surface of the ground, much in 
the manner of Durupsa myron." The moth api)ears in S])ring, as well as in August: it occurs 
throughout the Eastern and Middle States. 

Mr. F. Tepper has raised the caterpillar which occurred on the willow in New York June 22; 
it went under ground a few days after, and the moth emerged .Vugust 22. 

• Geofp-aphical distribution. — Occurs in the Appalachian and Campestrian subprovinces. Orono, 
Me. (Mrs. Fernald) ; Brunswick, Me. (Packard) ; New Hampshire ((roodluie) ; Amlierst, Mass. (Mrs. 
Fernald); Albany, N. Y. (Lintner, Meske); Plattsburg, N. Y. (Hudson); Seattle, Wash. (Johnson); 
Victoria, British Columbia (Neumoegeii). 

Var. portlandiu, Portland, Oreg. (Behreus, Dyar); normal form Chicago, 111. (Westcott) ; 
Racine, Wis. (Meske); Colorado (U. S. Nat. Mus.); Alaska. Maryland. Colorado, Ohio, and 
Nebraska (U. S. Nat. Mus.); Canada, Maine, New Hampshire. Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New 
York, North Carolina, Los Angeles, Cal., ]\[ichigan (Cook, Mus. Comp. Zool.); Fort Collins, Colo., 
June 20, at light (Baker); New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Nebraska (Pahu). 


Notodonta Ocbseuheimer. 

(PI. XLl. tin- i>; XLII. fig. 1. venation.) 

Kotoionla Oclis.. Schiuett. Enr., ii. p. l."i, IslO. 

Hiibuer, Verz. Sebniett.. ]>. 146, 181(). 
Hylesia (iu part) Hiibuer, Verz. Sebniett.. p. !><{!. 1816. 
Notodonta Hoisil., (ieu. et Iiid. Mi-Ui.. !>. 86. 1810. 

,anil I'eridia, Duponcbcl, tat. Mc'tb. L^p. Eur., ]). HI, 1844. 
Xotodunia Herr.-Scbaeffer, Syst., Bear!)., >Schmett., Eur., ii. 1845. 

Walk., Cat. Lep. Het. Br. Mti.s., v, ]>. 995, 1855. 

Pack., Proc. Ent. Soc. Pbil., iii, p. 356. 1864. 

Stand., Cat. Lep. Eur., p. 72, 1871. 

Grote, Check List N. Am. Motbs, p. 18. 1882. 

Smitb, List Lep. Bor. Amer., p. 30, 1891. 

Kirby, Syn. Cat. Lc]). Het., i. p. 599. 1892. 

(in jiart) \euui. ami Dyar, Traus. Auier. Ent. 8oc., xxi, p. 181, June, 1894; Jonni. N. V. Ent. f*oc., 
ii, )). 113, Sept., 1894. 

Moth. — Head not proiiiiiieut; front ratUer narrow, its vestiturc long- and loose, forming a 
median crest between the antenn;e; the latter pectinated to near the tijis, often with .short stout 
branches which are ciliated at the end; the Joints in 9 simple; a tuft of scales at the base of each 
antenna. Maxilhe slender, about the length of the front. Palpi porrect, reaching to the front, 
moderately stout; third joint not very distinct from the second, which is liairy beneath. Eyes 
hairy. Thorax smooth, not tufted. Fore wings a little less than one-half as broad as long; costa 
convex near the base and toward the apex much more rounded than usual; outer edge oblique, 
nearly as long as the internal edge; tlie apex much more rounded than usual; internal edge full 
near the base, with a prominent tutt in the middle. Venation: Costal region lather wide; no 
subcostal cell: fourth subcostal venule long; discalveiu transverse, not oblique, each \eiu curved; of the hind wings obliciue, both iu the same Hue. not being oblique to each other. Legs 
densely hairy. Abdomen rather full, simple at the end. Coloration of the species usually gray, 
with reddish brown markings, and usually a discal spot. 

The species of this genus ditfer from those of the allied genera in the well-rounded apex of 
the fore wings, the feebly pectinated antenme, the branches being short and ciliated, in the tuft 
on the inner edge, and in the i)resence or lack of a subcostal cell, while the outer edge of the 
wings is not .scalloped. 

I find that although our ^V. fifra(/i<Iii in its larval and most of its adult structnial characters is 
closely related to the pjuro])ean X. zic::ac. yet the latter has no subcostal cell, though one is ])resent 
in N. stragula (three $ examined). In N. siinplarici, however, there is no cell. In larval characters 
our J^. stragula agrees with the li^uropean X. dromedarius, tritoplms, and siczac. 

Larva. — Head large, square; a large high nntant Inunp on second and a lower one on third 
•and a very prominent one on eighth abilomiual segment, the latter ending in two tubercles. Anal 
legs long, but used iu walking. The European species have from three to five Inuups. In the 
European N. zk'zac theie ai'e, judging by Buckler's figures, as iu our species, but three hunq)s; iu 
N. iritopliK.s there arc four, wliile the larva of X. dromedarius most ap2)roaches Nerii^e in having 
Ave humps, four on each of the four basal al)dominal segments and one on the eighth. 

I'upn. — No distinct cremaster, the body being smooth and rounded at the end. 

Geographical distrihutiou. — It is interesting to notice that iu the Kurojiean forms (and in 
Europe there are more species than in North Ameri<'a) there is a tendency among the species, 
which vary in the number of dorsal humi)s, to fill u]) the gap between the genus Notodonta and 
Nerice. In fact, the latter genus exists in northeastern Asia,' and this fact adds another i)oint of 
resemblance between the fauna of lujrtheastern America and northeastern Asia. 


Fore \viii!;s rounded, monse-gray, with reddish brown spots; no cross lines; tuft narrow, pointed; a distinct 

linear discal spot -iV. utraijiaa 

Ash-gray, withnobrown; fore wings with two dark scalloped lines N. simplaria 

' yvricc davUli Obertliur, from tlie north of China. 


Notodonta stragula Grote. 

(PL IV, tig. 4.) 

XotinJonla siragula Orote, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., iii, p. 93, PI. XI, fig. 2, ^ , 1864. 
Piicli., Proc. Eut. Soc. Pliil., iii, p. 357, 1864. 
(iriite, Check List N. Amer. Moths, p. 18, 1882. 
Smith, List Lep. Bor. Amer., p. 30, 1891. 
Kiiby, 8yn. Cat. Lep. Het., i, p. 601, 1892. 
yotoditnUt jxu'ifica Behr, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 2d ser., iii, p. 206, April, 1892. 

striigula Xeum. and Dyar, Traus. Amer. Eut. Soc, xxi, p. 185j Juue, 1894; Jouru. N. Y. Ent. Soc, 
ii, p. 113, Sept., 1894. 


iPl. XIX, tigs. 1-3.) 

Tepper, Bull. Ent. Soc, Brooklyn, i, p. 10, 1878. 

Edicaidn ant! Elliot, I'apilio, iii, p. 129, 1883. 

Packard, 5th Rep. U.S. Kut. Comni. on Forest Insects, pp.456, 463, 1890. 

Moth. — ^Auteiior wings slaty gray, shaded witli pale buff along internal margin, with a. 
chesiiiutbrowii basal ])atch and some brown streaks :uid spots in the terminal space; internal 
margin crested. Extreme base of the wing brownish; basal line distinct; snbbasal space large, 
grayish at casta, rich chestunt-brown below the cubital vein, pale buff along the internal margin, 
which latter shade extends from base to internal tingle. A very dark brown streak extends from 
the basal line to the transverse anterior line below the median vein, and a similar streak at internal 
margin. Transverse anterior line daik brown, grayish at costa, undulate, bordered anteriorly by 
a pale buff shtule from below subcostal vein to internal margin. Median space widest at costa, 
• narrow at internal margin, grayish, with an elongate pale discal spot with dark brown center. 
Transverse posterior line cinereous, indistinct, subdeutate, continued. Terminal space with a 
series of rich chestnut-brown streaks between the veins; two more, linear, near the a])ex. Posterior 
wings pale cinereous with two indistinct median bands; anal angle touched with brownish. 
TLiorax and collar brownish; teguhe grtiyish; abdomen cinereous, slightly brownish above. Under 
surface of thorax and inside of legs brownish; outside of legs and sides of thorax clothed with 
cinereous hairs. Expanse of wings, 1.(10 inches. (Grote.) 

Dr. Dyar writes me that he has seen Behr's X. liacifica. "It is just like X. struf/nla, but 
darker, the thorax most black.'' I have also seen a poor specimen in Mr. Dyar's collection. It may 
be compared with rheosia portlaiidia, which I regard as a melanotic form of P. (litiiidiafa. I 
copy Behr's description. 

Anterior wings; basal third brown, Ijonlered by a, darker line, preceded by a dilution; from these the anterior 
half ashy gray, the posterior half lirown; the second line convergent and almost touching the first line that borders 
the basal third of the wing, preceded by a discal linear mark, which is followed by a diluted shade, ending with a 
well-darkened apical mark, divided by two nerves into three spots. Near the external margin a diluted fulvous 
shade. Hind wings grayish. 

Found in Placer County, Cal. 

The species is similar to X. :ic:ac, but the thorax is darker than the anterior wings. 

Type in collection of the California Academy of Sciences. 

Lan-fi. — Dr. Dyar has sent nie the following description of the early larval stages from his 

" Stage I. — On hatcliing the larvti runs to the apex of the leaf and sits with the anterior half of 
its body projecting. It eats the upper surface of the leaf. Hetid round, pale brown; width, 5 
mm. Body shiidng, sordid greenish, a subdorstil whitish line which becomes broken into oblique 
segmentary lines ou the abdomen, a whitish lateral line. Segments (> and 12 slightly enlarged 
dorsally. Thoracic feet iind leg plates black. Cervical shield pale brown, tiansverse. Tubercles 
distinct, black, normal i-v, vi absent, a long one on the leg plate. (It is strncttu-ally not different 
from Nerice in Stage I, and has the same habits. 

■• StfKjc II. — Head high, narrowed toward the vertex, flattened before: smoky blackish mottled 
with pale in front in two illdeflned vertical bands. Body dark purplish with a blackish dorsal 
band and a pale .shade on the side of the hump on abdominal segment 8 and slight pale lateral 
obli(iue lines. Prominence ou abdominal segment 2 very slight. Thoracic feet black. Sette short 
and obscure. 



"iS<rt//e ///. — Ileail narrowing toward vertex, witli an angle between tlie front and sides; 
clypeus ratber large; futures evident, tlie median depressed at vertex. J>ody cylindrical, abdonnnal 
segment S enlarged dorsally, sloping oil' rapidly to segment 9, which is small; anal I'eet used, 
about the same size as the other abdominal ones. On abdominal segment 2 a dorsal fleshy hump, 
low, conical, nutant; a very slight one also on alxlominal segment 3. Color lilac-white, diffusely 
marked along the sides with a darker shade. A brownblaelc dorsal band narrowing out and 
disappearing on abdominal segments 4-(>, but distinct again posteriorly. Thoi-acic feet dark, a 
iaint white stigmatal line. 

••tStdi/c IV. — Head higher than protliorax, concolorous with body, with a |iuri)lish ))and from 
the paliii narrowing to the vertex of each lobe. Some nearly concolorous niottlings, especially 
laterally jiosteriorly. Body lilac-white; the daikcr lateral streaks become obli<|ue subdorsals, but 
are faint, as is the white stigmatal line. Dorsal band continuous, but very narrow on abdominal 
segments 4-0, velvety brown l)iMrk on tlie nutant Inunp on abdominal segment ;.*, reddish on the 
hump on S. Venter heavily shaded with i)urple-bro\vn. begs all dark; a white line on the one 
on alidominal segment (i. Tubercles small, concolorous with very line short seta-. Seta i is borne 
on the hump on the eighth abdonnnal segment, but only on the bases of the horns on abdominal 
segments 2 and '.'. Altogether similar to the last (fifth) stage." (Dyar.) 

Dr. Dyar has reared the larva, and finds that there are five stages. The widths of the head are 
(iu the larva examined) 0.5, 1.1, l.C, 2.35, 3.5 mm. 

Larvit before last molt. — Head large, oval, flattened iu front, mirrowing toward the vertex, 
which is slightly bilobed; the head is wider than the thoracic segments; the body is thickest on 
the second and third abdominal segments, on each of which is a thick, fleshy, conical, soft tubercle, 
the apex falling over backward; they may be elevated and somewhat enlarged or dei)ressed, the 

anterior tubercle the larger of the two; the body is much 
humiicd dorsally on the eighth segment; supraiinal ])late 
smooth, much rounded; the anal legs sleiuler, not nearly so 
thick as the other abdominal legs. General color pearly, 
glaucous, whitish gray, somewhat marbled with brown; head 
of tlie same color, marbled with frown; a broad, faint, lateral 
band shaded behind with white. A brown dorsal line extends 
from b(diind the head to apex of second tubercle on third 
abdominal s(\gment; theni'e a faint vascular line extends to 
end of supiaanal plate. The hump on eighth .segment pale 
rust, yellowish red on sides, deeper above in the middle. A 
l)ale ])inkish stigmatal line. Length, 20 mm. 
j\Iature ?«/■(■«.— Length, -10 mm. Does not differ except in size from previous stage. The head 
is rather square on the sides, narrowing above, and scarcely bilobed above; it is of the same 
general shai)e as in Schizura and In this species, instead of a single hump on the first 
abdonnnal segment, there is a large, high, soft, movable humj) on the second, and which nods 
backward, besides one a little stouter and shorter on the third. The humps are simple, with no 
traces of a fork or of bristles, and they are both brownish, of the hue of a dead dry leaf. The 
very prominent hump on the eighth abdominal segnu'nt bears two slight low tubercles, but no 
bristles. The anal legs are long and slender, but the planta is well ]U(ividcd with crochets. 
Underside of body dusky; the pale lilac lateral line sends a branch down the middle of the feet 
on the sixth abdominal segment. 

I add Mv. Ivhvards's description of the full-fed c;iterpillar: 

■ Heail shito cnlor, inoltlod witli lilark. ami witU a ]iali,' slrijio on rai'li isiilc. Mouth parts with a urci'iiisli tiugo. 
Body ]iaIo lilac, witli the exception i>l' the eli'vc-nth aud twrlfth se^iiH'iits, which arc dull goldi'ii. The .sevciilh and 
eiglith scginents have raised proiiiiiiciiccs, whicli arc also gohleu, that of the seventh being the largest. I, literally 
there are some pale obliiino streaks somewhat similar to those of many Sjihingidic; these do not meet on the back, 
where there is a taint slate-colored line. Uetween the second and sixth segments, and common to all of these, is ii 
darker dorsal shade which reappears on the eleventh and twelfth sigiiients. The sjiiracles are white, with a black 
ring, aud the lower lateral line is paler than the rest of the body. The twelfth segment bears a liiinip. and (he sides 
of till! eleventh, twelfth, and thirteenth segments are pale brown, mottled with orange. Alulominal legs dull slate 
color, mottled with black; thor.acic legs black. Length, 55 mm. 

Fio. 6G — End of pupa of Xotoilonta strngula. 
al, anal legs; cr, the vestigial crema-ster. 


Piipn. — S . Botly ratlier sleuder, mucli as in Lopboiloiita. Head rounded as usual. Abdominal 
segnieuts .smooth, sparsely and finely pitted; end of the abdomen smooth, ending- in a short, very 
broad, cremaster, bearing near tlie outer edge on the underside four or five short spines and with 
two spines, one on each side, at the end. Ve.stiges of the larval male sexual aperture with an oval 
area on ea(;h side. Length. 17 mm. 

Food pl(tiit.s. — Willow and poplar. 

Habits. — The cateriiillar of this moth lias been reared by ]Mr. Tejiper in Xew Yorlv. It was 
found on the poplar July 4, the moth appearing July 27. (Bull. Ent. Soc. Broolclyn. i, 10.) 
Messrs. Edwai'ds and Elliot have found the food plant to be the willow. 

This singular caterpillar is not uncommon at Brunswick, Me., late in August. It has the 
peculiarity of raising and depressing the two large dorsal horns in the middle of the body; when 
at rest they are depressed, appearing simply as humps; when erect they are somewhat larger and 
evagiuated, with their psendojoints like those of a telescope; probably they serve to frighten away 
ichneumons. My specimens molted for the last time August 31. 

A caterpillar of this species was ol)served feeding on the extremity of a partially eaten leaf 
of poplar, and its obli(]ue markings bore a striking resemblance to the twisted, partly dead, and dry 
portion of the leaf. The larva stood feeding in a very conspicuous position, and would easily be 
mistaken for an end of the poplur leaf. 

The larva occurs in 3Iarch, J\Iay, June, July, August, and September. (liiley MS.) 

GeotjrapMcal d'iKtrilnttioii. — Tliis s])ecies is not uncommon in Maine, Canada, and southern 'New 
England, inhabiting the Appalacliinn subpinvince.. Orono, Me. (Jlrs. Fernald); Brunswick, Me. 
(Packard); Amherst, Mass. (Mrs. Fernald); Brookline (Shurtleff); Williamstown, Alass. (Nason./tfZe 
Grote); New Jersey (Palm); Chicago, III. (Westcott); Brooklyn, N. Y. (Tepper, Elliot); Plattsburg, 
N. Y. (Hudson); New York, Canada, Pittsfield, N. H.; Maine (U. S. Nat. Mus.); Canaila, .Maine, 
Massachusetts, Wisconsin, Tifliii, Ohio; Champaign, 111. (French). The dark form jMC/yica Behr 
occurred in Placer County, Cal. 

Notodonta simplaria Gr.aef. 

(PI. IV, fig. G.) 

Notoilonin simplaria Graef. Bull. Ent. Soc. lirooklyu, iii, p. 9.5, 1881, pi. 1. (The figure scarcely roc(>gnizal)le.) 

Grote, Check List N. Auier. Jloths, p. 18, 1882. 

Smith, List Lep. Bor. Amer.. p. 30, 1891. 

Kirl)y, Syu. Cat. Lep. Het., i, p. 601, 1892. 
Phcosia simplaria Neniii. and Dyav, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, xxi, p. 195, 1894; Joiirn. N. Y. Ent. Soc, ii, p. 
113, Sept., 1894. 

This is a true Notodonta. The antenna- are pectinated in the same manner. Fore and hind 
wings a little sharper at the apex, especially the hind wings, hinder edge of collar and inner 
edge of patagia black, and a black spot over the scutellum. Thorax gray, dark behind. 

Fore wings granite ash-gray, and rather dark, blackish at base. On the inner third of the 
wing is a transverse scalloped line, the end of the line oblique, directed inward, and ending on 
the short broad tuft. A distinct linear di.scal spot encircled by whitish scales. Extradiscal line 
much excurved, so as to reach a point halfway between the discal spot and the apex of the wing; 
it is not wavy in its obli(iue course in the median, but scallo])ed on the submcdiau 
space, and ending on the hind edge in a distinct, not wavy line, exactly parallel with that ending 
on the tooth. A submarginal row of dusky intervenular round spots; fringe white, with seven 
black dots. Hind wings whitish, a linear diffuse discal discoloration, but with no transverse 
diffuse median band. 

lTnder.side of the wings uniformly pale whitish gray, a diffuse dark extradiscal line, with 
discal spots. (Description drawn up from a S compared by Mrs. Slosson with Mr. Graef 's type.) 

I']xpanse of wings, c? , 18-50 mm.; length of body, $ , 19-20 mm. 

(ieoi/raphical distribution. — Catskill, N. Y., August (Graef); St. Johns, New Brunswick 
{H. Edwards); New York (French). 

Note. — Notodontu pUnjiuta Walk., Cat. Lep. Het. Br. iMus., vii, p. 1749, 1850, belongs to the 
Euroiiean A. tritophus (tide Grote and Eobiuson), with an erroneous locality. 


(I'l. XIX, li;.'. ."), ")«, 56.) 

This beaiitil'iil and interesting' larva was detecteJ on tlu' yellow l)ireli at Hruuswick, Me., 
Anjinst It. It was dark liorn-biown, tlie tail upturned, and the body wiu'u disturlx'd twisted into 
a partial spiral. The next day it molted. 1 had supposed it might be a Ncttodoutian, but Dr. Dyar 
on reading my description thinks it is almost surely a Noctuid, and that it has been described by 
II. Thaxter. The following deserii)tion was made two days after it had molted and before the liody 
had tilled out, as it tapered sliglitly to tlie end: 

Sta(/e III'. — Length, 8-9 mm. The head is large and broad, somewhat rouiuled, but seen 
from in front somewhat scjuare, being about as broad as long; it is much wider than the body, the 
latter not yet being hlled out; it is ])ale, raw sienna brown, with dense reddish brown spots 
arranged in two broad diffuse median and two broad dill'uso longitudiual bands; it is slightly 
bilobed and nuich rounded on the vertex, not angular, and with no tubercles. The segments of 
the body are transversely wrinkled. The body above is of a peculiar dark sea-green hue, and 
below this runs into a dark umber bi'own. The first thoracic segment has no tubercles or marks, 
but is dark brown on the sides and on tlie back, with irregular scattered pale spots. On the 
second thoracic segment is a prominent transverse ridge, with a small tubercle at each end; it is 
dark on the anterior slojie, but on the summit and on the iiosterior slope whitish ash. This jiale 
area extends back to the fust abdominal segment, but does not include it, though it passes down 
to the side of that segment and extends backward, forming a lateral diffuse, rather irregular 
si)iracular baiul, from which a pair of oblicpie pale stripes extend upward upon the back, not (juite 
reaching the line nu^dian blackisli line; posteriorly it forms tlu; ])ale edge of the suranal plate. 
A decided dorsal hump on the eighth abdominal segment, which is dark velvety umber-brown 
with the hinder edge below whitish. The end of the body is decidedly elevated, and the dark 
anal legs are as large as the middh; set of abdominal legs, which are tiesli colored. The thoracic 
legs are dark green, concolorous with the thoracic segment. 

EUida (Jrote. 
{in. XLII. lig. I, veii.-itiou.) 

EUida (irote, Can. Eut., viii, p. 125, July, lS7t>. 
Cijmuto}ihora Walk., Cut. Lcp. Het. Br. Miis., ix. p. IS, 1856. 
ElUda Kirliy, Syn. Cat. Lep. Het., 1, p. 5!)7, 1892. 

Neuin. and Dyar, Trans. Auier. Eut. Soc, xxi, p. 187, June, 1894; .louru. N. V. Eut. Soc, ii,p. 208,. 
Sept., 1894. 

Moth, — Head much as in Notodonta; the front shaggy, moderately wide; the hairs abundant; 
eyes naked. The nuile antenuic broadly pectinated; "female autenua- more shortly and finely 
bipectinate" (Grote). The palpi much as in Notodonta, being short and broad, the third joint 
short and conical, but distinct, and reaching slightly beyond the front. The thorax is smooth, 
not tufted. 

Fore wings not broad, the costa regularly convex ; the apex not produced and rounded as in 
Notodonta, but uu)derately acute; (mter edge short; inner edge simple, not tufteil. Venation 
much as in L. haxitrieiis, there being no subcostal cell. Tlie costal region is rather wide; 
six subcostal branches, the second very short; tlie sixth arises nearer the discal vein than in 
L. hasitricihs. The arrangement of the discal veins is much as in />. Iiasifricns, their course being 
nearly straight. Ilind wings somewhat pointed toward the apex. Tlie subcostal does not fork so 
far out near the outer edgt' of the wing as in Notodouta, while the two discal veins taken together 
make a regular curved line. 

The abdomen is smooth, not tufted at the end, l)ut conical. Legs moderately stout, pilose; 
a pair of discal si)urs on the hind tibia- not i>roJecting far beyond tlie hairs. 

Coloration somewhat as in ^Schiziira hptinoiilcs, reminding one at first of that species; fore 
wings ash-gray, with transverse lines, but the venules only slightly marked with dark spots and 
streaks. A di.stinct cni'vilinear discal sjjot and Just within it three short parallel distinct brown 
lines, which are most distinct in the median space. Ilind wings ash-brown. Collar dark. 



The geuus differs from Notodoiita in the more stroiiji'ly pectinated aiitenniv, in the more 
pointed, less rounded wings, and iu the venation. The palpi axe nearly the same. 
Larva. — Tnknown. 
Gvoijrapldctil (lixtrlhidion. — So far as known, confined to the Appalachian subproviuce. 

Ellida cauiplaga (Walk.). 
(PI. IV, tig. 24.) 

Ci/miilojiliora caniplaija Walk., Cat. Ll'[). V>r. Mus., ix, p. 18, 1856. 
Edema transversata Walk., t'at. Lep. Br. Mns., xxxii, p. 427, 186.5. 
Tiombjicia caniplaija Grote, Bull. Butt'. Soe. Nat. Sci., ii, p. 5, 1874. 
EUkla gelida Grote, Can. Ent., viii, p. 126, July, 1876; New Check List N. Amer. Moths, p. 19, 1882. 

Smith, List Lep. Bor. Amer., p. 30, 1891. 

Kirl.y, Syn. Cat. Lep. Het., i, p. .597, 1892. 

Smith, Cat. Lep. Snperfamily Noctuidae, ji. 29, 1893. 
EUida cnuiplaya Neum. and Dyar, Trans. Aiuer. Ent. Soc, xxi, p. 208, 1894; .Jouru. N. Y. Ent. Soc, ii, p. 117, 
Sept., 1894. 

Moih. — Two S . Head, palpi, and prothoracic collar vandykebrown. the front part of the 
thorax contrasting with the mouse-gray hinder portion. Fore wings uniform asli-gray; no 
distinct transverse line at the base, but just before the middle of the wing are three vandyke- 
brown parallel close-set lines which begin on the costa, but are most distinct and heavy between 
the subcostal vein and above the median fold ; the outermost and innermost of the three lines 
extend to the inner edge of the wing, but the middle one is obsolete. The outermost of the three' 
lines is situated very near the dark A'andyke brown, distinct, curvi- 
linear discal spot, and this distinguishes the species from any other 
Xotodontian. On the outer fourth of the wing are two faint scal- 
loped dark lines, represented by venular dots; a marginal row of 
irregidar brown spots. 

Hind wings and abdomen dark ash-gray, autl both pairs of wings 
beneath of the same hue. The underside of the costa is not check- 
ered with light and dark spots, as it is in Schizura and other genera. 

Expanse of wings, $ 37-4:! mm.; length of body, i l'> mm. 

At first this species might be mistaken for a variety of Schizura 
leptinoiih's^ as the shape of the wing, the discal spot, and the lines 
are similar, but in no other species is the linear dark discal spot 
situated so near the transverse lines, these three lines being heavier 
and most distinct iu the middle of the wing. Also the dark brown 
collar is peculiar, the thorax not being tufted. The i)ectinated $ 
antennie will separate the genus from any except Notodonta, to which it is nearest allied. 

Profes.sor Smith includes this genus iu the Noctui(he, placing it in Boinbycia, but its venation 
is that of the Xotodontime, as it has but three branches of the cubital vein, and the subco.stal 
venules are as in the IS^otodontinjie. He also remarks: ''The type is in the Saunders collection at 
Oxford, England, A figure sent lue by Mr. Schaus proves it to be ^ Edema transversata Walk., 
EUida (jelida Grt."" (Oat. Noctuid;^, p. 20, 1S93.) 

Geoijraphical distrihution. — Xew York (Dyar); St. Catherines, Canada (Xorman); Canada 
(French); Kittery, Me. [II. Thaxter); Plattsburg, X. Y., April 21), May 1.'), 10,30 (G. H. Hudson). 

Nerice Walker, 
(n. .\MI1, figs. 1, 1». Venation.) 

Xerice Walk., Cat. Lep. Het. Br. Mus., pt. v, p. 1076, 1855. 
Pack., Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., iii, p. 358, 1861. 
Grote, New Check List N. Amer. Moths, p. 19, 1882. 
Smith, List Lep. Bor. jVmer., p. 30, 1891. 
Kirliy', Syu. Cat. Lep. Het., i, p. 487, 1892. 

Xeum. ami Dyar, Trans. jVmer. Ent. Soc, xxi, p. 187, .June, 1894; Jonrn. N. Y. Ent. Soc, ii, p. 114, 
Sept., 1894. 

Motli. — Head moderately prominent; front squarish, motlerately broad, the scales on it evenly 
cut, rather .short; the tuft at the base of each antenna rather prominent, Antenn;v not quite half 
as long as the fore wings, and in $ well pectinated to the tips; the branches four times as long as 

Fig. 67.— Frenulum loop on the costal 
Toiu of the fore wing of Xerice bidentata. 


the aiitt'iiiial joints, and ciliated. ral])i larjie and stont, ascending, (■nr\in}i- np in front of the 
clypens, and reaching well beyond the front of the head; tlii^ hairs beneatli thick and sijreading:; 
third joint small, conical. Maxilla- short, not i-eachiiiR- out to the i)ali)i. 'J'liorax with a hiiili 
pointed median tuft, sloi)ing behind. 

Fore wings a little less than one-half as broad as long; costa convex, es])ecially toward the 
apex, which is ronnded; outer edge obliciue, .slightly convex to the internal edge. Venation: A 
long narrow snl)costal cell; second and third subcostal \enules unusually shoit, tlie a])ical sjiace 
between the costa and subcostal vein being very narrow; in this resjiect the genus is much as in 
Lophodonta (especially L. Imsitriens); the third subcostal \eiiule is one-half as long as the second. 
The venation is otherwise as in Notodouta. the discal veins being the same, and vein A*I loojied at 
base, as in Notodonta. 

The genus differs from Xotodonta in having no tnft on the inner edge. The hind wings differ 
from those of Notodonta in being shorter and rounder and in tlie apex being more luoduced, 
while the venation difl'ers in the costal vein being longer and turned up at the end on the costa; 
otherwise the venation is much as in Notodonta. 

The legs are much as in Notodonta, being rather slender, the femora and tibia' densely ])ilose, 
the latter with moderately large tibial s]iines. Abdomen blunt at the end, with a small anal tuft. 

Coloration : The only North American species is whitish gray, with brown between th(> cubital 
vein and the costa, sending two prominent teeth toward the internal edge. There are no 
transverse lines of any sort. The hind wings are chocolate-brown. 

This genus is distinguished by the antenna' being pectinated to the end, and with longer 
branches than in Notodonta; by the large palpi extending well in front of the head; especially by 
the high prominent median thoracic tuft, and by the well-rounded apex of the fore wings. It 
differs from Notodonta not only in the more broadly i)ectinated antenna", but in the much longer 
l)alpi and tlie squarer fore wings, the outer edge being less oblique, while the internal edgi' is 
simjile, not bearing a tuft. The bind wings ai"e also a little shorter and more roimded at the apex 
than in Notodonta. 

Larva. — The larva differs from tliat of Notodonta, or anj- other genus of tlic family, in the 
abdominal segments being nearly all provided with a dorsal hump, the abdominal segments 1 to S 
having each a "large anteriorly directed prominence ending in a bifid ridge, the incision being 
transverse, the anterior portion being curved backward and larger than the jiosterior part, tlie 
two looking very nnuli like the bill of an eagle, and susceptible of being opened and closed." 
(Marlatt.) It is silvery green, with dark bluish green subdorsal and lilaceous lines on the thoracic 
segments. It is evidently adapted for protection wiiile feeding on the edge of an elm leaf, the 
serrations of the body resembling those of the edge of the leaf of its food plant. 

Pupa. — Body rather stout, somewhat ]>ointed at the end, which bears an unusually long, 
.slender, smooth, round cremaster, armed with very short (uirled seta-, and ends in two u|)-curved 
slender, hooks. The surface of the body with shallow and sparse ])its; on the sutures of the 
abdominal segments very finely .shagrcened. 

Cocoon. — Formed of thick, brownish silk, situated within folded leaves or under some slight 
I)rotectioa at the surface of the soil. Concealed by particles of earth. (Marlatt). 

Geof/raphical distribution. — Besides a single species inhabiting the Atlantic and Central 
States of North America, including Kansas, Walker describes a species (V.jxr //;>?«) from Nepaul, 
and Oberthur desia-ibes and figures X. davidi from the north of China, wliicli is very similar to 
•our bidcntata. The geuus is not represented iu western Asia, southern India, oriu Europe. 


Neiice bidentata Wiilkcr. 
(I'l. VII. Ii-. 15.) 

Nerii'e hUlentnta Walk., Cat. Lep. Br. Miis., v, p. 1076,,"). 
Pack., Proc. Eiil. Soc. Pliil., iii. p. 358, )8til. 
(irote, Check List N. Auier. Jloth.s. p. Ill, 1S82. 

Marlatt, Trans, of 20tli and 21st meetings of Kansas Acart. Sc. fur 1887-88. xi, p. 110, 1889. 
Pack., Fifth IJep. U. S. Eut. Conim. Ins. luj. Forest anil Shade Trees, p. 267, 1890. 
Smith, List Lep. Bor. Amer., p. 30, 1891. 
Kirby, Syu. Cat. Lep. Bor. Amer., i, p. 487, 1892. 

Nenm. and Dyar, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc xxi, p. 187. .Jnne. 1894; Jonr. N. Y. Kut. 8oc., ii, 
p. 114, Sept., 1894. 


(PI. XIX, fig. 4, and PI. XXIII. figs. 1. In, 1/,, 1,., 1,/.) 

Mid-Iatl. Traus. 20tli and 21st meetings Kansas Acad. Sc. for 1887-88, xi, p. 110, 1889. (Figs, of egg. larva, 
impa and motl).) 
Packard, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., xxiv, p. 525, 1890. 
Sonic. Psyche, vi. p. 276, .luuc, 1892. (Egg. five larval stages, and pnpa described.) 

Mdlh.— Three S . Head, protliorax, and thoracic tuft sable-biown, tbe re.stof the thorax and 
the internal border of the fore wiug.s cinereous, edged iu front \vith silvery white; this latter 
l)ortioii of tlie wing is twice deeply indented by an inner, small, rounded tooth and an outer, large, 
broadly triangular projection. The dark brown median portion shades into cinereous toward the 
costo apical portion : two short oblique brown lines inai'gined below with cinereous are situated, 
each in an intervenulnr space, just above the middle of tlic outer margin. The hind wings, as well as 
both pairs beneatli, are very light brown. A faint median diffuse darker line crosses both wings. 

Length of body, S , 15 mm.; expanse of wings, S , 40 mm. 

£(1(1. — "0.0 by 0..5.") mm. Shape, hemispherical, with a broad fiatteiied base, irregularly 
encircled by a whitisli cement fastening to the leaf. Surface shining, apparently smooth, but 
when highly magnified is found to be covered with raised lines inclosing minute polygonal, usually 
six-sided, areas. Color, honey- yellow; after hatching, nearly white.'' (Marlatt.) " Very hke the 
eggot' Xddatu gibbosa.''' (Soule.) (For Larval stages 
I-IV see Apxiendix A.) ^ ^ ^ ^"S. / 

Xrfrra.— "Length, 1.25 inches. General color, ^J*' ' " - *^-^^'' " "^ ^ /^4 
polished bluish green. Head narrower above than "'■^'^ ' ij^^£// 

below and larger than segment 1; head of the same '^ ,-tr>. ^ i 

l)olished green hue as the body, with four perpendic- *'^,^'- &■ -^^ ""^ ^ I A 

ular silvery green lines, the two outer ones running ' W^ t i, \j.^~' 

parallel to the triangular piece and then taking its ^ y < ^ ^^j^ 

V-shaped form. A row — four to six — of minute black ■^ '""I" ~ ■*• " e-"^^ 

eye-spots at base of palpi. Three thoracic segments, '^^:^^:it:^^^^^^^ ^•^^^'^')^ 
above pale silvery green, interrupted, however, by a ^'-'^i— .^ssa 

straight dorsal and wavy subdorsal line of the dark Fio. GS. .Vmce bidentata: a.mMh-. b.Urra-. c, pnpa: d. 

1-1*, 1 , 11 CI i-ii_i-f-i folded leaf inclosiDi; the cocoon, all natural .size: e. the es^ 

■bluish green general color. Segments 4 to 11, inclu- „„i ,., ,i „.:,i, „„,i:„ <-,i,„ ,*■ ,. i -^r 

^ ^ ^ ^ eiiljii'iietL with outline ol the .siirracc i):\lteru rauc-n lu.ignified. 

sive, each with a large anteriorly directed prominence c. l. Maiiatt, iw. 
ending in a bifid ridge, the incision being trausvc^rse, 

the anterior portion being curved backward and larger than the posterior part, the two looking very 
much like the bill of an eagle and snscei)tible of being opened and closed. Segments fiom 1 to (J 
gradually increasing; to about of a size, or showing but a very slight decrease; 10 and 11 
somewhat smaller and of a size, though the prominence on 11 is more pointed and higher than 
that on 10. Steei) decline from 11 to anus, with but a very slight prominence on 12. The upper 
half of the body, including prominences, is silvery-green, with the dark lines already mentioned 
on thoracic segments, and an oblique dark line running on the other segments from anterior base 
of prominence to the i)osterior portion of the following segment. Summits of prominences yellowish, 
with extreme edges brown. Spiracles yellowish with a lilaceous annulation. Thoracic segments 
with a lilaceous line, bordered above with yellow immediately above the; segments 4 and 5 with 
a distinct and the rest of the segments each Avith an indistinct patch of the same two colors in a 
line with it, frequently becoming confluent and forming another line from 10 to anal legs." (Riley.) 
This larva, judging by the figure aud descriptiou of Mr. C. L. Marlatt," is an exaggeration of 

'Trans. 20th and 21staunii;il meetings of the Kansas Aoailemy of Science, 1887-88, xi, 1889, 110. 


the ;ii)pearance of the European A', (h-omcihiriiis. as each abdominal segment from tlic fust to the 
niiitli bears a hirge, tk>shy, two tootlied huni]). the tliree hii-gest on sejj'ments 3 to '>. Thus the 
outHne of the back is serrate, and perhaps mimics tlie serrate edge of the leaf of tlie elm on which 
it feeds. The body is greenish, with the upper half of the sides washed with white, with crimson 
spots ami bands, tiie tip of the dorsal protuberances being also crimson. 

Mr. Marlatt does not state wliether the dorsal tubercles are movable, or whether the caterpillar 
is jirotected by mimicking the outlines or the colors of the leaves of its food plants. Further 
observations are needed on this ])oint. 

Cocoon. — ''The cocoon is formed on the surface of the earth, and consists of loose, yielding 
silk and earth." (Riley.) Marlatt states that the caterpillars spin "cocoons of stout, brownish 
silk in folded leaves or under some slight protection at the surface of the soil, coiu'.ealed by 
particles of earth. 

Pu2)a. — The body is rather thick, the cremaster very blunt, with a long, slender, acute point 
bearing very short curled set:x>, and divided at the end into two minute forks. Surface of the 
body with shallow sparse pits; on the sutures of the abdomen very finely shagreened. Length, 
lG-18 mm. "The pupa was very active, rolling a foot or more at a time." (Soule.) 

I am indebted to Miss Caroline G. Soule for the excellent colored figure of the larva on PI. XIX. 

JlnhUn. — Mr. Marlatt has published in the Transactions of the Twentiefli and Twenty-first 
Annual greetings of the Kansas Academy of Science (1S87-8S) an account of the habits and 
transformations, with the accompanying figures, of this singular Notodoutian. It appears to be 
double brooded, as the moths appeared in Kansas from May to June, and the females deposited 
their eggs at that time, a second brood of moths probably appearing about the 1st of August, 
as the caterjjillars became fully grown September 14 to 21. They spin cocoons of stout, brownish 
silk within folded leaves (fig. GM) or under some slight ])rotection at the surface of the soil, 
concealed by particles of earth. 

I once found the larva on the elm at Providence fully grown September 3, but lailed to 
describe it; it pupated September <i, and the moth appeared in May of the following year. 

We are indebted for the following notes on (he larva to Professor Eiley: 

Found September IG, 1869, .it Bellville, on the comiiiou elm. .a most singular caterpillar. September 26, 18GS), 
they all descended to the ground and formed their cocoons in the same corner of the breeding cage. It issued the 
following May 4. 1870. From a larva found feeding on the elm August 26 the moth issued September 21. (Fifth 
Rep. v. S. Ent. Comm. p. 267. ) 

^[r. Dyar writes that he has found the larva in its second stage early in the sunnncr (June) 
in its "])erch.'' at Keene Valle.y, Essex (county, N. Y. 

Food plant. — It has not yet been found on any other plant than the elm. 

Geographical (Ihtrihutlon .—T\w genus ranges through the A))palachiau into the eastern 
portions of the Campestrian subprovince, not having yet been observed west of the great plains. 

Franconia, N. H. (Slosson); Brookline, Mass. (INIiss Soule); Amherst, (Mrs. Fernald); 
Trenton Falls, N. Y'. (D(mbleday); Providence, R. T. (Packard); New York (<irote); Missouri 
(Itiley and Miss Murtfeldt); Eastern Kansas (Marlatt); Topeka, Kaus. (Popenoe); Canada, 
Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, "Wi.sconsin, Ohio, Carbondale, 111. (French); Plattsburg, 
N. Y. (Iludson); New Jersey, Pennsylvania (Palm); Chicago, 111. (Westeott). 

Dasylophia Packard. 
(I'l. XLII, ligs. .5, 5(1, 6, venation.) 

riiiildiiu Abbot and Smith, Xat. Hist. l.ep. Ins. Georgia, p. I(i7, Tab. LXXXIV, 1797. 
Siitixlonlii Harris, Cat. Ins. Mass., p. 73, 183."). 
Dalniia^ Walker, Cat. Lcp. Br. Mus., v, p. 1062, 18.->.5. 
Datami? Morris, .Synopsis l.ep. N. .\mer., ]) 247, 1886. 
Iiasiilophia Pa<-k., Proc. Knt. Soc. Phil., iii, p. .362, 1864. 

(Jrote, Now Chock List X. Amer. Mollis, p. 19, 1882. 

Smith, List Lep. lior. Anu^r.. p. 30. 1891. 
Ualima Kirby, Syn. {'at. Lep. Het., i, p. 569, 1892. 

Dasylophia Ncum. and Dyar, Trans. Amer. Knt. Soc, xxi, p. 200, June, 1894,' .lonrn. N. V. Knt. Soc, ii, p. 116, 
Sept., 1894. 

Moth. — Head large and rather prominent, vertex with two high pointed erect tufts, the tips of 
which meet over the vertex, reaching to the level of the thorax in 9, a little shorter in S. 
Antennie with long slender pectinations on the basal two-thirds, while the remaining third is 


pio\ iik'd witli l;itt'iiil seta' ; in 5 simple. Palpi slightly asceiulinji'; third Joint pa.ssing beymid. the 
trout, .secoud joint slightly curved iijiward. the srales beneath the joints being short: tiiird juint 
halt as long as the second, porreet, being directed forward at a slight angle with the second joint. 

Thorax short; the scales of the prothorax distinctly marked. 

Fore wings hardly one-half as long as broad: costa very slightly concave in the middle, 
toward the tip a little convex; outer margin oblique; internal angle obtuse; the inner edge near 
the base of the wing is full in S , in the 2 straight. Venation: A short subcostal cell, the discal 
vein of both wings forming a regular curve. Hind wings with the costa long and straight, apex 
subrectangular; from thence the outer margin is longer than usual and slowly rounded to the 
not very distinct internal angle. The wings reach to the basal two-thirds of the abdomen. 

Legs pilose, the anterior femora densely so, those of the 9 with longer scales, and more 
irregularly and thickly pilose. 

Abdomen long, cylindrical, with lateral tufts, and tip of S slightly tufted. 

In coloration the species are generally gray, with dark streaks running parallel to the venules. 
There is a distinct basal longitudinal mesial streak and an outer very distinct geminate curved line. 

The long, slender, arnte pal])!, the high conical tufts on the vertex of the head, the shape of 
the wings, their markings, and the venation are sutficiently diagnostic of this genus. 

Egp. — Shape of a flattened spheroid, the upper pole somewhat concave, a little broader at tlie 
base than at the top. Surface of the shell covered with polygonal areas, which varj- somewhat in 
shape, size, and distance a])art, the interspaces being rather broad. 

Larva. — Head round; ixidy elong.ited, rather slender, of nearly uniform thickness, with a low 
rounded black dorsal knob on the eighth abdominal segment; no other armature except a jiair of 
subdorsal black warts on the lirst abdominal segment. Anal legs slender, uplifted. Three lateral 
black lines, and base of all the legs witii a black patch. Freshly hatched larva : Head very large, 
body tapering behind; end of body with the slender anal legs, which are bookless and slightly 
reversible, held up while in motion. Two subdorsal conspicuous papilhe on the first abdominal 
segment, and two similar but mu(;li smaller ones on the eighth, which in the last stage form the 
single dorsal knob. Glandular hairs unusually long, thick, davate, black, clear, and colorless at 
the end. 

Cocoon. — Thin, loose but somewhat tough, covered with bits of earth, etc., and spun on the 
surface of the ground. 

Pupa. — Cremaster conical, cleft at the end, each fork blunt, and bearing three hooked setfe. 
/ Geof/niphicdl (ll.strlhi(t!oii. — Of the two species known, one {iiifi-ni<() is confined to thi; 
Appalachian subprovince and the other ranges through the A])palachian and the Austroriparia i 

Q^^dcnia.sia sciiata Di-uce (Biol. Centr. Amer., p. 23."i, pi. 2.3, fig. 1), from Jalapa and Panama 
(volcan de Chiri(|ui), has the shape of fore wings and the markings of a Dasylophia, and I am 
quite of the opinion that it is not an Qidemasia (Schizura) ; the two black round spots near the 
inner angle are just as in D. angidna. In fai't I regard it as very closely related to D. aiuiuiiKi, 
and hence as a representative species. 

Mr. Neumoegen has kindly shown me Ni/stalea amazonica Staud., from Brazil, and which is a 
genuine Dasylophia very closely related to our D. anguina. If this is so, then the genus ranges 
through the Mexican ("Sonoran") subprovince and the Central American region to Brazil. 
N. iiidiaua Grote I am inclined to regard as a Noctuid. ' 


Body anil l).asal region of fore wings white; .a distinct black line along cubital vein I). aiKjuina 

Body and wings mouse-ljrown; no blacli line; basal region of fore wings tawny brown D.iiilcnia 

' I copy from Neumoegen and Pyar's Revision the following description of this moth, which I have been 
unable carefully to examine: 

"Xyntalftt indiaiKi Grote, Papilio. iv, p. 7, 1884. 

"Anterior part of tliorax witli a dull yellowish patch as in Datana, bordered by black ; the rest gray. Fore wings 
much cbinijatpd ; antenna' simjile, ciliate, the cilia longer at base, a tuft on each joint at e.ach side. Primaries cinereous, 
]ialfr on the disc, distinctly mottled; subbasal line faint, T. a. and t. p. lines close together, straight, parallel, 
narrow, blackish-brown, oi|uidi&tant from the indistinct black discal ringlet. On veins 2-3 (viiio-viii), near the 
base, a black patch: another between veins 3-4 (vii-Vi) .just outside t, p. line. Subterniinal row of small black 
dots, two in each interspace, and terminal black shaded spots. Secondaries blackish, pale at base. Expanse, 40 nmi. 
1 lab, Florida." 


Dasylophia aiiguina (Aliliut and Smith). 
(I'l. IV, lijjs. 10, 11.) 

I'hahrua Hnijiiiiiii Abtiot and Smith, Nat. Hist. Lep. Ins. lieorgia. ]i. 167, Tali. I,XXXI\', 1797. 

Nolodonlu unguina Harris, Cat. Ins. Mass., p. 73, 183,5. 

Dataiiu .' ainjiiina Walk., Cat. Lcp. Het. I5r. Mus., v, p. lOGl', 18."). 

Drymoiiiii ciiciillifera II. .Sch., Samml. aussereur. Schiiiett., p. GG, tig. 381, 1856. 

Datiiiiii aiii/iihia Jlonis, Synopsis Lep. N. AniiT., )). 247, 1X&2. 

Daxyloiihia anijuina Pacli., Pioc. Ent. Soc, Phil, iii, p. 362, 1864. 

Hetfrnctimpa pinirtuta Walk., Cat, Lep, Het, Mr. Mus,, xxxii, p. 420, 1805 (Jidc (irotc and K(j1).). 

Da6)llo})hia anijuina Grote, Xow Check List X, Amer. Midhs, p. 19, 1882. 

Smith, List Lep. Hor. Amor., p. 30, 1891; var. Trans, Aincr, Knt. Soc, xx, p, 11, 1893. 
\ai:jii(nta gorda Slossou, Can. Eut., xxiv, p, 129, 1892. 
Satima anguina Kirhy, Syn. Cat. Lep. Het., i, p. 569, 1893. 

Daaglupliia anguina Xeum. and l>yar. Trans, Auier. Eut. Soc, xxi, p. 200, .lune, 1894; .lourn. N. Y, Eut, Soc.,. 
ii, ]>, llii, Sept., 1894, 

(PI. XXI, figs. 1-G.) 

Ahhol and Smith, Xat, Hist. Le|i, Ins, (icorgia, }>. 167, Tab. LXXXIV (colorcil figure of larva with pupa and 

Han-ill, Ent. Corresp., p. 301. PI. I. fig. 12, 1869 (col. fig.). 
Dgai; I'.ut. Amer., v, p. 55, 1889. 

Patkaid, Proc. Bost. Soo. Nat. Hist., xxiv. p. 528, 1890, I'l, III. ligs. 1-8 (figures of all larval stages). Fifth 
Rep. U. S. Ent. Comni., p. 366, 1890 (PI, XXXII, fig, 3), 

Moih. — Two S , one 2 . Ash gray, mixed with snow-white seales on the head, tliorax, and 
costa and base of fore wings. Basal region of fore wings whitish and inclosing a conspicnous 
long black line, extending along the cubital vein to the oiigin of tlie third cubital venule, and a 
shorter one diverging from it situated in the discal space and ending at the base of the lirst 
cubital venule ; also a brown slash in the second cubital interspace. No transverse line on the 
bas;il third of the wing. Near the apex of the wing ai'e three subpaiallel black longitudinal 
streaks. A transverse line on the outer fourth of the wing, which is obsolete on the inner edge 
of the wing and faintly marked on the costa, with tine black specks on each side, and inclosing a 
row of minute black dots. Tlie veins and venules are speckled with black scales; two black spots 
larger than the others are situated in tlie subcubital space inside of the cross line, and a larger 
round black spot in the second cubital interspace, near the outer edge, besides a smaller one in 
the first cubital interspace; they are encircled with whitish scales. A faint submarginal zigzag 
brown line not reaching the apex of the wing and fading out near the internal angle. 

Fringe of both wings white, with a pair of black twin dots at the ends of the venules; on 
the outer edge of the fringe a dark slash situated opposite the ends of the venules. 

Hind wings sordid white, becoming dusty on the outer fourth. In one 9 the hind wings are 
entirely dark. 

Expanse of wings, 35-30 mm.; length of body, 17--0 mm. 

I copy Mrs. Slosson's description of I), punta gorda, which appears to be a variety of 
£>. anguina. (See PI. IV, tig. 10.) 

Male. — Head and thorax appearing palest gra.v from admixture of pure white with cinereous. Abdomen, 
secondaries, and ground color of primaries sordid white. Primaries streaked longitudinally with blackish, which 
contrasts violently with ground color. A diffuse, heavy, blackish shade runs obliquely from apex inward. A curved 
blackish line, reaching neither costa nor internal margin at onter three-fourths of wing. Submarginal row of 
distinct, blackish spots, two of which are much larger than the rest ami margined with white. Costa interrui)tcd 
near ai)ex by white Sjiots. Fringe sordid white, interrupted by blackish. Somewhat smaller than D. anguina, 
S. & A., and differing markedl.v from tliat species in its sharp contrasts of color, which make it appear like a punlj 
black and white insect. It has no oclierous shade, Tln^ antenna' resemble those of J), anguina, the pectinations not 
as long as in those of D. interna Pack.ard. Described from two males taken at light, Punta Gorda, Fla. 

I received a few of the eggs of this moth from Miss Emily L. Morton, of Newburg, N. Y. The 
young hatched July 25, and were fed on locust leaves. 

Egg. — Shape of a flattened spheroid, the upper pole somewhat concave, a little broader at 
the base than at the top. (l)yarsays: "Eveidy rounded, flattened above and below.") The shell 
is very thin and transparent, so that the larva, with its yellowish head and red lines, can be 
distinctly seen through it. The surface is covered with jxilygonal areas, which are not very 
distinct, though as much so ou the upper pole as on the sides. The areas vary somewhat in shai)e, 
size, and distance apart, the interspaces being rather broad, and tliere are no beads like those on 
the surface of the eggs of Schizura. Diameter, 0.7-0.8 mm. 


Larra of first xt(i(ic, just after hatching. — July 2'). Leugtli, 3-4 nun. Tlie liead is very large, 
nearly twice as wide as the body beliiud tbe middle, rounded, and with a fine, narrow black stripe 
along- the hinder edge; it is honey-yellow, with scattered black hairs. Body moderately slender, 
gradually diminishing in width to the end, the anal legs being long and slender, larger than in the 
young of Schizui-a. They are forked, long, and slender; the terminal third evaginate, nearly as 
large at the end as at the base, and are held lifted up, together with the two preceding segments, 
at an angle ot about 45 degrees. The claws are entirely absent, the tip being soft, retractile, and 
extensile, and the leg itself being provided with 12-13 stiff, dark, acute seta'. They differ but slightly 
from those of the fully ied caterpillar. The end of the leg is retracted by three slender retractor 
muscles, one being single, tlie two others united near their insertion into the retractile portion. 

The other abdominal legs are provided with a semicircle of ten hooks each, the inner two 
hooks of one set being \ery short. All the legs, both thoracic and abdominal, are dull greenish. 
The body is deep pea green, the surface shining. The first abdominal segment shining red, with 
two slender, papilliform, uoupiliferous subdorsal deep red tubercles, situated in or just below the 
subdorsal lines. There are two similar but much smaller piliferous red warts on the eighth 
segment. Body behind the head with live red or reddish black lines; the single dorsal and the 
two subdorsal lines narrow, nearly continuous, scarcely broken. The lateral line is slightly 
interrupted like the others at the sutures. Below the spiracles is a much interrupted line of 
heavier dark red, somewhat curved or sinuous slashes, situated at the base of the legs, becoming 
less distinct behind the fourth pair of abdominal legs. 

The hairs are stiff and black, mostly thick and clavate, and pale at the extreme t\\). Those 
on the head are slightly knobbed. On the prothoracic segment is a. chitinous plate or shield IVom 
which arise four of these hairs, of which two are about one-third longer than tliose of the meso- 
and metathoracic segment; they are about as long as the body is thick; those on the second, 
third, and fourth abdonn'nal segments are larger and longer, more distinctly clavate than those 
elsewhere; they are smooth, black, but clear and colorless at the extieme tip. 

Second stage, after first molt. — July 28. Length, (J-7 mm. The head is now more distinctly 
amber colored and smaller in proportion than before. Body i^ale green, the dark brown stripes, 
espei-ially the dorsal one, being more distinct; the dorsal line is continuous, the two lateral ones 
somewhat broken. The hairs are black, not so much club shaped as before. The markings show 
little change from the first stage, but the reddish first abdominal segment has grown paler. The 
tubercles on the eighth abdominal segment have each lost their single hair. 

Third .stage, after .second molt. — August 5. Length, 15 mm. The larva has now dropped the 
club-shaped sette, or "glandular hairs," all the hairs being minute, tapering, and very short, while 
the lateral humps on the eighth segment are decidedly larger than before and marked with two 
parallel reddish brown lines, so that in respect to these humps tlie characters of the fully grown 
larva are nearly assumed, while the tubercles on the first segments are still slightly larger in 
proportion than in the mature larva. 

The head is of moderate size, but little wider than the body, rounded, and orange-reddish. The 
body is smooth and sliining, straw yellow, the line blackish; the dorsal black line ends on the 
smooth black knob on the eighth segment. The three lateral black lines are more or less 
interrupted, situated in a broad whitish band, tlie middle line being the faintest, which incloses 
on the first abdonnnal segment a jet-black tubercle. Low down is an infrasijiracular row of 
twelve black spots situated at the base of the legs, when present. There are four black sjiots on 
the front part of the suranal plate, while the double reddish black slashes on the lateral humps of 
the eighth abdominal segment are more pronounced than in the earlier stages. The extensile, 
ui)lifted anal legs are black at the tips. 

. Fourth stage, after third molt. — August 10-11. Length, 22-24 nmi. In this stage the larva only 
dift'ers from the preceding one in the deeper, more distinct colors of the body and its markings, 
while the body itself is larger and thicker. The black tul)ercles on the first abdominal segment 
are slightly smaller than before. 

Fifth .stage, fidlgfed larva. — Length, 55 mm. Head rounded, greenish amber; body smooth, 
of nearly unitorm thickness, with a low rounded jet-black knob on top of the eighth abdominal 
segment, in front of which is a narrow black dorsal line; anal legs very slender, uplifted. Three 
lateral black lines close to each other and forming a broad, dark, wavy band. Base of all the legs 
blaisk, but the legs themselves pale; ground color of body, deep pink', fiesh color. Differs from 



the fourtb stage in the ratlier thicker body, sliglitlj' shorter imal le{;s, and thesmullcr (irst ahdinniiial 
bhiek dorsal tubcrtdes, wliile tlie black spots on the eiuhtli ab<loininal segment aie more i)roiioiiiR'ed. 
lircKpitiihition. — (1) The larva hatches with the yeiierie tdiaractcrs already established, viz, 
with the long slender retractile anal Ic-^s, unprovided with hooks, and with the pair of hairless 
doisal tubercles on the first abdominal segment. (2) The two dorsal tubercles on the eijihth 
abdominal segment lose tiie hairs at the lirst molt and bejiin to assume tiie shape and enloration 
seen at the last stage. {.'{) The clavate hairs disajipear with tlie second molt. (-1) In the third 
stage the coloration and markings of the species begin to appear, the body changing from 
peagreen to straw-yellow, the skin smooth and shining, and the lines and spots blackish, while 
tlie reddish tint of the lirst abdominal segment, characteristic of the lirst stage, is di.seardcd. 

The earliest stages of Dasylophia are very different from those of Si/mi)icri.s1(i. the latter 
apparently lacking the clavate hairs and tubercles of the former genus. 

It is i)robable, tliough further held work is needed to prove it, that by the third stage the 
caterpillar is exjjosed to the same dangers and escapes them in the same way as the larva iu 
its linal stage. Observations as to the position of the larva while feeding on the locust or wild 
indigo leaf are needed iu order to show how the re(l<lish head, shining straw yellow body, and 
blackish stripes and marjcings assimilate it to its habitat; also whether Ichneumons are rei)elled 
by the movements of the anal legs, and whether such motions of the end of the body are sufficient 
to drive away ichneumons and Taehina' from its otherwise unprotected, smooth body. 

These remarks will also apply, tlnnigh less strongly, to the caterpillar of iSymiiicrisId ulbij'niiis, 
T\iiicli has similar shape and coloration, though its anal legs are not retractile nor so long and 

slender, and hence not so well calculated to frighten away unwel- 
come insects. Experiments should also be made to asct'itain 
whether the two larviB in question are distasteful or not to birds. 
It ma}' be here observed that altlumgh many insects, according 
to the I'ecent views of Exner and Plateau, may not distinctly per- 
ceive the outlines of bodies, yet all insects doubtless .see objects 
in motion. ITence any ichneumon or Taehina, or the carnivorous 
beetles or bugs, may be frightened away by the sight of a mov- 
ing or nodding tubercle like those on many Notodontians, and 
still more by the movements of the lilaiiieiital ore\en the slightly 
elongated legs of other forms, or b.y the upturned abdomens of 
Da tana caterpillars. 

Cocoon. — "It formed a cocoon of leaves and siiic of thin 
loose texture" (Harris Corresp., p. 30G). '• Fupa enveloped in a 
thin, but a somewhat tough, cocoon comjiosed of silk and bits 
of earth, etc., constructed at the surface of the ground." (Dyar.) The cocoon is loose, rather irreg- 
ular, with sand, etc:, adhering to the outside, forming a thin network of coarse silk, Just the sort of 
structure to which the (a'cmaster hooks would adhere to hold the iuii)a in jilace. -'■'> by 1- mm. 

Pitpa. — "It is -.i mm. long, ii mm. in diameter, shining dark chestnut-brown: eremaster 
short and blunt, terminating iu several booklets." (Dyar.) 

One S . Body rather long, moderately thick, ui)i)cr surfa.-"e of thorax finely corrugated. 
Abdominal segments only ininctuied near the sutures and liiiely granulated on hinder edge of 
segments .5 to 7. Two S sexual openings or scars on segment 9 instead of one. End of body 
tapering to a point. Cremaster conical, cleft at the end; surface longitudinally corrugated, each 
fork or spine truncate, and bearing three long seta-, which are curved at the end as in tig. G7. 
Length, 20 mm. (U. S. Nat. Mus.). 

Habits. — Harris found the larva on Podalijrhi tlnctorid August 3. " Its position when at rest 
is like the gregarious caterpillars ( Pyfimui) of the ajiple tree, the head and tail being elevated." He 
found anothfM' caterpillar on Lcspvdeza ctipifata. "August 9 to 10 it formed a cocoon of leaves and 
silk of thin loose texture; August 13, became pupa," the moth appearing the following June. 

Dyar, writing in New York, states: "The dni-ation of each stage was about four days, with 
the ex(;eption of the last, which was six days. The eggs hatched August 17 and the larva ceased 
feeding September <>. They became pupa in a few days after constructing their cocoon, and 
passed the winter in this stage. There are two broods of this insect in a season, those here 
•described being of the second brood." 

Fin. C9.— Pnpii of Dasylophia aiipuina: 
an. I., ve.sUges of uu.ll h'gs. 


The eggs of this rather rare motli were sent me bj^ Miss ^Morton, of Newburg, N. Y., having 
ibeeii hiid about the 20th of July. The larva hatched at Brunswick, Me., July 2.5; the first molt 
occurred July 28, the second August U, the third August 10 to 11, and the fourth August 20 to 22. 
Riley has f(jund the larva as late as iu October, the moths in March, April, and June. 

Food plant. — Usually the wild indigo plant (Harris, Uridgham, at Providence); soiaetimes 
the locust (Harris, Miss Morton); clover (Dyar); Lespedeza capitata (Q.a,vviii)] locust and iJfyj^/.vm 
tincforia (Riley). 

Geouiiiphical distributio7i, — Occurs in both the Appalachian and Austroriparian subprovinces, 
•extending from southern Maine and from Massachusetts to Florida and Georgia, as well as Texas. 

Kittery, Me. (Thaxter) ; r.ostou, Mass. (Harris) ; Brookline, Mass. (Shurtleff) ; New York, Provi- 
dence, R. I. (Bridgham, Dearden); New York (Miss Morton, Dyar); Plattsburg, N. Y. (Hudson); 
Michigan, New York, District of Columbia (Riley) ; Georgia (Abbot and Smith); Georgia (Riley); 
New York, Wisconsin, Georgia (French); New York, Arkansas (Palm). 

Dasylophia thyatiroides (Walker). 
(I'L. IV, fig. 9.) 

Eelerocampn thjialiroides Walk., Traus. Eut. Soc. London (3), i, p. 79, 1862. 

Dasylophia interna Pack., Proc. Eut. Soc. Phil., iii, p. 363, 1864. 

Heterocampa tripariHa Walk., Cat. Lep. Het. Br. Mus., xxxii, p. 419, 1865 {fide Grote and Rob.). 

Xylina siynata Walk., Cat. Lep. Het. Br. Mns., xxxiii, p. 758, 1865 {fide Smith, Can. Ent., xxiii, p. 121). 

Grote, New Check List N. Araer. Moths, p. 19, 1882. 

Smith, List Lep. Bor. Amer., p. 30, 1891. 
Ralima interna Kirby. Syu. Cat. Lep. Het., i, p. 569, 1892. 
JJusylophia thyatiroides Dyar, Can. Eut., xxvi, p. 69, March, 1894. 

Nenm. and Dyar, Trans. Amer. Eut. Soc., xxi, p. 200, June, 1894; Jouru. N. Y. Ent. Soc, 
li, p. 116, Sept., 1894. 

Moth. — Two S . X/ight mouse-brown; palpi above blackish; sides of the tuft on tlie vertex of 
the head grayish; protliorax with a faint dark line. Middle of the fore wings grayisli, dusted 
coarsely witli brown. Differs from D. anguina in having a zigzag or scalloped cross line on the 
basal third of the wing within which the wing is tawny brown, not white, as in anguina; also a 
double scall()i>ed line ending just within the inner angle. Costa toward the apex interrupted by 
gray spots, wliich are more distinct on the underside. A subniarginal row of very obli(|ue dark 
linear spots between the venitles, succeeded by lighter, longer streaks of light tawny white. 
Fringe gray, with dark spots. Pectinations of the antenna' a little longer than iu I), anguina. 
Tarsi tipped with lighter scales. Hind wings mouse-brown. 

Expanse of wings, 3 , 3(1 mm.; length of body, S , IG mm. 

This si)ecies differs decidedly from J>. anguina in having a zigzag cross line on the basal third 
of the fore wing within which the wing is tawny brown, not white; also a ilouble scalloped line 
ending just within the inner angle. Besides, there are no black lines, and the body is mouse- 
brown in hue. 

Dr. Dyar has kindly lent me a colored sketch of Walker's type of JI. thyatiroides in the 
Oxford Museum, received from Colonel Swinhoe. There seems to be little doubt but that it is my 
D. interna. 

Food plants. — Dasylophia interna Pack.! Carya (R. Thaxter, Can. Ent., xxiii, p. 34, February, 

Geographical distrihtttion. — Orono, Me. (Mrs. Fernald); Kittery, Me. (Thaxter); Dublin, 
N. H. (Leonard, in Harris Coll. B. S. N. H.); New York (Mrs. Fernald); New York, July, moth 
.(Riley); Maine, New Hampshire (French); Plattsbui^g, N. Y. (Hudson). 

Synimerista Hiibuer. 
(PI. XLIII, fig. 2, 2a. Venation.) 

rhahvna Abbot and Smith (iu part), Nat. Hist. Lep. Ins. Georgia, p. 159, Tab. LXXX, 1797. 

Symmeriatu Hiibu., Verz. Schmett., p. 248, 1816. 

Edema Walk, (in part). Cat. Lep. Het. Br. Mus., v, p. 1028, 185.5. 

Morris, Synopsis Lep. N. Amer., p. 242, 1862. 
S. Mis. 50 12 


Pack., Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., iii, ]>. 358, 1864. 
Giote, New Check List X. Aiiier. Moths, p. 19, 1882. 
Smith, List Lep. Uor. Amer., p. 30, 1891. 
Kirby, Syu. Cat. Lep. Met., i, p. 572, 1892. 
SjimmeriKia Neum. and Djar, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. xxi. p. IN", .Jinio, isiil ; .loiirn. N. Y. Ent. Soc, ii, p. 114,. 
Sei)t.. 1S94. 

Moth. — Vertex (if the Lend with two huye tufts uniting' and forining a large, higli, prominent 
vertical tuft just above the in.sertioii of the aiitenme. The yeetiuatious of the <J autenn.Te are alittle 
longer than the Joints, becoming gradually obsolete toward the tips; the jieetinations are densely 
ediated; in the 9 the antenna' are entirely sinijih- and thread like. Eyes naked. The palpi are 
usually long and slender, extending a tiiird of tlieir length beyond the front, and conniving at 
their tips; third joint unusually long, equaling in breadth the width of the second joint. The 
maxilla- are very short, not reaching out as far as tlii' palpi. The thorax is moderately robust,, 
and is not tufted. 

The fore wings are unusually broad and square at the apex, being about half as long as broad; 
COSta straight; the apex somewhat jiointed and square; outer edge near tiieapex nearly straiglit, 
thence gradually rounded to the internal edge, which is not tufted. Venation: Quite unlike that 
of Dasylophia and Xotodonta; a small short subcostal cell, and a second, minute one beyond; the 
fourth subcostal venule ends on the costa within the apex; the discal venules are situated well 
beyond the middle of the wing, and the two together form a nearly straight line; the independent 
vein arises nearer the subcostal vein than usual. 

tJind wings louger than usual, the outer two-thirds of the costa straight; the outer edge 
regularly rounded, slightly bent in the middle. Venation: Tlie subcostal vein divided about 
halfway between the discal veins and the outer edge: the independent vein (lll^) arises much nearer 
the subcostal than usual, and the discal veins taken together form an oblique (not curved) line. 

Legs rather slender; femora and tibia- pilose; the liind tibiie with long hair-like scales; the 
tibial spurs rather stout, with the ends sharp and naked. 

Coloration : The species gray, with cross lines and the costal edge white. 

The genus may be recognized by the high conical vertical tuft on the head, by the unusually 
long palpi, and by the straight costal edge and square apex of tiie fore wings, with tlieir two 
subcostal cells, and by the peculiar style of coloration. 

j^fl(^_ — "Subglobosc, slightly concave at the base, smooth, shining."' (Bentenmiiller.) 

Ijovn. — Body increasing in widtli from the iirothoracic to the eighth abdoininal segment, the 
head nuinded, but slightly wider than the segment behind it. Skin smooth, shining; richly and banded with yellow or reddish bands and black lines; on the eighth al)dominal 
segment a large, shiny, coralieddi.sli hump. Suranal jilate distinct, crescent-shaped. 

Young larva. — Anal legs smaller than the other abdominal ones; body moderately thick; a 
slight dorsal hump on the eighth segment, with minute, short, slightly bulbous hairs; a lateral 
dark brown line and a yellowish spiracular band and a subdorsal dark line. 

Cocoon. — "Made a cocoon in a roll of paper" (Harris C'orres]).). " Spins a thin, white web" 
(Abbot and Smith); spins a thin, white web, through which tin- pujia can be .seen. 

Pup(t.— The abdomen ends in a short, cremasteral siiiue, which is flattened vertically, deejdy 
clelt, with tubercles, from which arise from three to four curved seta- on each side, the entire 
apjiaratus retaining a linn hold on the end of the mass of silk by which it adheres to the leaves. 

(icoiirHpMcal (Untyibution. — So far as known, the species found iu the United States are- 
confined to the Appalachian and Austrnripariaii subjirovinces of North America, extending from 
Maine to l'"lorida and thence westward to Texas. 

In Presidio,' Mexico, lives S. mnndcla (Edema mandchi of Druce, Biol. Centr. Amer. Het., i, p.. 
23.J. pi. 2."), fig. 3), which in the sinqie of the fore wings is allied to iS'. alhi/rviis, but ditfers 
decidedly in the marking, not having the white costal region. 

' By Presidio we suppose is meant Presidio del Norte, which is in northern Mexico, on the southern liank of the 
Rio Grande, .just over the Texas border. This species should therefore be looked for in south wcsteru Texas and 
southern New Mexico. 


We retain the name Si/iiimeri.sta because tlie first of the two species mentioned under it by 
Hiibiier is his 8. albicostu: the other species is S. poUtin (Cramer). On examining Cramer's tij^ure 
of politki, though eviileutly poorly executed, we find that it differs generically from ulbifrons and 
ttUncosta. Mr. Druee, in Biologia Centr. Americana, Heterocera, i, p. 1.'30, adopts Symmerista for 
jS'. pal if in Iliibiier. and retains Edema for olhifrons. This does not seem to us to be .justifiable, and 
we think another name should be given to the genus of which politia Cram, is the type. ^Moreover, 
Druce's Si/mmerisUt piiina, from Panama (fig. 9, tab. 25), is represented as of the shape and with 
the marking of a Dasyloplii;i. Edema Mandela Druce loc. cit. (pi. 25, fig. 3), from Mexico, is allied 
to S. albifrons, and is a true Symmerista, as we have restricted the genus. 

Walker's Edema prodiicta, from St. Johns Bluff, in eastern Florida, is, as Mr. A. G. Butler 
kindly writes me, "a Noctuid of the genus Intjnra, and identical with I. ahrostoloides.''' In 
Druce's Heterocera, i, p. 235, it is still retained under Edema. 

Symmerista albifrous (Abbot and Smith). 
(I'l. IV, figs. 13, albicosta; 14, albifrous.) 

Phahiiia alhifruns Abbot aud Smith, Lep. lus. Georgia, p. l.")9, Tab. LXXX, 1797, fig. 1. 
Edema alhifnins Walk., 'Cat. Het. Lep. Br. Mus., v, p. 102S, 1855. 
Morris, Synopsis Lep. N. Araer., j). 242, 1862. 
raclc. I'roc. Ent. Soc. Phil., iii, p. 358, 1864. 
Symmensta albicosta Bnhn., Verz. Schmett., p. 248; Noct., p. 440, 1816; Eiir. Schmett. Noct., fig. 440, 1804 f 
Herr.-Sch. Syst. Bearb. Schmett. Eur., ii, tig. 131, 1845. 
Staudiuger, Cat. Lep. Eur., p. 75, note, 1871. 
Grote, New Checls; List N. Amer. Moths, p. 19, 1882. 
Smith, List Lep. Bor. Amer., p. 30, 1891. 
Kirby, Syn. Cat. Lep. Het., i, p. 572, 1892. 
Symmerigta albifrous Neum. and Dyar, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, xsi, p. 187, .Tune, 1894; Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 
ii, p. 114, Sept., 1894. 

(PI. XXII, figs. 1-4.) 

Abbot and Smith, Lep. Ins. Georgia, p. 1.59, Tab. LXXX, 1797. (Larva, pupa, aud moth figured.) 

Emmons, Xat. Hist. N. Yorli, v, p. 242. PI. XXXVII. (Larva aud pupa ligured.) 

San-is, Ent. Corresp., p. 304, 1869. 

French, Traus. Dept. Agr. 111., xviii, Appendix, p. 120, 1880. 

BeutenmiiUer, Eut. Amer., vi, p. 75, April. 1890. (Egg, all six larval stages, aud cocoon described.) 

Dijar, Psyche, v, p. 421, Nov.-Dec, 1890. 

Packard, Proc. Best. Soc. Nat. Hist., xxiv, p. 525, 1890. (Stages I-V described.) 

Moth. — Six S and two 9 . Cinereous; head and prothorax tawny and whitish in front; paler 
in 5 . Palpi brown on the sides. On the crest above, a brown line; behind is a median whitish 
spot, with tawny scales, behind which are some brown scales; the rest of the thorax is dark ash. 
Fore wings with two dark lines situated within the middle of the wing; the first basal one is light, 
with two scallops, one on the costa margined within with dark; the outer one is situated within 
the middle of the wing, and is a double dark line curved suddenly outward in the discal space; 
behind, it is dislocated on the subcubital fold; it ends on the beginning of the white portion of 
the costa, which is one-toothed just beyond the brown, pale-edged discal sjiot. From this tooth' 
an obsolete tiiird line runs parallel to the second to beyond the middle of the internal edge. The 
white costal maigin is contracted upon the middle of the fourth subcostal venule, and thence runs 
directly to the apex. The region below the white portion of the costa may be dark ash, tinged 
more or less with fu.scous. The submargiiial region is a little lighter, inclosing a submargiual 
series of inwardly oblique or black linear lunate spots. Hind wings smoky white. Beneath, the 
wings are uniformly whitish; the submargiual row of spots appear through. On the underside of 
the hind wings is an obscure fu.scous median line. On the first segment of the abdomen is a dark, 
round spot. Expanse of wings, 5 , 36-4:5 mm.; length of body, S , 16-18 mm. 

• My description is based on the sharp- toothed form, or albieostaWiihx^. (Eur. Schmett., fig. 440); the round- toothed 
form is Abbot and Smith's albifrons. Whether these variations also extend to the larva remains to be seen. 


Egg. — "Pale green, subglobose, slightly couciive at tliebase. siii(ii)tli,sliiiiiiiji. Length, SO nun.; 
width, 3(1 nun. Diuation of this stage, tiiirtcen days. Laid in small masses on tlic undeiside of 
leaves." ( Beaten miiller.) 

For the description of the early stages of this caterpillar I have not full notes diauii up from 
living specimens, but have to depend on alcoholic exami)les of the dilferent stages and the 
excellent colored sketches of Mr. Ihidgham, so that this notice is in part |)vovisional, as we have 
yet to see the eggs, although one of the commonest caterpillars on the oak. 

Fh-fit stiige, htrvd Just iKitched.— hew^th, 'i-Cy mm. August '21. .lust bcl'ore the first molt the 
body is moderately tliick and of a [laU' yellowish tint; the head is brown,' not deej) amber, as in 
the subsequent stages. The anal legs are decidedly smaller than the other abdominal legs and 
somewhat uplifted, or rather extended horizontally. They are slightly retractile, and ])robably 
bear a few hooks. The large dorsal hump on the eighth abdominal segment, so characteristic of 
the genus Syninierista, is already well develojied, so that the chief generic characters of the larva 
appear at birth. The hairs are minute, short, sparse, and very slightly thickened at the end, all 
of the same length and arising from minute, microscopic warts. The dark dorsal line is only 
faintly indicated; the lateral dark brown line well marked, most distinct on the prothoracic 
.segment, interrupted at the sutures, and faded out on the eighth abdominal segment. The large 
hump on this last-named segment is large and high, but scarcely differs in tint from the rest of 
the body, though slightly darker. On each side of the ninth segment is a large black comma- 
shaped spot, the point directed forward and downward, while behind them is a median black dot. 
There is a broad yellowish spiracular lateral band; above it a pale, dirty white band, edged above 
by the lateral, <ir rather subdorsal, black line; the underside of the body, including both the 
thoracic and abdominal legs, is whitish. Tlie anal legs bear about six hooks. 

Second stage, after the first molt. — Length, 6-8 mm. August 27. The head is still very large 
in pi-oportion to the body. The hump on the eighth abdominal segment is larger, nuire i)ronounced, 
.and orange yellow, sometimes red; the head is dull amber. The dorsal line is now distinct, and 
the subdorsal line is triplicated on the two anterior thora<',ic segments and duplicated on the 
eighth abdominal. Behind the dorsal hump there are two, instead of one, median black dots, one 
lilaced behind the other, and two black spots arc^ added on the side of the body near the base of 
the anal legs, i. e., two on the ninth and two on the tenth segments. On the pro and niesothoracic 
segments are two parallel, short, sinuous, blackish red lines. The spiracular band and underside 
of the body as in the ]irevious stage, but dee|)er straw-yellow. The anal legs have a longitudinal 
reddish stripe on the outside or are reddish neiir the tip. The hairs are longer and slenderer than 
before, taper a little, but are docked at the tip, and arise from warts, those on the back ai'ranged 
in a trapezoid. 

Third stiigi; nfter the second molt. — Length, L'O mm. September (J. The general shape of the 
body of the mature larva, with its large, smooth dorsal hump and peculiar shining banded skin, 
is now assumed; the specific characters having apparently now ai)pea'red, though we have none 
of the other forms (alhifrons aiul paclcardii) witli which to compare it. The head is still large, 
wider than the luxly, which does not yet grow smaller toward the head as it does in the fully 
grown larva. The body is now richly and very conspicuously banded .so that already in this stage 
the caterpillar becomes a very showy objiM't. How it is regarded by birds and ichneumons remains 
to be observed. The narrow threail like dorsal line and the lateral line are now inclosed in a 
broad, dull, whitish-gray baud bordered on each side by a faint, dark line. There is a subdorsal 
straw-yellow broad band. The s]>iracular dee]) straw-yellow band is bordered below by a double 
blackish red broken line. The dorsal humj) is bright coral red, so bright and conspicuous as to 
suggest that when the end of the body is suddenly moved at the iiresence of an ichneumon the 
movements of the bright red mass may frighten away the unwelcome visitor. The black spots 
and slashes on the ninth and tenth segments have increased iu number. The two median 
reddish black dots of the second stage have coalesced and formed a long strijjc, flanked on each 
side by a shorter stripe, and an outer dot on the ninth segment. On each side of the ninth and 
tenth segments are two blackish spots. 

Beutenmiiller says "jet-black, shiny" (p. 75). 



liodv now increases in width 

- cT 

End of body "f cT l>np3 "f 
Siimmcrista alht.frans (sliaip- ti>utliL-(l 

Fonrlh staqc, after iJie third molt. — Length, 30 nini. The niaikings and colors are the same 

as in Stage V, but the hirva at this period only (lifters from the third stage in being longer iu 

ju-ojioition, though with a greater number of black lines and spots, as described under the last 


Fi/'th and last stof/c' — September 12. Length, 40-50 mm. The 

fri>m tlic prothoracie segment to the eighth abdominal, the head 

being much rounded, but a little wider than the prothoracie segment 

and more pitchy red. Tlie arrangement of the markings is mainly 

as in the third and fourth stages, but the straw-yellow bands are 

now deep orange, often almost coralred. The number of blackish 

lines have increased. There are five instead of three dorsal lines, 

the outer line on each side being the heaviest and most continuous 

and scarcely broken at the sutures. The black spots and slashes 

on the sides at the base of the abdominal legs are more distinct and 

numerous than before, as ;!re the black spots on the eighth, ninth, 

and tenth segments, behind the dorsal hump. On the hinder edge 

of the eighth segment are eleven black spots, varying iu size and 

shape. On the ninth segment are three sublinear dorsal and two oblong black lateral spots, and 

on the tenth segment are tluee dorsal coarse black dots, and on each side a black dot and oblong 

black spot. The supraanal plate is distinct, crescent-shaped, and deep honey-yellow, like the anal 

legs. There is a median ventral, interrupted black line, also 
indicated in the third stage. 

Iu this genus, then, we have a retnin to the functional 
anal legs, armed with hooks, the end of the body not being 
more or less permanently uplifted or extended hcnizontally. 
Instead of this deterrent or terrifying feature we have the 
showy coral-red hump and the bright black and red bauds on 
a shining, glistemug skin (already indicated as early as the 
third stage), which may be danger signals to birds to whom 
this caterpillar may be distasteful. 

Cocoon.— A thin, white, irregularly oval, tough web, 
through which the pupa is partly visible. Beutenmiiller says : 
"The cocoon is irregularly oval, and is of a tough, sordid 
white texture, and is spun on the ground amongst leaves" (p. 
2(i). Miss Soule writes me that "of five specimens, three 

spun flat circular cocoons between leaves and two pupated with no attempt at spinning." 

p„^,„._r.ody moderately stout, rather long, the end moderately blunt; the surface, except at 

the end of the abdomen, coarsely punctured, and the sutures rather coarsely sbagreened. The 

eremaster (fig. 70) is peculiar in being double or deeply forked at 

the end, each fork or spine being stout, flattened, rugose, but 

with the tip smooth, polished, and slightly directed outward. 

The spines are longitudinally ridged at the base, and transversely 

so toward the smooth tip, and the inner side bears three long 

slender setfe, curved at the ends. These setie are often broken 

oil', and their presence would not be suspected. The two spines 

vary in distance apart, being in two out of three examples closely 

contiguous, while in another specimen they are opened wide apart, 

this dilfereuce being i)robably due to dilference in contraction of 

the muscles at the time of death. Length, 17-23 mm. 

Habits. — Thisis])erhai)S the most common notodontian cater- 
pillar to be Ibund on the oak. At first the caterpillars are gregarious, but after the hrst or second 

molt they begin to scatter over the tree. In Georgia, according to Smith and Abbot, the cater- 
pillar "spun itself up in a thin white web between the leaves October 28, and came out on the 

anal lo; 

71. — riijia of Sttnniwrista aUiifrons; anl, 
Xs: (T, rruluastiT .sbarp-ttintlntl lorm). 

Fig. 72 Pupa of Stimmeyisla albi/rons, 9 . 

' lieutemniiUer descriljcs six stuges. 



wiugtbe 18th of February. Others s]mu on the l'!»th of March, and eaiiie <iut on the 2cl of May. 
The wliole brood feeds tojictlier. especially wlien small." 

.Mr. James Fletcher rejiorts that in LSS-l the caterpillars apiieared in j;reat numbers and were 
most injurious to both oaks and nui))les at Ottawa, Canada. (Kej)., 31.'.) 

It IS eoninioii ou white oaks in lihode Island and Maine late in Anyust and through SejittMnber, 
those observed at Providence sijinninj;' a thin coeoidi between the leaves early in October and until 
October 20-28. October o I found some small lar\ ie (probably next to the last stage) with the 
strijjes straw yellow instead of oranue. The moth api)eais in June in the northern States. 

Mr. Beuteuniiiller pul)lishes the following notes on its transformations: ''The eggs from which 
my observations Avere made were laid ou June 1!», and the >'oung larvae emerged on July 2. The 
first molt took ])lace ou July 9, the .second molt on July 17. the third molt ou July 24, the fourth 
on July .'HO, and the last molt ou An.gust -1. The larv;t were fully grown on August 12." He adds 
that it is single-brooded. His observations were made in New York, while, as will be seen bj'^ 
Abbot's statement, there are two broods of larviv in Georgia. 

IMley states that, according to W.W.Daniels, "When young the larviP feed in a jihalaiix, as 
it were, lying jiarallel on the leaf and as close together as tiiey can." His specimens occurred at 
Woodstock (Missouri). September 10, on the burr oak (V- '«"f'''owu7>rt), some lull-grown and others undergoing the third molt. '-Entered the ground during the latter part of September and 
transformed to clirysalids, appearing as moths the following April." (Fifth liep. U. S. Eut. Comm., 
p. 153). 

Food plants. — Yarious sjiecies of oak; observed at Brunswick, Me., on the beech. 

^ Geofirapliicul (lixtriliution. — Common in tlie Appalacliiau 

and Austroripariau subprovmces. 

Ottawa, Canada (Fletcher) ; Orouo, Me. ( Fernald) ; Bruns- 
wick, Me. (Packard); ^Massachusetts (Harris, Fernald); New 
"\ ork (Lintuer. Beuteuniiiller); I'lattsburg, N. Y. (Hudson); 
New Jersey (Packard Coll.); Missouri (Hiley); Mauhattau, 
Kans., not rare (Popenoe); Itacine, Wis., Chit-ago, 111. (West- 
cott); Chicago, 111. (Daniels); Ames, Iowa, '■plentiful" (II. 
O.sborn); St. Anthony's Bark, Minn. (Lugger); Georgia 
(Abbot and Smith); Yermont, VViscoiisiu,New York, District 
<if Columbia, Yiiginia, Texas, ^lissouri (C S. Nat. Mas.); 
Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, New York, New 
Jersey, Wisconsin, Texas (French); Seekonk, Mass., Taun- 
ton, Mass., Lawrence, iMass., Audover, JMass. (Mus. Comp. 

Fig. 7:f.— I'upa of rourid-toothod form (albi- 
fyons), from Florida; (c, little black, irre»;ular 

Zool.); New^ Jersey, Pennsylvania, Arkansas (Palm) 

While in Florida, in April, I collected at Crescent City 
on the live or water oak a fully grown caterpillar which I 
supposed to be Siimmrrisia alhifrons. Bringing it to Providence in a tin box, it spun a well defined, 
quite dense cocoon between the leaves late in April, but the moth did uot emerge until September 
30. Although the summer was a warm one, and the room in which it was kept had a warm 
exposure, the moth was evi<lently retarded in its appearance by a change to a cooler climate. Unfor- 
tunately, 1 did not make a description of the larva. It also occurs at Dallas, Tex. (^Mus.Comi). Zool.). 
This form is iilhil'nms A. and S., and (PI. IV, fig. 14) seems to represent a variety of this species. 
It differs from several specimens of S. alhicostK slightly but distinctly; it is smaller, and the white 
costal band is a little shorter and broader; inside of the discal spot it is not obliipie, but straight, 
and the tooth bounding the outer, costal .side of the disi/nl spot is Uu-fjer. founder, and fuller, less 
conical than in tS. nlhicosta. The submarginal scallops are less curved, and the space iu front of 
the discal spot is lilled in more densely wiili reddish brown. Expanse of wings, 3.5 mm. 

The pupa (fig. 71) differs in the cremaster being consolidated, not forked, and the seta; are 
well develojied. Length, 18 mm. In a Providence pupa of albieosta, however, the cremaster is 
partly con.solidated, only forked at the end, and the six setic are well developed. 

Mr. Dyar writes: "I have taken the fmiu S)/mmerista albieosta iu New Y'ork and Florida, the 
typical (dbifrons also in New York, but much more rare (Poughkeepsie). But Professor Lintuer, 
at Albany, takes only albifrons.'' 


Symmerista packardii (Morrisou). 
(PI. IV, fig. 12.) 

Edema jMckardii Morr., Ann. Lyp. Nat. Hist., N. Y.. Vol. xi, p. 92, 1875. 

Si/mmfTiala }>uclcardii, Nenni. ;in(l, Trans. Amer. Eut. Soc, xxi. p. 187, .Tune, 1894; .lourn. N. Y. Ent. 
Soc. ii, p. 114, Sept., 1894. 

Moth. — "Expanse of wiiig.s, 31 mm.; length of body, 16 mm. 

"The jirouud eolor of the anterior wings gray, sprinkled with black atoms and with white and 
faint and ocherous stains, the half line and the interior line absent; the orbicular spot 
pre.sent. as a geminate, blackish, upright, lunate mark, preceded by a white stain; the reniform a 
similar but simple and more distinct mark surrounded by a faint ocherous annulus; the median 
shade passes between the spots; it is thickened below the reniform, forming a black spot, but is 
afterward lost; the exterior line is present in the central part of the wings; it is geminate, 
dentate, and forms a particularly pi'ominent indentation opposite the reniform spot; a contrasting 
apical white shade, below which appears a diffuse blackish shade clearly cut above, and the black 
distinct subtermiiial line formed of obli(iue marks between the nervules: fringes long. 

"Posterior wings uniform dark fuscous, with lighter fringes. Beneath, gray, with numerous 
black atoms; the lines and discal dots are obsolete." (^lorrison). 

"Habitat, Waco, Tex., :\[arch 9;"' Texas (French). 

Morrison's type is in the museum at Cambridge, ^Nlass. 

XoTE. — Edema producta Walk., Cat. Lep. Het. Br. Mus., v, p. 1031, 1885, and Edema fusceseens 
Walk., loc. clt., p. 1031, are species of Ingura, a genus of Xoctuida^, according to Grote and Eobin- 
son. Edema? pJad'taia Walk., Cat. Lep. Het. Br. 3Ius., xxxii, p. 427, 1805, "belongs to Parorgyia 
I'ack."' (Grote and Robinson, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, July, 1808). 

Subfamily VI. — HETEROCAMPiNyii:. 

Miifli. — The head is tufted on the vertex, so as to have a triangular-shaped hollow on top of 
the head. Tlie male antenna' are fdiforin in their distal fourth. Fore wings usually long and 
narrow (in Hyparitax, broad and short), with the outer edge very obliipie, rather more so than 
usual; a subcostal cell usually present, and long and narrow. 

XfU-iY/.— Compressed or round, and, as the name of the typical genus suggests, varying 
greatly in shape, markings, and coloration; either noctuiform, with moderately long legs, becoming 
in Ihterocampa unkolov very long, and in Macrurocampa forming true stemapoda like those of the 
Ceruriuit; body either smooth or armed with high uutant tubercles on first, fifth, and eighth, or 
first and eighth, abdominal segments. Larvie in stage I often with large antlers. 

Larva' usually spinning a slight, thin cocoou. 

Pupa. — Stout, full, with the spine of the cremaster well develoi>cd. 


A. AntennsT of ^ almost or quite plumose nearly to the tip: palpi and legs long and slender; fore wings 

broad and short; body and wings pink. Larva liki' that of Schizura, witli a double bump on lirst and 
eighth abdominal segments Hi/jXirpnx 

Like Hyparpax, but fore wings longer and narrower and more acute at apex; tip of ^ antenna' more 
filameutal Euhnparpax 

Like Schizura, but the fore wings scalloped; palpi rather slenderer and shorter; fore wings long and 
narrow. Larva with end of body raised; a large double tubercle on first and a decided hump on eighth 
abdominal segment - XijJinodes 

B. End of i antenna} filiform: vertex tufted : palpi short and thick ; wings often long and narrow, outer edge 

more or less obII(iue. Hinil wings longer and more iJointed than in lleterocampa. 
Larva; body lomjiressed. with two or three humps, often a V-shaped, silvery dorsal 

mark in Iront of tlie hist tubercle Schhura 

Difters slightly from lleterocampa in tlie venatiim, the subcostal cell being very long and narrow. Larva 

in last stage smooth, unarmed, noctuiform, very closely resembling that of H. maiileo Seirodonta 

Fore wings iiroduced toward the apex, outer edge iisurlly very oblique; a long subcostal cell: hind wings 

short and rounded; J anteume fihimental at the en'. Larva varying from being simply noctuiform to 

having long substemapodiform anal legs Bcieiucumjia 

Like Heterocainpa, but witli no subcostal cell. L.arva with the anal legs converted into true filameutal 

liroresses (Stemapoda) like those of C'erura iJacnirucimpa 


Hyparpax lliiebncr. 

(PI. XLIII, iigs. 3, 3(1. Veiuitiou.) 

Hiiparpax Iliiebner, Saiviml. Exot. .Sclimett. Bd., ii, pi. 168, 1806. 
Dataiiu.' Walk., Cat. Ltp. Hr. .Mils., v, p. 1062, 18.5r,. 
Uyparpax Pack., Proc. Ent. I'liil., iii, p. 355, ISIU. 

Grote, New Check List N. Amer. Motli.s, p. 18, 1882; 

Smith, List Lep. Bor. Amer., p. 30, 1891. 

Kirby, Syn. Cat. Lep. Hot., i, p. .585, 1892. 

Neum. and Dyar, Trans. Amer. Eut. Soc, sxi, ]>. 186, June, 1894 ; .lonrn. N. Y. Ent. Sue, ii, p. 114,. 
Sept., 1894. 

2Loth. — Fiont of the bciul rather narrow, densely pilose between the antenna', the .scak's being 
long. Antennse almost plumose in S , being pectinated to the tips, with unusually long branches; 
ill 9 snbsiiiiple. Paljii very slender, porrect; second .joint a little pilose beneath; third joint 
slei der, acute. Eyes naked. Thorax with a slight low tuft. 

Fore wings two-thirds as broad as long, broad subtriangular ; costa a little full at base, beyond 
straight; apex rectangular, not falcate; outer edge equal in length to the internal, not scalloped, 
convex. Venation: The costal region is quite broad, and the lirst to the fourth subcostal venules 
arise vei'y near to each other and end at the costal edge very near together; there is a long narrow 
subcostal cell, and the second subcostal venule arises a little beyond the middle of it, while in 
Xylinodes it arises near the distal end; lifth subcostal venule shorter than usual; the discal veins 
are situated beyond the middle of the wing, and the course of the two is unusually oblique, the 
hinder one not being curved as it is in Xylinodes, but obli(iue; the origin of the first cubital venule 
(III;!) is unusually remote from that of the second. 

Hind wings short and broad, much rounded at the apex. \'enation: The subcostal vein 
divides farther out from the discal vein than in Xylinodes and much farther out than in Schizura, 
and the common origin of the hinder discal and first cubital venule (IIIj) is remote from that of 
the second cubital venule (IV,). The internal vein (VII) is very short. The legs are very long 
and slender, hinder pair of tibia; with two pairs of very long spines. The tip of the abdomen 
is in the male pointed and slightly tufted when the claspers are outspread. 

Coloration: Ocherous or pinkish ocherous, with pink lines and scales; a long discal line. 

This genus is characterized by the broadly iiectiiiated or plumose antenna-, the branches 
extending nearly to the tip; by the long slender palpi and legs, with the two pairs of lon.g tibial 
spurs; by the plain unsealloped fore wings, the plain, not tufted, thorax, and the peculiar style ot 
coloration. By its venation and larval characters it stands near Xylinodes and Schizura, although 
the general appearance of the moth would not perhaps lead to this view. 

Lnrra. — Closely allied in its general shape and style of coloration to Xylinodes and Schizura. 
A double red hump on the first and a tubercle on the eighth abdominal segment; tiie dorsal region 
between these two segments green. 

FrKshhj hatched larva. — Much like the young of Schizura in shape and in the position and 
sha])e of the conical tubercles. Body thrice ringed with red, the dorsal tubercles of first and 
eighth abdominal segments scarcely larger than those on the othei segments. 

Pupa. — Subterranean, the larva spinning no cocoon. 

Hyparpax aurora (Abbot and Smith). 
(I'l. 7, lij;. XXIV.) 

riuihvna aurora Abl)Ot and Smith, Nat. Hist. Lep. Ins. Georgia, ii, p. 173. Tab. LXXXVII, 1797, 
Hi/parpax aurora Hiiehner, Samml. Exot. Sclim,, ii, pi. 168, 1806. 
iMtana t aurora Walk., Cat. Lep. Br. Miis., v, p. 1062, 1855. 

Morris, Synopsis Lep. N. Amer., p. 217, 1862. 
Ilyparpax aurora Paik., Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., iii, p. 3.56, 1864. 

Pack., Kep. V. U. S. Eut, Comm, on Forest Insects, p. 1.56. 1890. fLarva, PI. Ill, figs. 6, C^a.) 
Kirby, Syn. Cat, Lep. Het., i, p. 585, 1892. 

Neura. and, Trans, Amer. Eut. Soc,, xxi, p, 186, June, 1894; .louru, N, V, Eut. Soc,» 
ii, p, 114, Sept,, 1894, 


(PI. XXIV, figs. 1-6.) 

Abbot and SmiUi, Lcp. Ins. Georgia, p. 163, Tab. LXXXII, 1797. 
Edicards, Ent. Amer., iii, p. 169, Dec, 1887 (3 larval stages). 
r<i(l-ard, .Jouru. N. York Ent. Soc, i, p. 73, June, 1893. 

Motli, — Two (5,19. Oclierous yellow and roseate. Head and body rosy pink. Base of the 
fore wings roseate, bonnded externally by a pink line bent at a right angle upon the first anal vein 
(Vl). Uetween this line and the outer one the wing is oeheroiis yellow; outer edge of the wing- 
pink. Hind wings white, eitlier unspotted or with a pink line along the edge; a slight i)iukish 
discoloration at the internal angle. Abdomen roseate at the end. The legs are tinged externally 
with roseate. Length of body, 15-20 mm.; expanse of wings, 36 mm. 

The young were reared from eggs kindly sent me June 20 by Miss Emily L. Morton, of Isew 
"Windsor, N. Y. 

Larru, ,Stage I. — Length, 2.5 mm. The head is very large and broad, about twice as wide as 
the rather slender body, and dull honey-yellow or chitinous in color; with a few long light hairs 
in front near the vertex. On the prothovacic segment are two rather large acute conical dorsal 
tubercles of the same color as the head and larger than those on the lirst or eighth abdominal 
segments, though all the dorsal tubercles on the body are unusually large, larger in proportion 
than in the lirst stage of Schiznra; those on the second and tliiid thoracic segments are well 
developed, but considerably smaller than those in front. Those on the first abdominal segment 
are situated close together, while those on the first thoracic segment are rather wide apart. The 
two on the eighth abdominal segment are not quite so large as those on the first abdominal 
segment. The giandidar hairs arising from these tubercles and those on the side of the body are 
long, varying in length, and distinctly bulbous at the end, those on the thoracic and posterior 
thoracic segments being longer than those in the middle of the body, or in the allied genus 

The body above pale yellow, with a greenish tinge, the sides of the body being cherry-red. 
The first, third, and eighth abdominal segments are cherry-red all around, including the tubercles, 
so that the body is thrice ringed with red. All the dorsal abdominal tubercles are quite large, 
those on the first and eighth segments scarcely larger than those on the other segments. The end 
of the body is uplifted, both when walking and at rest. All the abdominal legs are reddish, and 
the thoracic legs are dark. 

t^tai/e II. — Just molted, July, 1801. Evitleutly delayed in its growth. Length, mm. Head 
modei-ately large (now wider than the body, as the larva has not begun to feed); it narrows- 
slightly above, and bears on the vertex two piliferons warts which are somewhat larger thau 
those below on the face, of which there are five, rather large conical warts, arranged in two rows,^ 
each bearing a bulbous tipped glandular hair; the head is pale sere-brown (burnt sienna), with 
six whitish spots arranged in two vertical rows. The clypeus and labrum are whitish. The 
first thoracic, first, tliird, and eighth abdominal segments each bear two large high dorsal warts, 
which are dark at the tips; they are fiauked by subdorsal and lateral warts which are but a. 
little smaller; the dorsal ones in question are much larger and higher than those on the other 
segments, aud.the segments themselves are a dull pale cherry-red. Thoracic segments 2 and 3 and 
abdominal segments 2, 1, 7, 9, and 10, together with the tubercles, are bright yellow. Tlie legs 
are all pale, though the anal ones are darker and redder. The glandular hairs are still bulbous 
in this stage, rather short aud even; those ou the first thoracic and first, third, and eighth 
alxlominal segments being longer than those elsewhere. 

These hairs are seen under a A-inch objective to be unuNualiy large, distinctly fiattened at 
the end, which is broad and square, the tips being flattened aud transparent. In a few of 
the hairs the expanded tip appears to be ragged and broken, or toothed, and m one case 
deeply forked. 

The descriptions of the following stages are drawn uj) from Mr. Eridgham's excellent colored 
figures, those of the two earlier stages having been compared with my descriptions and found to 
be accurate in form and color. His examples of Stage 1 (from eggs 1 sent him) were drawn July 
3 to 7; of Stage II, July 12; of Stage III, July IS; Stage IV, July 23; Stage V, and last, July 28. 


Stage III. — Length, 20 mm. The head is somewhat angular, spotted wiili whitish, and tlie 
tuberch's are hirgcr tliaii before. The body has more of a lilac tint, and the tubercles, whicli were 
3-e!low in tlie previous stage, are now still deei)er yellow, tinged with white, rendering them more 
conspicuous; a distinct hiteral stigmatal line extends along eighth ami ninth segments and along 
the edge of the suraual i)late. Theendof the body is raised higli \\\)x tiiere is nogreenon the body. 

StiKje IV. — Length. 25 mm. In the greater thickness and sliajx' of the body, as well as the 
bright green color, the larva of this stage closely resembles the caterpillar in its final stage. The 
head is now smoother, the tubercles snmller, and the dorsal tubercles on the three thoracic 
segments, as well as those ou the second to seventh abdominal segments, are snmller than before, 
•while those on the first and eighth abdominal scgUK'nts are now larger than before and very 
prominent. The body is now of a deep delicate pea-green, with a large reddish brown triangular 
patch extending from the prothoracic segment next to the head and ending at the anterior base 
of the tubercles on the first abdominal segment. Uehind the said tubercles abroad reddish brown 
patch extends to the large tubercles on the eighth segment, the band being edged with whitish 
yellow; from the rear of the tubercle a similar-colored band extends to the end of the suranal 
plate. The underside of the body in front and the midiUe abdominal legs are brownish. 

Stage V. — Length, 3."» mm. In shape and coloration Just as in Stage IV. but the head is a little 
darker, and the back of the larva between the two great abdominal tubercles, and also behind the 
last tubercles on eighth segment, is green, not reddish brown, and this area is edged with irregular 
reddish thread lines on a white field. Also a lateral infrastigumtal line is present along the end 
of the body. In Miss Morton's figure, copied in my Forest Insects (PI. 111. figs. 0, G«) tlie larva has 
the same style of coloration. 

1 have imt yet seen the fully fed larva, and we need a detailed description of it, as com])ared 
with the final stage of Schizura and Janassa. (See, however. Appendix A.) 

Cocoon. — The larva enters the ground, forming a rsubterrauean thin case of dirt. (Abbot and 

Habits. — "The caterpillar was taken on the timber white oak, but feeds also on other species 
of oak. It went into the ground and inclosed itself in a thin case of dirt July I."), ai)poaring on 
the wing August 7. Sometimes this species also buries itself in autumn, and renmins till the 
spring, at which season the moth may now and then be observed sitting on the oak branches." 
(Smith and Abbot.) 

Food jdants. — Different species of oak. 

Geographical distribution. — Kanges through the Appalachian and the Austroripaiian sub- 
l)rovinces, and is rare in New England, but not unconmutn in the Southern States. 

Orono, Me. (Fernald); Cambridge, Mass. (Harris Coll.); Newburg, N. Y. (Miss Morton); 
Massachusetts. New York (French); Plattsburg, N. Y. (Hudson); North Carolina (Morrison); 
Georgia (Abbot and Smith). Its western limits are unknown. 

Hyparpax perophoioides (Strecker). 

Coamia jiii-ophnroUhii Streck'T, Proi-. Acad. Nat. Sc. Pbil., p. l.")2, 187ti. 
Bijparpas (iiiroslrinta (ii;icf, Kiitomologioa Amei-icana, iv, ]). .oS, Jnui-, 188S. 

Sinitli, I.c]>. Ijoi-. Aim-r.. ]). liO, 1S91. 

Kirby, .Syn. Cat. Lc]). Het.. i, p. "*">, isyi'. 

Neuiii. and Dyar, Traus. Anier. Eiit. Soc . xxi, ]). 187. 1894 : .loiirn. N. Y. Knt. Sue, ii, p. 
114, .Sept.. 1894. 

Moth. — Eight 6,19. I have examined two males of this form, kindly i)resented by IMrs. 
Slos.son, who captured them in Florida. I am not (juito sure as to their si)ecilic distinctness from 
Jf. aurora, which is a somewhat variable moth. Whether this form is a local variety or a distinct 
southern species remains to be proved. 

In one exami)le the body and wings are uniformly pale ashen ocherous. The inner bent line 
on the fore wings are exactly as in. typical aurora, and the oblique hmg linear discal mark is as in 
that species; the outer line, however, is not so wavy as in aurora. The middle region of the wing 
is of the same shade as the and outer edge of the wing. 

The other example, apjiarently from the same locality and cajitured at the same date, is dull 
roseate all over the fore wings, and thus approaches the normal form. 


Mr. (iraef's specimens* were received from Texas. He remarks: "I received more than a 
dozen specimens from Texas, and they are all of this form and constant: //. aurora is a totally' 
different sjiecies."" I took it for granted that this form was distinct from aurora, but renewed 
examination makes me inclined to regard it as a variety. 

Mrs. Slosson, who tells me she lias seen in Florida lumdreds of the normal If. aurora, thinks 
this variety is distinct. The following description of II. peroplioroidcs is drawn up from eight i and 
one 9 in ber collection. In life ]\Irs. Slosson has uoticed that the thorax is bathed with a glaucous 
green tinge, which exten<ls to the base of the fore wings, but di sappears as the moth dies. Antenns* 
plumose. Head in front and markings ou the wing rich pale wine-red; head above, thorax, and 
ground color of the -wings fawn-browu. Fore wings uniformly fawn-brown, two deeply staine<l, 
wine-red, narrow, distinct transverse lines, nearly parallel, passing from the inner side of the wing- 
to the costal edge, and a third concolorous line starting from the junction of the median vein and 
the inner line and ending on the costal edge nearly halfway from base of wing to the end of the 
line it joins. (These lines are situated exactly as in the normal examples of H. aurora.) Hind wings 
suffused with pale wine-red on the outer fourth. 

In two c? the entire fore wings are uniformly suffused with pale claret-red, and in one <5 the 
-wings are suffused »\ ith the same tint, but the space between the three lines are deep, dull, wine, brick 
red, like the lines themselves, the band being about twice as broad on the costal as on the hind edge. 

Underside : Fore wings deep wine-red, paler along the outer margin : hind wings whitish, with 
reddish scales on the costal edge. 

Geot/rapJilcal iJistributio)i. — Morida (Mrs. Slosson) and Texas (Belfrage, Graef Coll.); Texas 

Hyparpax venus Xeiimoegen. 

(PL VII, lig. 18.) 

Syparpa.r rcnitu Neum.. Can. Ent., xxiv, p. 22G, Sept., 1892. 

riiliii, .louru. N. York Kut. Soc. i. p. 20. ilarcb. 1893 (PI. I. fig. 4). 

Neuiii. and Dyar. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, .\xi, p. 186, 1894; .louru. N. Y. Ent. Soc, ii, p. 114, 
Sept., 1894. 

Moth. — ''Head yellowish with rose center; antenna' light brown: eyes black; collar, thorax, 
patagia, as well as jirimaries, of beautiful light rose color; nerves concolorous: fringes whitish. 
Beyond median cell, from costa to inner margin, a transverse white line, slightly bending 
inwardly at its center. 

"Secondaries and nerves white, with a rose-colored marginal line along costa and margin to 
anal angle. A rose tint along anterior margin, fading toward center. 

"Abdomen yellowish-white, with rose anal tuft. 

"Below, primaries and secondaries of yellowish white, with concolorous nerves and fringes. 
Costa rose and broad marginal rose tints, especially so ou primaries, fading toward center. 

"Legs rose colored; prominent yellowish- white tibial spines. 

"Expanse of wings, 30 mm.; length of body, 9 mm. 

"Habitat: Colorado. Type, 3 , Coll. B. Neumoegen. 

"It seems to be a rare species, for Mr. Bruce only caught one last year, and this summer 
only five specimens, among which one 9 , which, as he writes me, tallies in all details with the S . 
Its name is warranted by its beauty." 

Euhyparpax HeuteumiiUer. 
Eiihuparpax Bout.. Bull. Amer. Mus. Xat. Hist., v, p. 19. Feb., 1893. 

"Primaries twice as long as broad; costa almost straight, very slightly concave about the 
middle ; apex pointed ; outer margin slightly rounded ; inner angle obliijuely rounded. Secondaries 
reaching to the inner angle of the i)rimaries, apex acutely rounded, outer margin almost oblique, 
hind angle rounded. Bodj^ ( $ ) slender, extending beyond the secondaries; anal tuft obsolete. 
Legs pilose, femora and tibia- covered with long ciliated hairs, tarsi covered only with very short 
scales. Head depressed, i)al[(i very short and barely visible, owing to the scales covering the same 
and the thorax. Antenna- half as long as the primaries; stalk stout, with the pectinations to about 
the middle of equal length, when they very gradually decrease in length to about 2 mm. before the 
apex, which portion is without pectinations. The genus is allied to Hyparpa.v.''^ (Beutenmiiller.) 



Euliyparpax rosea Ueut. 

(IM. VI, fis;. 24.) 

JCiiliiiparpiij- roKi(( Bi-nt., ISnlI. Aiiier. Mns. Xat. Hist., v, ]>. 19, Feb.. IS'JS. 

Xoiiiii. and Dyar, Trans. Anier. Eiit. Soc, xxi, p. 204, June, ISiM: .Innni. .\nicr. Ent. Soc.,. 
ii. II. 117. Sejit., 18!IJ. 

• IJeatl. thorax, and body pale oclierous. slijiiitly tiiigetl \vitli pink. I'riinaries oclicrous, 

inclined to be colored, witli 
a very narrow undulated trans- 
verse line of a deeper color 
beyond the middle of the wing. 
This line is somewhat curved 
before reaching the costa. Be- 
yond this line, before the outer 
margin, is a row of very indis- 
tinct spots of the same color. 
At the end of the discal area is 
a faint indication of an ocherous 
spot. Secondaries rose colored, 
with the cilia |ialer. Under.sides 
of all the wings wholly rose 
color, without any markings. 
The legs iind body are also 
tinged with pinkish. Stalk of 
antenna', above, whitish with 
the ])cctinations deep otiherous, 
of which color are also the 
antenna' beneath. Expause of 
wings, -10 nini." 

'•One male. West Cliff, Cus- 
ter County, Colo. (T. 1). A. 
Cockerel!). Coll. Ily. Edwards, 
Am. -Mus. Nat. Hist."' (I'.eutcn- 

I have not had an op[>ortiiiiiry nf cartfully examining this moth, and am indebted to Dr. Dyar 
for the figures of the venation. 

XyUnodes raokanl. 
(PI. .XI.III. tig-. I, venation.) 

Ia»a><sa Walk., Cat. Leji. Hot. Ilr. JIns., v, p. 1101. 185.-1. 
.Xi/liiiodcH I'ackanl. I'roo. Ent. Soc. I'liil.. iii, p. 3(10, ISOl. 
./«H«.f.v<i (irotc, New Check Li.-it X. Aiuer. Motli.s. p. li), 1S82. 
/•/(;/(( 1 )nuc, Hiolo^ia Centr. Anier., p. 212, .June, 18S7. 
./ Smith, Lep. l!or. Amer., p. 31, 1891. 
lana-'isa Kirby, Syn. Cat. I.op. llet.. i, p. 570, 1802. 

Nenm. an.l Dyar, Tr.aii.'*. Amer. Ent. Soc. xxi, ].. 200, .liine, 1891: .lourn, X, Y. Ent. Soc. ii, p. IIG, 
Sept.. ISiU. 

Moth.— i and 9 . Head as in Schi/.ura, jjroniincnt; front when dcnu<lcd subtriangular as in 
Schizura, and tufted as in Schi/.ura, a porrect tuft of scales on the vertex. I'alpi as in Schi/.ura, 
short, stout, porre(!t, hardly reaching the front, tii)s of the third joint obtuse, beneath densely 
clothed with short scales, conniving throughout. -Alale antenme rather broadly pectinald to the 
distal third, the l)ranches rather long, stcmt, each tipjied with a tult of cilia'; in the 9 siniide. 
Thorax moderately stout, scales of the pronotum distinct; not crested above; beneath witli 
unusually long hair like scales, with a longer prosternal tuft arising from beneath the eyes. 

Fore wings broad, long, and narrow, being a little more than one tliird as broad as long; 
costa nearly straight, but yet more convex than in Schizura; outer margin very long, distinctly 

FUf. 75rt.— Venatii 

dC i.;u-t nl liind ni" lu'liij jiatpar rof^ea (Dyardol) 


scalloped; internal an^le roundtd, and a little within the middle of the inner margin is a 
prominent tult of dark scales; onter edge scalloped. 

Venation: The second and third snbcostal venules are very near each other, the subcostal 
cell very naiTow, linear; the fourth subcostal vein arises within the middle of the subcostal cell. 
The upper branch of the third subcostal is very short and passes straight to the costa just before 
the apex. The upjier discal vein is carved somewhat obliquely inward to the origin of the lifth 
subcostal venule, tUeu passing very oblirpiely, and uncurved, to the middle of the discal space, 
where it meets the lower discal vein, which is perpendicular to the cubital venule from which it 
arises. The venation of both wings is in fact just as in Schizura. llind wings a little more 
pointed at the apex than in Schizura; costa straight, bent down somewhat at the apex; outer 
edge oblique, not very full, bent slightly on the lirst median interspace. 

Legs: Femora buried and concealed in the long scales of the breast; fore tibi:e densely 
pilose, presenting a Hat ex])anse on each side; the middle and hind tibiic with two long sharp, 
nearly equal spurs. 

Abdomen long, cylindrical, the tip square, scarcely tufted. 

Coloration: Gray with darker streaks obliquely crossing the costa. The single species of our 
fauna is more slashed and streaked than any of our other Notodontians. 

This genus, both in its larval and adult characters, is so near Schizura that it seems scarcely 
necessary to regard it as separate, and it may ultimately be found best to unite it with that 
genus. It only differs in the scalloped fore wings, the rather stouter and shorter palpi, the 
stronger pectinations of the antenmie, the distinctly scaled pronotal pieces, and the long hairs ou 
the breast; the fore wings are also longer and narrower than in Schizura, and the outer edge more 
oblique, while the inner edge has a slight tuft. Our generic name, Xylinodes, was given to it from 
the resemblance of the markings of the fore wing to the noctuid genus Xylina, in which the fore 
wings are also decidedly slashed. The name lauassa should be drop])ed, since it was proposed' by 
JMiinster in 1839 for a geims of sharks (Beitr. Petref., i, ISSO). Mr. Druce (Biol. Centr. Amer., 
p. 242) points out the fact that lanassa is preoccupied, and apparently ignorant that I had pro- 
posed the name Xyliuodes for the genus, changed the generic name to Pliya. 

Ec/g. — "Globular and smooth" (Dyar). Further observations are needed. 

Cocoon. — A regularly oval thick earthen cell lined with silk, the larva transforming either ou 
the surface or within the earth. 

Larva. — Headbilobed; on first abdominal segment a hump supporting a large double tuber- 
cle, and on the eighth segment a decided hump bearing two small piliferous warts. End of body 
and anal legs raised, much as in Schizura. Freshly hatched larva: "Tubercles ou lirst abdominal 
segment brown ; anal feet partly aborted." (Dyar.) 

Geof/niphictd (listribiition. — This genus is peculiar to the Xew World, extending through the 
Appalachian aud Austroripariau into the eastern portion of the Campestrian subprovince, as far 
west as Colorado, South Dakota, and Salt Lake, Utah. This genus also occurs iu the Mexican 
(Sonorau) subprovince as Mr. II. Edwards has described (Ent. Amer, i, p. 129). Janassa laciniosa 
is from Jalapa (Schaus) and Mazatlau. 

Xylinodes lignicolor (Walker). 
(PL IV, tig. 15.) 

lanassa lignicolor Walk., Cat. Lep. Het. Br. Mus., v, p. 1101, 1855. 
Xylinodes virijata Pack., Prou. Ent. Sue. Phil., lii, p. 367, 1864. 

Grote, New Clieck List N. Amer. Moths, p. 31, 1882. 
Smith, List Lep. Bor. Amer., p. 31, 1891. 
lanassa liynicolor Kirby, Syii. Cat. Lep. Het., i, p. 570, 1892. 

Ejcwrela lirjniijera Walk., Cat. Lep. Het. Br. Mus., xxxii, p. 423, 18J5 {fide Grote ami Rol).). 
Edema Iransrersata Walk., Cat. Lep. Het. Br. Mus., xsxii. p. 427, 1865 (fide Grote and Rol).). 
lanassa lirjnirolor Xcum. and Dyar, Traua. Amer. Ent. Soc., xxi. p. 200, June, 1894 ; .Touru. N. Y. Eut. Soc, ii, 

p. 116, Sept., 1894. 
lanassa c:>loradensis Neuiu. and Dyar, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc., xxi, p. 200, June, 1894 ; .louru. X. Y. Ent. Soc, ii, 

p. 116, Sept., 1894. 


(PI. XXV, li-s. 1, 1,1. 1/.. \i: \(l. ],: ]/.) 

Di/ar, Ent. Aincr., v, p. 91, 1889, (lull life liiatory, egi; to moth). 
I'ackanl. KU'th I\i!i>. I'. S. Eul. Comiu., p. l.")7, ISH) (liill-fi-il l;nv;i. juipa). 
Pioc. Host. Soc. Nat. Hist., xxiv, p. 511, 1890. 

Moth. — Two (5,19. Pule ciuercou.s. Pronotiil scales di.scolored with ligiieoii.s brown. A 
broatl luuiliiiu thoracic dusky line, succeeded on the abdomen by a dark spot. Fore wings whitish 
ash-gray, with brown scales arranged iu streaks; on the costa the streaks are directed obliiiuely 
toward the outer margin, ending u]>ou the subcostal vein. Toward the apex there are two distinct 
brown streaks, which are parallel to the costa; between and beh)w the second streak there are two 
whitish streaks. A dark brown discal dot is situated upon the lower discal venule; beyond it is 
a brown streak; in the middle of the discal space is a light line which passes over the discal dot 
and continues along the lowest subcostal space to near the outer margin. Below the median vein 
the wing is slightly tinged with ocherous. Just below the basal itDrtion of tlie median vein is a 
brown streak, and the internal border is mottled and streaked with dark cinereous. The tuft is 
dark brown'. The outer edge of the wing is also darker than the discal portion. There are no 
transverse streaks or lines. Hind wings white, tiie costa slightly discolored with ashen scales. 
Abdomen nearly concolorous, being a shade darker than the hind wings. Ueneatii, of an asheu 
hue, with a distinct median black line. Tarsi broadly ringed with dark scales. 

Expanse of wings, 9 , 57 mm.; length of body, 9 , 23 nun. 

Edwards's Janatma color adcns is is a pale silver white variety of his {^vliizuru perau(iul<ttu,&?, I 
find by a comparison with his type in the American Museum of Natural History. 

E(j(j. — "Globular and smooth" (Dyar). (For a more complete description, see Appendix A.) 

This caterpillar has been already well described in all its five stages, by Mr. H. G. Dj'ar, in 
Entomologica Americana (v. p. 91, May, 1S89). The points of special interest, noticed by Mr, Dyar 
are (1) that only live eggs in the case observed were de])0siteil on the same plant; (2) the larvse feed 
singly and during Stages I and II they "eat only the upper portion of the leaf, and their j'ellowish- 
brown color well simulates its withered appearance; (3) subsequently they devour the entire leaf, 
with the exception of the largest veins and rest on its edge, where they might be mistaken for a 
curled and discolored portion." 

Of the structural features and shape of the first stage, as compnrcd with the last stage, ^Ir. 
Dyar gives no detailed account, except referring to a "hump on joint 5," i. e., the first abdominal 
segment. He now informs me that the tubercles are flat, distinct, with long glandular hairs. 

In the second stage the head is said to be "slightly notched on top." In Stage III the 
imi)ortant observation is made that "the markings of the mature larva now begin to be assumed." 
This is in accordance with what a|)i)ears to be the rule in this group, i. e., tluit when the iarviii 
reach Stage III they feed more conspicuously and then begin to arise tlie special ])rotective shape 
and colors of the last stage ami also the terrifying movable warts or sjiines, if present at all. 

As regards the second stage of this larva, the following notes on some alcoholic siiecimens, 
kindly loaned me by Professor lliley and collected by Jlr. I.runer in Nebraska, may be of interest. 

Second utiiijc. — Length. 0-7 mm. Ileatl large, deci)ly indented on the vertex, each lobe bearing 
near the end a piliferous wart. The two dorsal piliferous tubercles on each thoracic segment are 
nearly of the same size, but those of the prothoracit; jniir are considerably larger than the meso- 
thoracic, and the latter are larger than the metathoracit; ])air. The tubercles on the iirst abdominal 
segment are a little larger than those on the prothoracic segnu'iit. Tiiose on tiie eighth abtlominal 
segment are as large at the base, but not so high as those on the first abdominal segment; and 
those on the ninth segment are quite large, being about two-thirds as large as those on the 
eighth abdominal segment. All the seta- arising from the dorsal an<l lateral tubercles are decidedly 
clavate at the end. 

Compared with Schiznra ipoiiiea' of the same stage and size, tlie head of Janassa is seen to 
be larger and the lobes above more pointed. The shape and jiroportions of the thoracic and 
abdominal segments are nearly the same, but the i)addl(' slmped seta' are shorter, while the body,, 
generally, is stouter. At this stage the two larvse appear to be scarcely generically distinct. 


Last stivje. — ilr. Dyar lias quite fully described this stage, but there are some structural 
features to which wt' would call attention. The head is distinctly bilobed, with no warts, but a 
bristle on each side of the vertex. The markings of the head have been well described by Mr. 
Dyar. From the first abdoiuiual segment arises a large, double tubercle, undoubtedly movable as 
in Sehiznra, and serving to frighten away parasitic insects. From the Immp arise two dark, 
smooth tubercles, which are directed forward and give rise each to a bristle. 

Ou the eighth abdominal segment, where the spiracles are nearly tw'ice as large as the others 
on the abdomen, is a decided hump, bearing two small, piliferous warts. The anal legs and end 
o-f the body are much as in Schizura, being raised at times. 

The larva closely approaches those of the species of Schizura, having essentially the same 
style of coloration and the same arrangement of terrifying humps and tubercles, but not the 
peculiar V-shaped dorsal marks of Schizura. The markings of the nu)ths are quite diiferent, and 
while the two genera are (piite distinct, they are more closely allied than any other two genera. 

1 add the description drawn up from examples observed in Providence: 

Head not very large, not so wide as the protlioracic segment; pale, almost whitish ash-gray; 
an irregular dark ash band ou each side in front passing up from the mandibles and meeting on 
the \ertex, where a branch is sent out at right angles, uniting with its fellow in the median line 
of the head; no median line above the apex of the vertex, but two spurs are sent out above the 
vertex from each side, which nearly reach the median line of the head, and inclose a clear round 
space. Prothoracic segment pea green on each side above the spiracle. Meso- and metathoracic 
segments bright deep pea-green, bordered with reddish below; a long, narrow, triangular dorsal 
light-brown baud, slightly forked on the prothoracic segment, extends from the head to near the 
base of the large dorsal tubercle ou first abdominal segment; this tubercle is sensitive and' 
retractile as in the other species of this subfamily; it is large but not forked, the end being very 
slightly cleft, blackish in the middle, and each small terminal wart has a dark hair which is bent 
downward and forward. First to third abdominal segments pale gray and reddish brown, the first 
less marbled and watered with gray than the second and third; the back of the fourth to ninth 
segments clear deep pea-greeu, with a round sinus in front on the fourth segment, and ou the sixth 
and front edge of seventh inclosing a watered, gray, elongated, irregular patch. On the eighth 
segment a small dorsal tubercle tinted with brown; the eighth spiracle much larger and more 
conspicuous than the others; arouml the seventh pair of spiracles are clear white patches. The- 
abdominal legs 1 to -1 are thick and fleshy, with a reddish brown circular line incomplete above; 
anal legs small and slender, about one-third as large as the others. Length, oo mm. 

Pupa. — Body short and thick; "minutely but sparsely i)uncture(l. At the posterior edge of 
the thorax is a row of granular square elevations, extending across in a curved line between the 
wing cases.'' (Dyar). Tiii of abdomen nuusually blunt; cremaster partly rudimentary, not 
projecting beyond the tip, and consisting of two widely separate, flattened, S(iuarish spines,. 
terminating in two small spines. Length, 18 mm. 

Cocoon. — "Tough and parchment-like, semitransparent, similar to that of Schkura unicornis. 
After forming its cocoon, the larva fades to. a nearly uniform whitish color, and the change to- 
pupa does not occur till about a mouth before the emergence of the inmgo in the spring." (Dyar.) 

Habits. — The caterpillar of this moth occurs on the oak at Providence from the middle to the 
last of September. The larva is very characteristic and allied to those of Schizura. In Professor- 
Riley's collection are the regularly oval, thick, earthen cocoons lined with silk, and about three- 
fourths of an inch in length, the caterpillar transforming on the surface or within the earth. 

Riley records finding larvse in March, and from July to September, and the moths as flying iu 
March, Ajiril, May, June, July, and August. 

Food plant. — Different si)ecies of oak; on beech in September, Brunswick, Me. ; New York, 
white birch (Dyar). 

(leo(jraphic(tl dislrilmtion. — Brunswick, Me. (Packard); Franconia, N. II. (Mrs. Slosson); 
Caud)ri(lge, ^lass., (Hyatt); Provideuce, R. I. (Packard); Lansing, Mich. (Miles); Eastern New 
York, (Dyar) ; Plat:tsburg, N. Y. (Hudson) ; St. Anthony Park, Minn. (Lugger) ; Georgia, (Edwards) ; 
Nebraska (Bruner); Volga, S. Dak. (Truman, larvse on oak); New York, Pennsylvania, Arkansas 
(Palm); Maine, New York, Nebraska, Missouri, District of Columbia, Georgia, and Texas (U. S. 


Nat. Mus.): ^faiue. IvMkmIc Island, New York, ^lichigan, Cliaiiipaii;ii, 111. (FreucU); Dallas, Tex. 
(Boll, Mus. Coiiii). ZooL). 

Schizuia ] >oMble(lay. 
(Tl. XLIV, lij;s. l-f). Vciiiilion.) 

I'hahiiia Abbot :iml .Smith. Nat. Hist. Lej). Georgi:!. ]>. 1707. 

Hijhoma {\\\ i)art), lliibuur, Vltz. Schmett., j). 200, 181ti. 

Sehizura Doiiblcdiiy,, p. 5!), 1841. 

Jlelerocampu Div. Ill, Walker, Lep. In.s. lir. Mus., v, p. 1025, 1855. 

(Kdcmasia I'.ack., Pioc. Ent. Soc, iii, p. 359, 1,S(U. 

Cidodasijs Pack., I'roc. Ent. Soc, iii, p. 3(53, lXt)3. 

Schizuya Pack., Proc. Ent. Soc, iii, p. 363, 1804. 

Halima Walk., Cat. Lcp. Ilct. Kr. Mus., xxxii, p. 4.50, 1805. 

(Etlvmasia (irote, New Check List N. Amer. Jloths, p. 19, 1882. 

Schi:iini (Irotc, New Check List N. Amer. Moths, p. 19, 1882. 

Cirlodanjjs (irote, New Check List N. Amer. Moths, p. 19, 1882. 

Schhiira (iucludinj; Ctelodasys) Pack., Psyche, v, p. .53, May, 1888. 

(Edemasia .Smith, List Lep. Bor. Amer., p. 30, 1891. 

Schhiirn (incliulinj; C<i'l()ilasys) .Smith, List Lep. ISor. Amer., p. 31, 1891. 

(Edemasia Kirliy, Syu. Cat. Lep. Het., i, p. 5(57, 1X92. 

Schizum Kirby, Syu. Cat. Lep. Het., i, p. 567, 1892. 

Schizura (including (Edemasia) Pack., Psyche, vi, p. 522, .Sept., 1893. 

Neum. and, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, xxi, p. 201, .June, 1894 ; .lonni. N. Y. 
Ent. Soc. ii, p. 110, Se])t., 1894. 

Moth. — c5 and 9 . llead iiKjre i)romiiieiit than usual, on the vertex two talts iiiclosiiij;' a 
triangular hollow and projecting- out between the anteunie. I'^ye.s naked. Auteunje well 
l)ectiuated on basal two-thirds, the outer third liliforni (thicker and more ciliated in »S'. <(pic(ilin 
than u.sual); in 2 simple. Palpi short, thick, blunt at the end, not extending beyond the front; 
second joint hairy beneath, the terminal scales reaching even with the tip of the third joint and 
meeting beneath; the third joint small, short. Maxilhe well develr)ped (in iS'. loiicontix), united, 
and as long as the palpi. 

Thorax not regularly tufted, but the ends of the teguhe are slightly ui)turued and dark, and 
on the underside below the head and in front of the legs is a large triangular tuft of long hairs, 
the ends of which are even with the front of the head. 

Fore wings a little less than one-half as broad as long, costa nearly straight, slightly convex 
toward the apex, which is more jjointed than u.sual; outer margin slightly angulated on the liftli 
subcostal venule, becoming more oblique below. Vciuvtion: A short or long subrhomboidal 
subcostal cell; costal region rather wide, the subcostal venules 1— I not closely crowded; the 
third subcostal venule (II3) shorter than usual, otherwise the venation of both wings is much as 
in IIeterocami)a. 

Hind wings somewhat ])roduced or pointed at the apex, much more so than in lIeterocami)a; 
the costa nearly straight, slightly bent downward near the apex; outer edge long, the lower half 
disposed to be jtarallel with the costal edge of the ])rimaries. 

Legs rather short; femora ami tibia' densely hairy, the hind tibiie are shorter than usual and 
Mith a broad tutt; the lirst pair of tibial spurs small and slender, the outer one of the apical 
(discal) spurs twice the size of the inner one. Tarsi small. 

Abdomen much slenderer than usual, with a distinct anal f'ork<'il tuft, characteristic of the 

Coloration: The sixmucs usually with dark ash-gray longitudinal slashes, costo-apical white 
and black spots, transverse wavy lines, and a ciuvilinear discal spot, excejit in S. conciinia, where 
the spot is a small black dot. The hind wings of the males are usually .sordid white and those 
of the females dusky or mouse colored. 

The genus is recognized by the filiform end of the nnile antenna' and the distinct male anal 
tuft; by the peculiar vestiture of the head; by the short, thick palpi, as well as the prominent 
head; characters in which it approaches Heterocampa, as well as the venation, though the hiud 
wings are longer and more jxtiuted than in Heterocampa. 


On a careful revision of the generic cliaracters of (Tidemasia I do not flud any of sufficient 
value to separate it from Scliizura. (E. concinna lias all the adult characters of Schizura except 
the style of coloration, the palpi of this si>ecies do not seem to be geuerically different from those 
of tli(\ species usually referred to Schizura. An examination of the figures illustrating the 
venation of S. ipomecv and concinna will show a general agreement in the plan of venation. 

When we come to the larval characteristics it would seem unreasonable to unite such a 
peculiar species of larva as that of concinna with the species of Schizura as formerly limited by 
us; but the same difficulty is met with in Heterocamj)a. (Edemasia might be retained as a 
subgenus or section of Schizura, but at iiresent it seems best to at least unite the two genera. 
Undoubtedly the old genus (Edemasia is partially evolved, and to some it may seem best on 
account of its larval characters to retain it as a distinct genus. Before this is done, however, 
we need more exact knowledge of the larval histories of the subfamily. At all events, the 
differences which separate the adult 8. concinna from the other species of Schizura are not at all 
so marked as those which separate the other genera of the family as we have defined them. 

tJog. — Hemispherical, the surface marked with microscopic polygonal areas, becoming 
obsolete toward the apex, so that it is smooth. 

Larva. — Head and body somewhat compressed, head high, narrow, not so wide as the body. 
The eighth to tenth abdominal segments uplifted, with rather long and slender anal legs, a high 
nutant, slightly eversible, forked dorsal tubercle on the first abdominal segment; two high twin 
fleshy tubercles on fifth abdominal segment, not quite so large as similar ones on the eighth 
segment. Colors green on sides of the thoracic segments; the rest of the body russet, with fine, 
irregular, reddish lines, and a characteristic silvery white dorsal V-shaped mark in front of the 
last tubercle. In »S'. concinna the entire first abdominal segment is swollen and red, while the 
l)iliferous warts are converted into long, solid, black, stout, blunt spines. 

Freshly hatched larva. — Head very large, rounded; body studded with large piliferous conical 
dorsal warts, those on the prothoracic segments as large as those on the first and eighth 
abdominal segments, and those on the other segments large and well developed. 

The glandular hairs long and bulbous at the tips. ]>ody pale greenish yellow, with a pale 
reddish band around the prothoracic and first, third, and eighth abdominal segments. 

Cocoon. — A regularly oval earthen or thin silken web, with bits of leaves, etc., on the outside. 

Pupa. — Moderately stout, end of abdomen obtuse; the creniaster with the spine deeply cleft, 
each fork well developed, rather long, not much flattened, ending in a point and throwing off 
near the end a short branch which nearly meets its fellow on the opposite fork. 

Geofiraphical (lisfrihufion. — The species range throughout the Appalachian, Campestrian, and 
Austroriparian subprovinces, but are most numerous in the A2)palachian and Austroriparian 
subprovinces. No species have yet been found in Mexico. 


A. Discal spot linear. Transverse lines more or less distinct. 

Fore wings with pointed apex; more or less distinct transverse lines; a linear dark discal spot inclosed 
in a pale patch; no reddish hrown m,arlvings; largest species of the genus <S. ipomcK 

No transverse lines ; linear spot distinct ; fore wings pointed at apex, wliitish frosty gray, with no reddish 
or hrowu lines and shades, except a faint extradiscal line ; a hollow black low triangular mark on end 
of thorax j^. leptinoidfs 

Size of markings of iiiiicornis; fore wings more jiointed; light brown with whitish scales, no greenish 
yellow scales; cross lines distinct; lunate discal nuirk very distinct S. apicalis 

Fore wings squarish at apex ; markings white, reddish, blaclii and brown, distinct, and cross lines distinct, 
the middle and extradiscal lines consisting of reddish brown lunules; two black subaplcal slashes, a 
short white longitudinal streal< in the second median interspace S. unicornis 

Shape of idiicorjiis, wings sliglitly broader, thorax very dark brown, fore wings reddish, and a broad 
longitudinal reddish shade beyond the distinct linear discal marli S. hailia 

Fore wings grayish white, with a fawn-colored shade along internal margin .S'.jjero »//«/«(« 

B. Discal spot, a small round black dot; no transverse lines. 

Closely resembling concinna, but larger, and fore wings mucli more produced toward apex; oblique 
dark costal bands & eximia 

Fore wings squarish at apex; tawny ashen, with reddish brown patches; thorax pale ash; no transverse 

linos, and costal bands obsolete 5. concinna 

S. Mis. 50 13 



A. Witli two or threo larife high dorsal abdominal forked tuberrles. 

Head strii>ecl ; sides of secoud and third thoratio segments };reiMiish ; a whitish dorsal jiatch between th& 
first and secoud dorsal tubercles; conspicuous V-shaped mark just behind the second tubercle. 

t*;. ijiumece- 

Three hif;li tubercles, higher than in the other species, especially the first; body more or less russet, 
with no i^recu iiatclies. Head not striped S. hjiliUDidrH 

Only two dorsal tul>enlcs, that on lifth alidoiuiiial sci,'nicMt wanting; body russet or very dark green mi 
sides of tlioracic segments l)eliind tlie sjiiracles. Head not striped. V-shajied dorsal mark silvery 
wliitt^and conspicuous S. iDiicoriiin 

Thi-ce small dorsal tubercles, sides of thoracic segments green; V-shaped mark absent (Dyar).. i:>. hailUi 

Kescnibles larva of Icpliiinides in coloring, but structurally more like ipomciv. When at rest greatly 
hunihed anteriorly, and the furcate piomineiice on lirst abdominal segment is very long (Thaxter). 
An ad<litional one ou preceding segment (Dyar) S. eximia 

B. First abdominal segment greatly swollen above and on tlu^ sides; hairs of the other species represented 

by very stout, blunt spines. 
Dorsal hump coral-red; spines black ; body with black and white lines bi'foro and behind fust alidomiual 
segment: yellow ocUerous along the back N. iniii-iiiiia 

I add iJr. Dyar.s synopsis, as lie has seen the hiiva' of eximia. I have chaiij^ed the name 
nitida to badia. ' 

Schizura ipomeas ( Doubleday). 

(PI. 1\-, ligs. l(i, ^ ; 17, 9.) 

Schizura ipomeiv Doubleday, Kutoinologist, p. 59, Jan., 1841. 

IlcterocumjHi {Schizurn) ipomew Walk., Cat. Lep. Het. Hr. Mils., v, p. 1026, 18.55; xxxv, p. 1981, 1866. 

JJeteiocumiia ipoinew Morris, Synopsis Lep. X. Anicr., p. 241, 1862. 

Schhitia ipometc Pack., Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., iii, p. 363. 1864. 

Calodasi/x biguttata Pack., Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., iii, p. 365, 1861. 

Calodaai/s cinereofrons Pack., Proc. Ent. Soc, iii, p. 366, 1864. 

Hitcrocampa duvens Walk., Cat. Lep. Het. Br. Mus., xxxii, p. 417, 1865 (fide (iroto and Rob.). 

IMirocampii Jl. coilicea Walk., Cat. Lep. Het. Br. Mus., xxxii, p. 418, 1865 (Jide Grote and Kob.). 

Jlelerocampn compla Walk., Cat. Lep. Het. Br. Mus., xxxii, p. 418, 1865 (fide Grote and Rob.). 

Hilerocampa rcstipennis Walk., Cat. Lep. Het. Br. Mus., xxxii, p. 421 (fide Grote and Rob.). 

Httcrorampa nirirosignala Walk., Cat. Lep. Het. Br. >Ius., xxxii, p. 422, 1865 (fide Dyar). 

Cwlodasys ivVift-r Grote, N. Amer. Entomologist, i, p. 99, June, 1880; New Check List X. Amer, Moths, p. 19^ 

Cuclodaxys iiiijuHata Grote, Xew Check List X'. Amer. Moths, p. 19, 1882. 
Schhura ipomeii: Smith, List Lep. Bor. Amer., ji. 31, 1891. 

Miftr Smith, List Lep. Bor. .\nier., p. 31, 1891. 
Schizura ipomece Kirby, Syn. Cat. Lep. Het., i, p. 568, 1892. 

Neum. and Dyar, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, .xxi, p. 203, .June, 1894; .Juurn. X. Y. Ent. Soc, ii, p. 
117, Sept., 1894. 

(PI. XXV, figs. 2, 2«-2/<, 3, 3a, 3/), 3c.) 

Abbot, MS. ( Most. Soc. Xat. Hist.). 

Doubleday, Entomologist, p. 59, .Ian., 1841. Excellent uncolorcd ligurc of mature larva. I'late facing p. 60, 

lig. 8. 
Packard, figure of larva and moth copied from Abbot MS. in Library Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., in American 

I Humped Xotodontians with juocesscs on Joints 5 and 12, sometimes also on 8 and 9, the one on joint 5 often 
furcate and nutant ; anal feet uplifted. Rest on the edges of leaves and resemble the foliage except in one instance. 
Processes on joints 5 and 12 reduced, rounded; 

Conspicuously marked, brownish, with hump on joint 5 and head red; tubercles produced, black; larva) 

gregarious coiichnia 

Largely green, resembling the green foliage; tubercles (d)sciiro; larvae solitary badia 

Processes on joints 5 aud 12 well developed, that on 5 with furcate tip; larvie s<ditary, resembling withered or 
distorted leaves. 

Sidesof thoiax marked withgr(!en; V-inark conspicuous. A large whiteiloisal jiatch ou joiiits5-8. .. ipomew 

Wilhimt white patcli unicornis 

Sides of thorax not greoii ; V-iuark jiinkisli, tending (o become obscure. 

Process on joint 5 moilerate; a broa<l docsal ban<l on thorax and a distinct lateral line on body Icplinoidca 

Process ou joint 5 long with a supplementary one mi joint 4 ; dorsal band ou thorax narrow; lateral lino 
obsolete eAmia 


rachard, Amer. Naturalist, iv, p. 226, PI. II, fiijs. 2, 2a, June, 1870. 

Fifth Rep. U. 8. Knt. Comm., Forest lusects, p. 1.55, 18!10. 

Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., xxiv, pp. 534-539, 1890. PI . IV. ligs. 1-G (Stages I-V figured). 

Jouru. N. Yorli Ent. Soc, i, pp. 69, 70, Juuo, 1893. 
laU'ii, in Paclsard's Rep. For. Ins., Fifth Rep. U. S. Ent. Comm., p. 155, 1890. 

Moth. — Head gray, vertical tuft above black. Thorax reddish brown, patagia blackish above. 
No distinct line on the prothorax. Primaries reddish browu, nervules black. Base of the costa 
dark, beyond ciuereous with brown scales along the edge, which become indistinct waved lines 
continued across the wing and are more obli([ue beyond the discal dot. One of these scalloped 
lines two-thirds of the way from the of the wings to the discal spot is more distinct than the 
others, with a distinct scallop in the discal space. The linear reddish brown discal dot is 
surrounded by gray, and below and beyond is a dark, rather broad discoloration curved around it. 
Beyond this the black nervules are interrupted by gray scales. There are two obscure series of 
reddish dots near the margin in the interspaces. Opposite the outer series of these spots the 
fringe, otherwise ferruginous, is of a dirty white. Secondaries sordid white, discolored with 
smoky brown at inner angle. The large tuft beneath the head is lilac-asheu. Beneath, the fore 
■wings are white, smoky in the middle. Costo-apical dots distinct. Fringe white, black at the 
ends of the nervules; at the base are white dots in the interspace. Secondaries entirely white, 
except the dusky spot on the inner angle. Legs ashen, ends of the scales dark, tarsi broadly 
annulated with dark. Abdomen slender, whitish, a narrow mesial line beneath. 

In the female the markings are more distinct. The two series of ferruginous waved or scal- 
loped lines on each side of the median region are more distinct. The submarginal ferruginous 
region is more broken up by aslien scales. The secondaries and abdomen above smoky brown, 
with a pale mesial dittuse band ending on the inner edge in a diffuse, oblique, sordid, whitish band, 
bordered on each side by sordid white. There are faint traces of a slight mesial fascia across the 
wing. Beneath, both wings are dark smoky. A light ferruginous line on the abdomen, which is 
itself larger than in the other species. Expanse of wings, male, 3.3-43 mm.; female, 4<J mm. 
Length of body, male, 17-24 mm.; female, 20 mm. 

Cwlodani/s cincreofrons Pack., as stated by Grote, is undoubtedly a variety of this species, now 
to be referred to the genus Schizura. It differs in the costal region of the fore wings, except at 
the base, being ash-gray, with a slight lilac tint; the inner edge also being grayish, the middle of 
the wing from the base to the outer edge being dark browu. The following notes on the larva of 
this variety were received from Professor Kiley, and published in our IJepoit on Forest Insects, 
1890, p. 155: 

,Iuue20, found on oak two very small larva>, which entered the ground July 8 and emerged as moths July 30. 
Color of larva as follows: Second and third segments grass-green; the horn of the fourth segment is liiforked and 
the tips hhiod-red, also the tips of the two smaller horns on joints 8 and 11. The rest of the body and liead reddish- 

S. teli/er (Crote) is only a variety of *S'. ipomea', witli two long, distinct, black streaks, one 
passing through the discal spot and the other extending along the submediau vein. 

The eggs were kindly sent me by Miss Emily L. Morton, who obtained them at Newburg, 
N. Y., from a female IScUzura ipomece {Gcelodasys bif/iittata Pack.) of the normal form mated with 
a male of the variety C cincreofrons Pack. Miss Morton informed nie that a male of the normal 
Chiyuttata was also attracted. The eggs were laid July 11 and hatched July 17; the first molt 
occurred July 19-24; the second on August 1-2; the third August 0-7; the fourth August IC-IS; 
the date of the last molt not noted, but about four or live days later. 

Eijii. — One mm. in diameter. Perfectly henuspherical in shape, with the surface marked on 
the sides and near the base with minute polygonal areas which toward the top become gradually 
smaller, witii minute beads at the angles; the top of the Qgi:^ is smooth. 

Flmt stage, larrajiist hatchcd.—Leugth, 2-3 mm. It shows an approach to the characters of 
the fully fed larva in the uplifted small anal legs and the tubercles on the segments, though those 
characteristic of the last stage are not specialized. 

The head is enormous in proportion to the size and width of the body, being twice as wide as 
the thoracic .segments; it is well rounded, rather short antero-posteriorly ; full and rounded on the 
vertex, rounded, not angulated, above, and in color dark amber. 


The protlioracic segment is wider than the siieceeiling ones, with two very large dorsal 
piliferous tubercles, situated far apart, while those on the lueso- and nietatboraeic segments are 
minute and situated not so near together as those on the abdominal segments. The tubenles on 
the first, third, eiglith, and ninth abdominal segments are larger than those on the other segments. 
They are all darker than the body, and dull amber-brown in color. 

The body in gom'ral is greenish yellow,- with a ])ale reddish band around the protlioracic 
segment and around the hrst, third, and eighth abdominal segments. The hairs are in most cases 
about twice as long as the body is thick. On the head are a few scattered simple hairs, pointed at 
the end. Those on the segments behind the head are in general davate at the tip. Those of the 
two large protlioracic tubercles and of the larger warts on the eighth and ninth abdominal 
segments are nearly twice as long as most of the others, and are slightly bulbous at tip. Those 
on the meso- and inetathoracic segments are about a fourth longer than most of those on the 
succeeding segments to the eighth abdominal. 

The larva. just before the first molt is nearly twice as large as when first hatched, Imt it can 
be easily distinguished by its hairs alone from those in the second stage. 

The thoracic legs are black, the abdominal, including the anal legs, dusky. Before molting 
the larva doubles in length, finally being ti mm. long. 

Second staye, after the Jirst molt. — Observed to molt July 19-24. Length, 7-S mm. The larva is 
very diflerent from the preceding stage. The head, though smaller in proportion to the rest of the 
bod}", is still much wider than the body, ending in the vertex in two conical tubercles, much as in 
the adult; color of the head brown, with four rows of large round pale spots, three in each row; 
the sides of the head and occiput pale. Prothoraeic segment with two large black-tipped conical 
tubercles, and two much larger ones on the first and eighth abdominal segments, those on the 
first being larger than those on the eighth segment and several times larger than in the first 
stage; there is a smaller pair on the fifth abdominal segment. Anal legs long and slender, of 
much the same pio])ortions as in the fully fed larva. Color of the body greenish, but the 
prothoraeic and first, third, fifth, and eighth abdominal segments reddish. The piliferous 
tubercles on the side of the body are not so large and ])rominent as in Stage 1. 

The hairs are not quite so long as the body is tliick and of more uniform length all over the 
bodj' than in Stage 1, and decidedly different in shape from those of the first stage; they are 
shorter, thicker, and somewhat shovel-shaped, being broad and flat at the end and slightly 
notched or toothed on the edge, the flattened portion being striated; those of the head are still 
simple. Those of the two prothoraeic tubercles are twice as long as those on the meso- and 
nietathoracic segments, the hairs on the latter two segments and on the alidominal being 
somewhat shorter than the body is thick; those of the two larger tubercles on the eighth and 
ninth segments are a little longer than those on the smaller tubercles at the end of the body. In 
nearly all the hairs the shaft is, under a i-inch Tolles objective, seen to be finely spinulated. 

Third stage, after the second molt. — Observed to molt August 1-2. Length, 10-11 mm., finally 
becoming 13-11: mm. The head, tubercles, and hairs (seta-) much as before, the head retaining the 
same style of markings. The colors of the body, however, have changed; there is au irregular 
double dorsal reddish resinous line on the thoracic segments. On abdominal segments 2 to 4 is a 
single line, and on the same segments the dorsal tubercles are yellowish green, as are those on 
segments 6 and 7. The ground color of the VK)dy is yellowish green, irregularly marbled on the 
sides with resinous red. The anal and other abdominal legs are tinted with reddish. There is a 
lateral reddish line along the sid<'s of the thoracic segments; a double dorsal reddish line on the 
seven terminal abdominal segments extending out on the uplifted anal legs (not developed in 
Stage II, though faintly indicated). 

Those observed August 4 later on in this stage had changed a little since molting; have 
assumed more of the distinctive coloring of the fully fed larva; the yellowish green parts, 
esjjecially on the thoracic segments, are now of a bright pea-green, while the silvery white 
V-shaped mark on the si.xth to eighth abdominal segments, so charac^teristic of the genus 
Schizura, is now very distinct. (This mark is faintly indicated in the previous stage by two broad, 
.slightly converging, whitish yellow dashes on the seventh segment and a median pointed whitish 


dasli in front, but in tlie present stage these daslles are strengtbened, united, broader, and 
colored mure distinctly.) 

A noteworthy step taken at this stage is the tiual consolidation of the two dorsal tubercles of 
the lirst abdominal segment, which now becomes a forked single tubercle. 

Fiiurth utiifjr, after the third molt. — Observed August (i. Length, 15-10 mm. The characters 
of tlie full fed larva are now almost wholly assumed. The head is high aud narrow, the vertex 
bearing two tubercles. The forked tubercle on the first abdomiual segment is now larger and 
higher than that on the eighth segment; all are reddish, tipped with black. The body is much 
thicker than before and uuirbled, except on the pale pea-green nieso- and metathoracic portions, 
with reddish lines and spots, which are much more numerous than before. The hairs are now 
entirely changed in shape, being simple aud pointed like those ou the head. 

Fifth ■st(u/e, after the fonrth molt. — Observed August 10-18. Length, 2~>-2'i mm., and finally 
35 mm. This stage does not dift'er essentially from the fourth, except that the horns are a little 
higher. The markings and colors of the mature larva seem to be acqidred in this stage. 

The essential or specific characters may be best brought out by comparison with the 
fully grown larva of S. unicornis. S.iponica' is larger and the hairs are longer. The head is 
less angular above aud not so strongly marbled with the irregular network of reddish lines, and 
has four dark lines in two pairs extending from the vertex to the base of the mandibles. The 
arrangement of the four double red and yellow dorsal lines between the head and the horn ou 
the first abdominal segment is the same in the two species, but the space they occupy is wider in 
S. unicornis, v,'\ii\e the corresponding dorsal lines of the first behind the horn and the second 
and third segments are firmer, less wavy than in »S'. unicornis. The horn of the first abdominal 
segment is higher and slenderer, not so thick at the base as in <S'. unicornis, v;\ii\e those on the 
eighth abdominal segment are much higher and more prominent. The four pairs of dorsal 
obli(iue lines of »S'. unicornis are less distinct in 8. ijioniea' i\nd more wavy, while the V-shaped 
dorsal mark just behind them is less sharp and distinct, with more red interlineations in <S'. iponu-a: 

The following description of two larviB found at Brunswick, Me., on the red maple, August 
14, describes the i)eculiar mimicking coloration better than those hitherto published: 

Full-groicn larra. — Length, 28-33 mm. Wonderfully mimics a dull blood-red portion of a leaf 
which had been cut partly off and become somewhat twisted, so that the larva itself would easily 
be mistaken for such a part of a prominent terminal leaf The deception was perfect, as I did 
not myself at first see it when within ten inches of my eyes, aud on holding it before the eyes of 
an observing boy of thirteen he could not at first recognize it as a caterj)illar. The same leaf had 
blotches of dull red, aud the flesh-red abdominal feet of the caterpillar clasped the concolorous 
red leafstalk. One larva was much deeper blood-red in color than the other, the latter having a 
more faded tint. 

The head is high and narrow, not so wide as the body, but wider than the fii'st thoracic 
segment; it is pale livid purplish, darker down the front, with two parallel black-brown lines on 
each side, bordered with paler, and inclosing a clear pale jiurplish band. The clypeus, labrum, 
antenna', and region near the eyes are i)ale. A minute piliferous wart on each side of the vertex. 
The first thoracic segment is mottled with reddish and pale flesh on the sides. A dorsal broad 
band, divided in the middle by a pale yellow line, beuomes one-half as wide behind ou the second 
thoracic .segment and passes back to the horn ou the first abdominal segment; the rest of the 
second and third thoracic segments are pea green, a little paler than the upper side, and darker 
than the underside of a red-maple leaf, but ou the whole very closely assimilated in tint to the 
color of the leaf. 

The abdominal segments are in general faded, dull blood-red, due to flue, dark, flesh-red lines 
and mottlings ou a pale carneous ground. On the first abdomiual segment is a high, nutaut, fleshy, 
soft, dorsal tubercle which is inclined a little backward, but on being touched bends over down- 
ward near the l)ack ; the basal half is mottled and lined like the sides of the segment from which 
it rises, but above becomes bright, clear, blood red, the end being deeply forked, each fork bearing 
a long black bristle. A median black line passes along the tubercle, becoming forked in front, 
and behind at the base. Two huge, high, twin, soft tubercles ou the fifth segment are not quite 
so large as the two similar cues ou the eighth segmeut, but are situated on a much larger humpj 


tbey are of the same blood red line as tliose on the first sejjnient. The small dorsal tnberclcs on 
the set-ond and third abdominal segments are minnte and yellow; tliosc on the foiuth aie partly 
blood-red. The anal lej^s are long and slender. On the back of the abdominal segments 1-4 is a 
])orcelain white band, bordered with faint yellow, and divided by the sutnres; the portion on the 
first segment behind the tubercle is triangular, that on the fourth round; they each contain three 
deej) pink lines more or less broken and irregular. The V-shaped inark consists of a white oval 
(acute in front) spot on the sixth segment, and the two ai'ms ot the V are formed by two converging 
oval spots, with a yellowish white spot between the forks. The thoracic legs are pale flesh, the 
middle abdominal legs of the color of the leafstalk, while the anal legs are paler. Beneath, the 
body is green on the three thoracic segments, this color being continued back as a narrow band 
to the first pair of abdominal legs; otherwise much as on the sides of the body. 

Larvft coiiijKirrd irith that of tS. iiiiirornin. — Dilfers from C. unicoriiiii in the head Iteing purjde 
and having four dark narrow lines extending fiom the base of the jaws to the vertex; the dor.sal 
spine on the lirst abdominal segment is nearly three times as large and liigli as in G. unicornis, 
and ends in a deep fork, each tine of which l)ears a stiff truncated spine. A pair of dorsal, 
rouiuled, small tubercles on each abdominal segment 1-8, those on the fifth and eighth segments 
being much larger than the others and coral red in color. Coloration much as in C. unicornis^hut 
the branches of the V in front of the tubercle on the eighth segment are wider and inclose a 
broken red line. iMeso- and metathoracic segments green; body brick-reddish, slashed with i)ale 
lines, with a broad dorsal band forked on the prothoracic segment and extending upon the horn 
on the first abdominal segment; behind the horn are four dorsal, oval, light patches, each inclosing 
three red lines. 

Cocoon. — Earthen, regularly oval in shape, externally covered with sand, so that it closely 
resembles that of X;jli)W(les Vignicolor. (Kiley.) 

"The single specimen of the cocoon of this species in tlu; national collection was constructed 
in a sandy soil, and is extremely thickly covered with particles of sand, entirely concealing the 
silken inner structui-e, which seems to be somewhat more copious and dense than in the case of 
(S'. unicornis. The cocoon is elongate oval, measuring about 1*2 mm. in greatest diameter." (lidey 
MS. notes.) 

Pxipa. — Moderately stout; end of abdomen obtuse. The cremaster deeply cleft, each spine 
well developed, rather long, not nnich flattened, ending in a point, and throwing olf near the end 
a short branch which nearly meets its fellow on the opposite si)ine. Length, 21 mm. 

Two $ . Body not very stout (head uot preserved in any cast shells), snu)otli. sliining. 
Hinder edge of the thorax with eight square, dark tubercles, with rudiments of a ninth. 
Abdominal segments 5 to 7 shagreened on the hinder edge, and segments 6 to S punctured 
(these punctures acting as ball bearings?). Cremaster ending in two stout si)ines forked at 
the end, much larger than in S. unicurnis, and transversely corrugated. Length, 18-Ht mm. 
(U. S. Nat. Mus.) 

JJahilx. — The following notes and descriptions are based on an examination of the material in 
Professor Kiley's collection. The larva occurred on the oak Sei)tember 24. In Virginia one was 
found by Mr. Koebele on the birch September 14, and it has also been bred f:om the blackberry. 
The larva makes an earthen cocoon, regularly oval in shai)e, covering it with sand on the outside, 
so that it closely resembles that of .Vi///»(w/('s lifpiicoJor. C iniirornis spins a silken cocoon, with 
debris collected and adhering to the exterior. It is evident that C. cincreofron.s Pack, is only a 
variety of bidutfata, there being a series of connecting forms in Kiley's collection now in the 
United States National I\Iuseuni. The moth occurred at Cand)ridge. ^lass., June 10, and in July 
and August. (Harris.) 

"LarviT of this species are found from May to October at St. Louis, Mo., feeding on the 
difl'erent kinds of oak ami on maple. The motiis issiu'd in Ai)ril and August. The coloration of 
the larva' is quite varnible, though the most unilbrm marking is as follows: Color, green, sjieckled 
with purple. A faint substigmatal sulphur-yellow line, most distinct on thoracac joints. A broad 
pale subdorsal line, between which the dorsum is ])ale lilaceous, but thickly mottled with rich 
purple-brown and ferruginous, leaving a narrow dorsal line distinctly marked. Two elevated 


farniginous warts ou top of joints i aud 11. Head large, pale greeu, with a di.stiiict lateral black 
aud wliite stripe." (Fifth Kep. U. S. Eut. Coiuin., p. Ifw.) 

Riley lias observed the larva in May, June, July, September, aud October; the moths from 
March to August. 

Foot jilaiitn. — III the Northern States, different species of oak, and on maple, birch, blackberry 
(Riley); red maple (Packard); "Acer, Ulnuis, Quercus, Betula, Vaccinium, Ceanothus" (Thaxter); 
in the (lulf States on Ijximca coccinca (Abbot); in Grand Canyon on 
an unknown leguminous tree (Towuseud); honey locust (Beutenmiiller). 

GiogntphimJ distribution. — Extends through the Aiipalachian, 
Austroripaiiaii, and the Campestrian subprovinces. 

Brunswick, Me. (Packard); Massachusetts (Harris); eastern New 
York (Miss IMortou, Grote, Dyar, Doll); Plattsburg, N. Y. (Hudson); 
Chicago, 111. ( Westcott) ; New Y^ork, New Jersey, Pennsylvania (Palm) ; 
St. Louis, Mo. (Riley); Georgia (Abbot); larva found at (;raiidCauyon 
of the Colorado, northern Arizona, July (C. H. Tyler Townseud, No. 
312); Seattle, AVash. (in Coll. of Professor Johnson ./!(?e Dyar) ; Massa- riu-TC-Emioipupaof wruum 

, , J XT T' 1 TT- ■ Til* • Tr- - -v^ 1 1 \'- • • ?7)p*»eff', showiu'j the aunl scar and 

chusetts. New ^ ork, ^^ iscoiism, Illinois, Missouri, Nebraska, \ irginia, ,„ai6 ge„itai opeuiug. 
District of Columbia, and California (U. S. Nat. Mus.) ; Canada, Elaine, 

Massacliusetts, New Y'ork, Wisconsin, Ohio, northern Illinois, Georgia, Texas (French); Seattle, 
Wash. (Dyar); var. telifer, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. (Dyar). 

Schizura leptinoides f Grote). 
(PI. IV, ligs. 18 9, 19 <J.) 

Ccelodasifs leplinoides Grote, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., iii, p. 323, Sept.. 1864, PI. IV, fig. 2 9 . 
Cecrilti t mustcliiia Paclv., Proc. Eiit. 8oc. Phil., iii. p. 339, Nov., 18(U. 
Cnhxlasijn lepthioiilcx Grote, New Check List N. Amer. Jlotlis, ]i. 19, 1882. 
Schhiifu lejitinoirlen Smitli. List Lep. Bor. Amer., p. 31, 1891. 

Kirby, .Syn. Cat. Lep. Het., i, p. 568. 1892. 
Ccclndaei/s mustcVnia Grote, New Check List N. Amer. Mollis, p. 19, 1882. 
Schizura mustetina Smith, List Lep. Ror. Amer., p. 31, 1891. 
Kirby. .Syn. Cat. Lep. Het., i, p. 568, 1892. 
Sclthura leptinoides Neiim. and Dyar. Traus. Amer. Eut. Soc, xxi. p. 204. June. 1894: .loiiru. N. Y. Eut. Soc, ii, 
p. 117, Sept., 1894. 


(PI. XXVI, figs. 1, In, 1/), Ic, 2. 2(1— 2rf.3.3/), 4. 4(1— 4c) 

French,' Cau. Eut., xviii, p. 92, May, 1886 (larva of "f. miiKlerniu." last stage). 
Packard, Proc. Host. Soc. Nat. Hist., xxiv. p. .539, 1890. (Stages I-III described.) 

.lourn. N. York Eut. Soc. i, p. 71, Juue, 1893. 
Dyar, Ent. Amer. 1890. (Eggs aud all .stages). 

Moth. — One S , three 9 . Antenna' of S more broadly pectinated than in S. niiiconvis. and less 
so than in »S'. ipomea: Head and thorax ash, with a delicate, pale, olive-green tint. Front of head 
white, especially in S ; vertex olive-ash, with a blackish line on each side inside of the base of 
the antennte (not so distinct in 9 ). Thorax behind uniquely marked with a distinct, black, low, 
wide, hollow triangle, the base of which extends straight across the thorax from one side to the 
other, the two sides of the triangle being formed by the black edges of the teguhe. 

Fore wings more produced toward the apex than in »S'. nnicornis and less acute than in 
(S. ipomew: in the male, marked iiincli as in jV. iinivornis (the species connecting unicornis and 
ijwmerc); ash gray, with no oli\e tint; the wings slashed with narrow linear black lines, of which 
there are three on the base of the wing, one on the costa,oue on the subcostal venule, and one in 
the submedian interspace. A basal curved, indistinct broken line (obsolete in 9 ) formed of longitu- 
dinal black marks, and diffusely bordered externally with whitish gray. Beyond the cross line 
the wing is whitish gray, becoming brownish on the inner edge of the wing. No distinct discal 

' Dyar states (Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, xxi. p. 204) that the larva described by French is not that of 5. leptinoides. 


mark in my male, hut a loug, sleiuler, two scalloped discal line, sending foui- black lines outward 
along tlie veins. In the 9 a round, distinct' discal dot. An outer, obscure, zigzag, double-sordid 
wbite line, shaded externally with reddish brown, and indicated when obsolete by a double series 
of short, longitudinal, black venular streaks. Th(^ venules beyond marked with black scales. 
Fringe whitisli, dusky toward the apex, and marked with dusky spots. Wings beneath, whitish, 
dusky on the costal region. 

Hind wings in S white, slightly on the outer edge, and a dusky ditluse ])atch on the 
internal angle. Abdomen in both sexes olive whitish ash, becoming paler toward the end, which, 
iu my single male, is not forked as usual in the genus. 

The 9 difl'ers very much from the S ,and is much more common in collections. The fore wings 
iin' uniformly of a peculiar stoneash or leaden gray, the basal and outer lines obsolete; a minute 
black discal dot jiresent. There is, as in the 3 , a broken black line at the base of the wing in the 
submedian space. The outer edge of the wing is clear ash-gray. A series of longitudinal black, 
sometimes red, wedge-shaped streaks just within the clear whiter marginal border, those oi)iK)site 
the discal dot being the largest. 

Hind wings of 9 uniformly mouse-gray, with no distinct dusky i)atch near the internal angle. 
Beneath, both wings uniformly dusky, becoming clearer, paler gray on the outer edge. Fore 
wings with four pale marks on the outer third of the costa. 

Expanse of wings, S 30 mm., 9 30mm.; length of body, S 15mm., 9 15 mm. 

This species differs from 8. ipomem, besides other jjoiuts noted above, in the longitudinal black 
streaks on the fore wings, in the absence of an inner line, in the linear black discal s|)()t, and in 
the peculiar white, frosty gray hue or grouud color of the fore wings, there being no reddish or 
brownish shades, except what is faintly shown in the extradiscal line. It dift'ers from IS. unicornis 
in the longer and more pointed fore wings and in the absence of reddish brown shades. From 
both it differs iu the peculiar black triangular mark on the thorax. The females are at once 
recognized by the peculiar uniform leaden ash-gray grouud color of the fore wings. 

E(i(i. — Transverse diameter, 1 mm., of the same size and shape as those of jS". iponiea'. Hemi- 
spherical, moderately high, and under a high Tolles lens seen to be very finely jjitted; under a 
half-iuch objective of Tolles the surface is seen to be divided into five and six-sided areas, with a 
distinct raised edge; the surface smooth and more often without the bead so common in eggs of 
»S'. ipomew. 

Toward and at the micropylar region the cells become longer, minuter, and more crowded, and 
in this respect the egg :-eems to differ from those of (S'. ipomviv, in which the areas are more or less 
obsolete in the micropylar region. 

Freshly hatched hirra. — Length, 3 mm. The head is very large, nearly twice as wide as the 
body; deep honey-yellow. 

Prothoracic segment of the same tint as the head, but green behind. The rest of the body is 
pale yellowish green, with rather large honey-yellow warts. The first and eighth abdominal 
segments are deej> cherry-red, while the sides of the second to seventh segments above the legs 
are the same color. On the first and eighth segments is a pair of dorsal cherry-red tubercles, those 
on the first somewhat larger than those on the eighth segment; those on segments 2 to 7 are small, 
of nearly uniform size, and com-olorous with the greenish yellow segments. The end of the body, 
including the anal legs and the ninth and tenth segments, is upheld as usual in the genus. The 
thoracic and first four jtairs of abdominal legs are dark. The anal legs smaller than those in front, 
and are pale, being of the same color as the end of the body. The glandular hairs are distinctly 
seen to be bulbous-at the tip and long and unequal in length, the two longest ones, i. e., those on 
the ])rothoracic segment, being about three times as long as the body is thick. 

(jomiiared with the larva of S. ipomew of the same stage, the two dorsal warts on the 
l)roth()racic segment api)ear to be a little smaller. The glandular hairs seen under a half-inch 
ol)jective are of the same length and general shape as in <S'. ipomew, but do not appear to be (juite 
so bulbous. ' 

' With the .ibove description may be compareil the following one drawn up from Riley's alcoholic specimens: 
Fb-Kt slufie. — Length, 4 nun. i'he larva of this sfi'ije is very similar to that of ."*. ipoiiiiw, the shape of tlie head, 
of the tubercles, dorsal and lateral, and of the jiecuhar paddle-shaped glandular hairs being identical. I can only 


Witbiu the egg the larva lies with the front of the head uext the top of the dome, so that the 
jaws are opposite the upper side, hence when it eats its way ont of the shell, the more or less 
bean-shaped opening is on one side rather high np, near the summit. 

Full;/ fed larra. — In Maine, at Brunswiek, the caterinllar occurred lullj^ fed on the Leech and 
also on the hornbeam during the first week in September. 

This siiecies is of the color of a dry, sere leaf, with no green upon the body, and is tlnis 
readily separated from S. ipomew; besides the body is thicker; it bears a striking resemblance to 
a part of a dead leaf, and several leaves were noticed with portions partly cut off and somewhat 
curled up, to which the caterpillars bore a striking resemblance, both in shape and color. 

It was observed that the high dorsal tubercle on the first abdominal segment is both nutant 
and slightly retractile, being invagiuated when irritated. The larvie also occurred at Providence, 
E. I., through September on the chestnut. It is also figured in MS. by Major Leconte as living in 
Georgia. ( PI. XXVI, fig. 4c-4f .) 

Length, 25-30 mm. The body is compressed as usual. The head is somewhat notched above, 
large and high, compressed, clay-yellow, with two broad dark bands in front, which are made up 
of irregular, wavy, dark lines and spots. The labrnm is carneous. A ])air of minute piliferous 
tubercles on the back of the third thoracic segment. On the first abdominal is a large, high, fleshy, 
cylindrical, nutant tubercle of the same yellowish color as the body: it nods back and forth freely 
as the creature walks; it bears a pair of cylindrical, cihitiuous, piliterous tubercles, with bases 
rather wide apart, and which are reddish black at the base and pale at the tips. On the fifth 
abdominal segment is a large, broad, licshy hump, concolorous with the body, from which arise 
two low, conical, nutant, fleshy tubercles, each bearing a low chitinous piliferous tubercle. (This 
hump and its tubercles are not developed in 8. unicornis.) The eighth abdominal segment is 
provided with a ])rominent, narrow, fleshy hump bearing two small piliferous warts. The anal 
legs are about one-half as thiclc as the middle abdominal legs. 

The body is uniformly the color of pale unburnt or Philadelpliia brick, or of the same tint as- 
a sere, pale brown leaf, with no green upon it. There is a broad dorsal dark brown stripe along the 
thoracic segments, which is continued upon the base of the head, which bears a broad triangular 
dark spot. Behind the first abdominal hump is a long triangular flesh-colored dorsal band; on 
the third abdominal segment is a. shorter similar patch, while a similar carneous band on thefourtJi 
segment breaks up into three diverging stripes ending at the suture. The V-shaped dorsal spot 
on the sixth and seventh segments is faded, pink edged with clay-yellow, and dark brown. Along 
the abdominal segments is a narrow, dark, suprasjiiracular line. The thoracic and abdominal legs 
are, like the body, pale, with reddish lines. 

The apparent aim, or rather the result of the action of the environment, has been to produce a 
caterpillar whose sliape and color represent a sere-brown, more or less twisted portion of a serrated 
leaf, such as that of a beech, hornbeam, and similar trees. 

perceive a difference iu the slightly smaller dorsal tubercles, especially those on the eighth and ninth ahdominaj 
segments. There are probably slight dift'erences in color, biit Professor Riley's specimens are faded out from long 
immersion in alcohol, so that it is impossible of course to say how the two larva' ditter iu color until the two forms 
have been compared iu the living state. 

Second stage. — Length, 7 mm. Of the same size as S. ijiomew of the same stage. The tubercles do not differ iu 
shape or iu size. The specific difference (besides those of color, about which I can not ascertain) is that the two 
vertical lobes of the head are more acute than iu <*. ipomew, while the surface seems to be less distinctly marked. 
Moreover, the paddle-shaped glandular seta; are decidedly shorter. By these marks alone alcoholic specimens of 
the larvic of the two species of the present stage can be easily separated. 

Third stage. — Length, H mm. The same differences obtain as in the preceding stages. The vertical lobes of the 
head are more acute in *\ lejytinoides than in S. ijwmeic, while the setic, now less flattened at the end, are iu shape 
like those of the third stage of S. ipumew, but are decidedly shorter. The dorsal and other tubercles are just as in 
S. ipomece. It is probalde that other specific distinctions are to be sought for in this style of coloration. Indeed, as 
may be seen iu alcoholic specimens, the bead of S. teplinoiiles is simply rough on the surface and uniformly resinous, 
while iu S. ipomeiv of this stage the surface in front and on the sides are divided into whitish areas bounded by 
brown lines. The coloration iu general is much alike in tlie two species. The dorsal band along the thoracic 
se nients and the V-shaped whitish yellow mark ou the sixth and seventh segments are nearly as iu the third stage 
of S. ipomecv. 



being' poilitt'd ;iik1 

Fig. 77.— Pilim of Srln'zura leptiiwi- 
rfc". Diir.sal vifw i)f head. c. /., with 
till' cocnnn ciittoi": a/if, antenna; pth. 
prfithorax: K/i. spiradp. 

It (litVers from ;iiiy other species known to nic in hicking any green color on tlie thoracic or 
other seyiiuMits of the body. 

The larva of iS. mustelina described by Professor French is said to be 0-.S(l incli in length, and 
"the sides of Joiuts 3 and 4 are bright green," otherwise it ai)pears to agree wilii our s])c(iniens of 
IrptinoifJcs. Probably the specimens described by I'^rench, which weie under size, were in next to 
the last stage, or at all events had retained the green coloring of the earlier stages. He raised 
three moths from his larvie. (Dr. Dyar writes me that French's larva is evidently <S'. nniconiin.) 

Cocoon. — The caterpillar fastens leaves together for a cocoon, within which it changes. 
(French.) It is oval, made of silk, uniformly thin, though dense and jiarchment like, and my 
Maine specimen spun between leaves. 

Pupa. — Two 9 . Body rather stout, of the usual color. It is noteworthy from the head 
ending in two stout conical spines, or cocoon-cntters, arising from the 
epicrauiuni between the eyes. Cremastei' ending in two stout sjtines, 
flattened vertically, and ending in four or live slightly curved, short, 
sharj) spinules, with a minute spinule at the base on the inside. Ves- 
tiges of the anal legs small, narrow, not ])roniinent. On hinder edge 
of mesoscutum is a transverse row of ten large deep pits sejiarated by 
double tubercles, each tubercle being flattened above, with an i-m- 
])ressed median line giving a double ai)])earance to the tl]i, which is 
dull, not polished as arc the sides. Length, 18 mm. 

llahitsi. — Profes.sor French, speaking of the habits of C. nivsteliua, 
says that "three nearly grown cateriiillars were found at Carbondale, 
111., on a rosebush September IS. By October 1 they had pupated, and the moths a|)|)eared on 
May 20, 22, and 31 following. No efforts were made to rear a second brood, but from the time 
the larva' were found in the fall it is to be presumed that there arc two broods in a season." 

The eggs here described were laid by a species of Schi/.ura, and sent by Jliss l-^mily L. Morton, 
who is quite sure that it was 8chi::ura Icptinoidc.s. They were laid June 3, at New Windsor. N. Y. ; 
they hatched June 12, all the others being out of the shell by noon of the next day. I did not 
carry it beyond the first stage, but have little doubt but that 
Miss Morton's identification of the moth was correct. 

liiley has found the eggs in August; the larva' in July, 
August, and September; the moths in August. 

The moth was collei-ted at Cambridge, Mass., by I >r. Harris, 
June 1.5. 1 have found the larva on the hornbeam at Bruns- 
wick, INIe.; it was uniformly ])ale russet-brown, the color of a 
vsere dead leaf. It began to pupate September 12. 

Food planU. — Carya (Thaxter); beech and hornbeam in 
Maine; in Phode Island, the chestnut and tui)elo ( Packard); 
rose (Frencli); hickory, walnut, butternut (Miss Jlorton); wal- 
nut (Pilate); Georgia (Leconte's figure, which I take to repre- 
sent the larva of this S])ecies, fed on the oak. PI. XXVI, figs. 
4c, 4i'/, 4e). Abbot (MS.) figures the larva giving as its food 
jilant HclicDiilnis nnfjiisti/olins. In New York, hickory and hop 
liornbeam (Dyar). Dr. Dyar writes that Icptinoides is generally a hickory fticder. 

Gcodrnphkul distribution. — A member of the Ap])alachian and Austroripariau subinovincial 
fauna'; it ranges from Elaine to Georgia, and westward to Illinois. 

Orono, Me. (Mrs. Fernald); Kittcry, Me. (Thaxter); Prnnswick, Me. (Packard); Massachusetts 
(Harris); $ , Buffalo, N. Y. (P. Fisher, U. S. Nat. Mus.); Newburg, N. Y. (Miss Morton); Platts- 
^nirg, N. Y. (Iludson); Carbondale , 111. (French): Ohio (Pilate); Savannah, Ga. (Leconte, Abbot); 
Wisconsin and District of Columbia (IJ. S. Nat. :Mus.); Maine, Massaehu.sett.s, llhode Island, New 
York, Pennsylvania, Ohio; Champaign and Carbondale. 111. (French). 

(' Srhi:?irn It'/itiiioiitctt. Ena 


Scbizura apicalis (Giote miil Robinson). 

(PI. IV, fig. 22^.) 

C(tIoila«!is (ipic(ili« Grote and Rob., Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., vi. p. 15, 18()6, pi. 2, tig. 1, S • 
Grote, New Check X. Anier. Moths, p. 19, 1SS2. 
Smith, List Lep, Bor. Amer.,p. 31, 1891. 
Kirb.v, Syn. Cat. Lep. Het., i, p. 568, 1892. 

Neniu. and Dyar, Tr.ans. Aiuer. Ent. Soc, xxi, p. 20:!, .Jnue, 1891; Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc, ii, 
p. 117, Sept., 1894. 

Mnlli. — Oue S . Of the size of S. unicornis. Head well tufted on vertex and at the insertion 
of the autenuie. Body and wings fawn color or grajish brown, with white scales; ends of 
I)atagia and a parallel line on each side behind and a spot over the sciitellnni at the base of the 
abdomen, dark brown. Fore wings with tlie costa unusually straight, apex a little more square 
than in H. unicornis, outer edge straight, less curved than usual, moderately oblique. No basal 
line; extrabasal line composed of live scallops. Wings fawn color from base to this line, and 
iuclo,sing a distinct black streak parallel to the cubital vein; middle of wing whitish, frosted over 
with v.iiite scales; discal mark large curvilinear, heavier and more curved than in S. unicornis. 
A narrow, white, wavy, extradiscal line, beginning as a very oblique white mark on the costa. 
Venules blackish. 

Beyond the discal mark the wing is fawn-l)r<>wn, with darker brown intervenular streaks and 
white frosted patches. Hind wings white, with a large dark patch on internal angle. Abdomeu 
with a forked tuft. Underside of fore wings gray, white ou the inner edge. Hind wings as above, 
but grayish at the costal edge. 

Exi)anse of wings. $ .33 mm.; length of body, i 17 mm. 

Kecognized by the large, heavy, distinct discal mark, the distinct black submedian streak, the 
fawn brown fore wings, and by the white bands in the middle of the wing, while the hind wings 
are white, being browu in »S'. vnicornis. 

Geofirnphival distribution. — Kittery, Me. (French); New York (Doll); Arkansas (Palm); 
Florida (Slossou). 

Scbizura unicornis (.\bbot and Smith). 

(PI. IV, tiL'8. 20 J, 21 9.) 

Phnlfi'na unicornis Abbot and Smitli, Xat. Hist. Lep. Ins. Oenrgia. ii. p. 170. Tab. LXXXVI, 1797. 
Ui/boma unicornin Hiibn., Verz. Sihiuett., p. 200, 1816. 

Notoilonia unicornis Harris, Cat. Ins. Mass., p. 73, 1835 ; Rep. Ins. Mass., p. 307, 1841 ; Treatise. 
Edema unicornis Walk., Cat. Lep. Hot. Br. Mus., v, ji. 1030, 1855. 
Morris, Synopsis Lep. N. Amer., p. 241, 1962. 
Harris, Treatise Ins. inj. Veg.,p. 424, 1862. 
Caclodasys rinicornis Pack., Proc Ent. Soc Phil., iii, p. 364, 1864. 
Calodasi/s edmantjsii Pack., Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., iii, p. 361, 1864. 

Edema semirufesccns Walk., Cat. Lep. Het. Br. Mns., xxxii, p. 424, 1865 {Jidc Grote and Rob.). 
Edemd hiimilis Walk., Cat. Lep. Het. Br. JIns., xxxii, p. 425, 1865 {fide Grote and Rub.). 
Ueleroramiia? conspecta H. Edw., Proc C'al. Acad. Sci., p. 2, Sept. 7, 1874. 
Calodasi/s unicornin Grote, X''ew Check List X'. .\mer. Jloths. p. 19, 1882. 
Sehiziira unicornis Pack., Fifth Rop. U. S. Ent. Comni. Forest Ins., p. 269, 1890. 

Smith, Ijist Lep. Bor. Amer., p. 31, 1891. 

Kirby, Syn. Cat. Lep. Het., i, p. 567, 1892. 
Hatima semirufcscens Kirby, .Syn. Cat. Lep. Het., 1892 (fide Smitti). 

Schizura unicornis 'Kenm. i\ud IJyar, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, xxi, p. 203, Jnne, 1894; .loiirn. N. Y. Ent. Soc, ii, 
p. 117, Sept., 1894. 

(PI. XXVIII. figs 1. 1(7, Ih, 2, 2a-2e, 3, .3a-3c, 4, ia-4d, 5, 6.) 

Ahhol aud Smith, X'at. Hist. Lep. Ins. (ieorgia, ]>. 170, I'l. LXXXIII, 1797 (colored fignres of larva, pupa, and 

llarrin. Ins. inj. Veg., 1st edit., p. 307, 1841. 
Ins. inj. Veg., 2d edit., p. 326, 1852. 
Fitch, Third Rep. Nox. Ins. N. York, p. ,363. 1856. 


Uanh, Treat. Ins. iuj. Veg., third edit., p. 424, 186:!. 

Eiit. Corresp., p. 302, PI. 11, fig. 8, ((igiire not well eolored). 
rayiie, Aiiier. Knt., ii, p. 341, Oct., 1870. 
Liniiur, Eiit. Contr., iii, 20111 Uep. \. York Miis. Nat. Hist., 1872, ji. 131 (extra, 1872), 1874 (plain figures with> 

French, Trans. IJept. Agr. 111., xv, p. I'Jl, 1877. 
Marten, Trans. Dept. Agr. 111., xviii, Append., \i. 120, 1880. 
CoquUhl, Trans. Dept. Agr. 111., xviii. Ai>i>en(l., p. 181, 1880. 
Packard, Bull. 7, U. S. Ent. Conini., p. 131), 1881. 
Saunders, Ins, Inj. Fruits, p. 80, 1883 (larva and moth, 9 , tigured). 
Kiley, Fifth Rep. U. S. Comm., p. 269, 1890. 
Packard, Fifth Rep. U. S. Ent. Conim. For^st Ins., p. 269, 1890. 

Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., xxiv, p. 538, 1890 (]dain figure of larva, Stage I). 
Iiimmock, Anna K., Psyche, iv, p. 279, June, 188.5. 

Moth. — Eight S,2 9 . AntenuiB not so broadly pectitiated as in S.,i2)omea', and fore wings 
squarish at the apex, not produced as in S. Ipomea', the outer edge being niucli h^ss oblique. Head 
and thorax \ii\\e ash, with numerous pale green scales, giving the body (abdotneu excepted) a 
slight subolivaceous hue. The iuteranteiinal tuft oti the vertex of the head is edged with black. 
Thorax with two blackish Hues across the front, the hinder one sometimes much the broader; hind 
edge of the teguhe black-brown and hinder edge of the scutal region dark. 

Fore wings ash-gray, varied with whitish, reddish brown, yellowish green, and black markings. 
They are crossed by three well marked lines. The basal Hue is black, curved outward on the 
costal region, and again on the cubital vein; and within is a narrower parallel brown line. The 
base of the wing is whitish ash. Between the basal and median line is a transverse series of 
lunules, which are brown on the costal region, the series consisting behind the subcostal vein of 
foiu- reddish lunules; the row is much curved outward between the costa and internal vein. 
Beyond it is a narrow parallel brown line. Between this and the basal line the wing is darker 
than elsewhere. A distinct black discal streak, widest on the median line, where it 
ends. J'.etween this and the middle line the wing is white. A faint dilfuse brown liiu! just 
beyoml the discal line, but the true extradiscal line is a series of reddish, connected patches or 
lunules, beginning on the subcostal vein aiul ending on the interiml, the series being straight, 
not curved. Costa white marked with black. A long black streak near the apex inside of the 
costa, and a similar streak in the first cubital interspace. In the succeeding space near the 
internal angle is a conspicuous white streak, withiu which is a black si>ot. Apical region whitish, 
mi(hlle region of the outer fifth of the wing reddish, region of the internal angle brownish. 
Fringe ash, with dusky venular spots. 

Iliml wings of i sordid white, varying to dusky, with a whitish extradiscal broad diffuse line; a 
dusky patch on the internal angle; in 9 the wings are uniformly mouse brown, with no distinct 
j)alc lines. Underside of fore wings uiuformly mouse-brown, with four dark ami live white spots 
on the outer third of the costa; hind wings in the S whitish, in 9 as on the upper side. Ab(h)meu 
forked at the end as usuiil. 

I'ixpanse of wings, <5 31-33 mm., 9 31-3li mm.; length of body, i i.j-17 mm., 9 15 mm. 

This is our commonest species of Schizura, and is easily recognized by its squarish fore wings, 
and by the variety of its nnirkings in white, reddish, black, and brown, there being four cross 
lines on the fore wing, the middle aiul extradiscal being comi)osed of reddish brown lunules; by 
the two black subapical slashes, and by the white longitudinal short streak ifi the se(u)nd cubital 
interspace, in front of which is a, short, black streak, and within a black, rouiKlisli sjjot. 

Cicloddsys ('(biuiiKhit Pack, is evidently a synonym of <S'. Hnic(yriiis. Tiie specimen ( S ) marked 
edmandnii in .Mr. Edwards's collectioti appears to be only a small unicornis with narrower wings 
than usiml. The only difference is in the dusky tawny costa of the fore wings and the similarly 
tinted hind wings, due jn'ihaps to imperfect preservation. S. couspicta II. Kdw., one c5 type from 
California in American Museum of Natural Uistory, New York, is only a clinnitic variety of IS. 
unicornis; the jwsition of the markings is identical in the two forms, but eo?(.y>*'c?rt is larger, the 
fore wings as nuich prodtn^ed as in any of unicornis. The i)ale area on the outer third of the wing 
is clear and whitish, and the hind wings are clearer and whiter than in any eastern example of 


.unicornis. This appears to be a climatic variety, following the same law of climatic variation as 
we have already referred to. 

Egg, "Greenish to veHowisli gray in color; transverse diameter, S mm.; hemispherical, not 

flattened; surface under liigli power, with elevated ridges forming facets. A slight iireguhir 
Toughening occurs about the niicropylar region." ("Deposited in captivity in Feb." Eiley .AIS.) 

Larva.— The first stage of (S*. unicornis differs but slightly from that of aS'. ipomea'. Lengtli, 
2 mm. The head and body are of the same proportions, the prothoracic tubercles of nearly the 
same size, but those on the back of the nieso- and metathoracic segments are larger than in <S'. 
vnicornis. The tubercles on the abdominal segments are of nearly the same proportions, but 
slightly larger. 

The first, third, and eighth abdominal segments are bright red in unicornis as in ipomeK, and 
the colors and markings iu general scarcely different from those of ipomem. The anal legs are the 
same in size and position in the two species, but the tubercles are on tlie whole larger in ipomew. 

The hairs are clavate in unicornis and of the same proportionate length as in ipomea-. 

It thus appears that no genuine specific differences exist between the freshly hatched larviB 
of S. ipomea- and unicornis iind most probably Icptinoiiles, though the caterpillars are so different 
when fully fed. On the other hand, though we do not know the earliest stages of the other species 
of Schizura, yet from our knowledge of those of Dasylophia anguina there seems little doubt that 
the generic characters are ([uite clearly indicated iii the first stage; that is, it will always be easy 
to separate Schizura larva' just after hatching from those of any other genus of Notodontians, 
while if specimens of S. ipomea and unicornis of the first stage were mixed together it would be 
almost impossible to safely separate them according to the species, the incipient specific characters 
actually existing being too slight and indecisive. 

Length, 20 mm. Body much compressed; head not so wide as the body, compressed, flattened 
in front, elevated toward the vertex, cleft, ending in two rounded conical tubercles, pale rustred, 
densely marbled with a fine net-work of darker lines. Body pale rust-red, with a pale pea-green 
patch on the side of the second and third thoracic segments, not reacliing to the anterior spiracle. 
First abdominal segment with a large high acute conical tubercle, bearing at tip two very 
slender, spreading, brown cylindrical tubercles. On fifth a slight hump, bearing two small 
warts; eighth segment bearing a ratlier large dorsal hump, supporting two dark warts; in front is 
a broken V-shaped silver mark, the apex directed forward. Anal legs brown, held out, with end 
of body, horizontally. Three lateral obscure, oblique lines connecting with a dark, pbscure, lateral 
straight line placed some distance above the spiracles. Feet all rust-reddish, thoracic feet paler. 

Length, 2.") mm. Has a shorter smaller dorsal retractile tubercle than iu .S'. ipomea: Thoracic 
segments pea-green; the dorsal V-shaped mark on the seventh segment is iiroloiiged to the front 
edge of the sixth segment, this part really forming a separate narrow V, in front of the apex, of 
which on fourth and fifth segments each is a dusky brown patch, between tlie reddish brown 
piliferous warts. 

Before the last molt the larva is the same as the mature form. Length, 13 to 18 mm. 

The dorsal hump is not so soft and retractile or sensitive as in the larva of S. leptinoides. 

"It is a very singularly shaped caterpillar. General color in sound specimens, rich reddish 
brown, iu others grayish brown, sliaded with very minute spots of a darker color, which give it a 
shagreened appearance. A faint line of a darker color runs along each side from the third segment. 
It is Variegated on the back with a lighter color, somewhat in the shape of a letter W as one looks 
from the head, and two lines forming a V mark. 

"Larvte found on the blackberry were mostly very i)ale, with the white Y mark on joints 9 
and 10 very plain, with much glaucous color about the back, and with the other shades of purple- 
brown, flesh-browu, olive and pale green, which are found on tlie withering blackberry bushes, 
all present. The glaucous and brown colors are especially noticed on the canes of this plant." 
(Eiley in Fifth Bep. V. S. Ent. Comm., p. 260.) 

Cocoon. — "Thin and ahnost transparent, resembling parchment in texture, and covered generally 
with bits of leaves on the outside" (Harris). The larva spins a silk. cocoon with the debris on the 
outside, judging by a specimen in the United States National Museum. 


"The cocoon is a ratlier close, line sillccii one, and ti;ni.s])aicMt \\ lien tlie onter protecting 
material is removed. This last may be either a leaf, folded or otherwise, excrement, or other 
matter which the larva entangles in the loose onter web of the cocoon for concealment and 
protection."' (Kiley MS.) 

P«/w. — Like that of fl. ipoiiific, hut slightly shorter, and the spine of the eremaster a little 
more acute. Hinder edge of thorax, witii a transverse series of nine square black tubercles; 
surface slightly punctured, especially on the front edge of abdominal segments .5-7, the last three 
segments smooth, tip rather blunt. Crernaster small, the two spines short and stout, granulated 
and corrugated on the surface. Length, 20 mm. (From I^. S. Nat. Mus.) 

This is our commonest Schizura, and occurs on the willow and thorn late in August in Maine. 
August 28 one had spun a slight cocoon. 

'■Length varying from 12 to 21 mm.; color rich shiny brown. In general characters, and 
especially in the row of eight blunt, tooth like, dull, black projections from the posterior dorsal 
nnirgin of the mesothorax, it resembles closely the pupa^ of the two other species of this genus 
which Lave this stage described, viz, *S'. leptinoide.i and »S'. ipometv. From these s])ecies it may bo 
distinguished, however, by the character of the two prongs to the eremaster. These are much 
shorter than tliose of ipomew (which are three times as long as wide), being scarcely longer than 
the width, and the inner branches or teeth are short, and the small inner basal teeth are absent 
or nearly so. S. Icptiitoitlen is readily separated by the fact that the branches in this species are 
themselves branched or bitoothed. 

"About four days are required for pupation Irom the s])inning up of the laiva. At tirst the 
color markings of the larva are retained with considerable distinctness in the pupa, but these are 

^ ^ _^_^ soon lost and the normal brown color assuuied." (liiley MS.) 

I ^ff''''^ ^^''^iK / Habits. — The caterpillar of this moth, more commonly met 

\/^ " " \/'"^^ with on the apple tree, we have found September (> on the elm at 

/ \ Brunswick, Me. At about this date, Harris says, it makes its 

\ y^ ^\^ /8 cocoon, which is thin and almost transparent, resembling i)arch- 

\y^ ^/ ment in texture, and covered generally with bits of leaves on the 

C y^ V / outside. The caterpillars remain in their cocoons a long time pre- 

\/ ^ \/ vious to changing to chrysalids, and the moth appears the follow- 

\ '(UU) / ^"^^ ^^"■^' '^'"^ June. 

^\ /^ y\Q '^\nii and the otherspecies of the genus aredoubtless protected 

\}\f from the attacks of birds by their close resemblance to a dead, 

Pig. 79.-Pu,>.-. ,.f sohhum umcornu. '^'T po'tion or blotcli ou the edge of the lea,f, as they usually feed 

on the edge. 
Miss Emma Fayne was the tirst to call attention to its mimicry of loaves partly dead. We 
(juote her interesting account: 

I think this worm furuishes a woiulei I'lil iiist:iiioi' of iiiiiiiioiv ol' the vefjetiiblc l>y the animal organism. The 
greeu segments just hiiclc of the head reseml)l<' a small portion of tlie green leaf, and the other parts adnurably 
eoiinterfeit the lirown ami russet tints of the dead leaf, while tlie form of tlie animal in its various postures aids the 
deception by its resemblance to a leaf partly alive and partly dead, the green mostly eaten and the brown torn. 
(Amer. Ent., ii, p. 311.) 

I have noticed that this caterpillar feeds very eonsi)icuously, but is protected by its resemblance 
to the twisted, partly dead ends of some of the leaves, the oblique markings of the larva resembling 
the twisted dead and russet poi'tious of the leaf. 

The following observations have been made by Frofessor Riley: 

'•The larva of the above species is found feeding on quite a number of diti'ereut i)lauts, such as 
oak, elm, plum, apple, dogwood, alder, winterbcrry, rose, and blackberry, also on hickory. 

"The insect is evidently two brooded, those of the first brood si)iniung up at the commence- 
ment of July, while larvie of a second l)ro<)d, often only about one-fourth grown, are found as late 
as October 10. 

"The cocoon is very thin and looks much like parchment. It frequently draws a few leaves 
together for this pur])ose, and changers to a chrysalis in about four days, which is at lirst of the 
same color as was the caterpillar, the green segments being distinctly visible, but soon changes to 


a shiny brown, with two points at the tail and one blunter one at the head. There are also slight 
elevations on the under part of the abdomen where the prolegs of the caterpilhir were. 

"The mimicry of the larva when on the blackberry, eitlier stem or leaf, is perfect, and the 
imitative resemblance of the moth, when at rest, to the bark of a tree is still more striking. The 
moth always rests head downward with tlie legs all drawn together and its wings folded round 
the body, which is stretclied out at an angle of about 4.5 degrees, the dull gray coloring of the 
wings with the lichen-green and tlesh color giving the whole such a perfect appearance to a piece 
of rough bark that the deception is perfect. 

"Some of the larva; are, however, infested with Tachinids and witli Opliion purgatoi- Say." 
(liiley's uni)ublished notes.) 

Fooil phdits. — Apple, plum, thorn (Cratwrjus), ehn, and probably poplar (Packard), BetuJa alba 
(Mrs. Dimmock); hazel {Conjhis americana), FniiiK.s virginiana (Lintner); Frinos rerticiUatus 
(Abbot); hicust, cherry, dogwood, alder, ilex, oalv (lieutenmiiller). 

Gcofjrajjiiical dLsfribiitidii. — Common throughout th(^ Appalachian and Austroriparian sub- 
j)roviiices. Its western limits not yet defined, though it inhabits Napa County, Cal., according 
to Edwards. 

Canada (Saunders); Orono, Me. (Mrs. Fernald); Ijrunswick, Me. (Packard); Franconia, N. H. 
(Mrs. Sh)SSon, and a fresh one was captured by her in the Summit House, on Mount Washington, 
New Hamjjshire, at the end of July); Boston, Mass. (Harris, Shurtleft, Sanborn); Rliode Island 
(Clark); New York (Grote, Lintner, Dyar); Plattsburg, N. Y'. (Hudson); Eacine, Wis. (Emma 
Payne) ; ^Manhattan, Ivans. (Popeiioe) ; Amherst, Mass. (ilrs. Fernald) ; Georgia (Abbot and Smith) ; 
Napa County, Cal. (H. Edwards); Canada, Kittei-y, Me.; New Hampshire, New Y'ork, Ohio, 
Wisconsin (French). 

Summari/ of the sicpn in the asminipihin of the (jeneric or aduptire, i, e., protective characters of three 
species of Schizura (»S'. ipomea', hptinoides,and unicornis). 

The sunergeneric features of the partly elevated, uplifted anal legs and a difference in the 
size of the tubercles appear at tin; time of liatcliiiig. 

1. Tlie head becomes marked much as in the adult in the second stage. 

2. The tubercles begin to be differentiated in the second stage, when the prothoracie tubercles 
are much smaller than in the first. 

3. The tubercles of the first abdominal segment, originally separate, become united at the 
base in the third, and foi'n a single liigh-forked tubercle in the fourth stage. 

4. The glandular hairs differ geiierically in the second stage from those in the first. The 
flattened glandular hairs appear in the second and disappear in the fourth stage. 

.5. The V-shaped dorsal mark on the sixth and seventh abdominal segments appears at the 
end of the third stage, and is dne to the coalescence of three separate, whitish yellow si)ots. 

(j. The pea-green color of the meso- and metathoracic segments appears at the end of the 
third stage. 

It thus appears that the mimetic colorational features, being those which especially enable the 
larva to escape observation, appear shortly before the creature is half grown, then changes 
occurring at the end of the third stage, while the movable terrifying tubercle of the first 
abdominal segment becomes developed at the same time. 

When feeding oil the edge of a leaf, the Schizune exactly imitate a portion of the fresh, green, 
serrated edge of a leaf, including a sere-brown withered spot, the angular, serrate outline of the 
back corresjionding to the serrate outline of the edge of the leaf. And as the leaves only become 
spotted with sere-brown markings by the end of summer, so the single-brooded caterpillars do not, 
in the Northern States, develop so as to exhibit their jn-otective coloration until late in the 
summer, i. e., by the middle and last of August. 

A feature of some significance is the large size of the prothoracie tubercles in the larva of the 
first stage of (S*. ipomea% which in successive stages becomes reduced to a size no greater than 
those of the other thoracic seffmeuts. 


Schizura badia (Packard). 
(I'l. IV, lig. 23.) 

(Edemasia hadiaPuck., Pioc. Ent. Soc. Phil., iii, ji. 361, 18G4. 

JJelcrocamjiu s'ujuificiita Walk., Cat. I.ep. Ilct. Br. Mns., xxxii, p. 421, 18G5 {fide (iii)te aiul Rob.) 
(Edemasia badia Giote, New Check List N. Amor. Moths, p. 19, l'-82. 
Smith, List Lep. lior. Amer., p. 20, 1891. 
Kiil).v, Syn. Cat. Lep. Hct., i, p. .5(!7, 1892. 
Schi:iira iiilida N'eum. and Dyar, Trans. Amer. Ent. .Soc, xsi, p. 204, June, 1894; Jouni. Js. V. Knt. Soc, ii, 
p. 117, Sept., 1894. 


(PI. XXVIL tigs. 1, In, 1/-, 2, 2a-2(;.) 

Dyar (ex. Thaxler), I'syehe, vi, p. 177, Nov., 1891; Proe. Host. Soc. Nat. Hist., xxvi, p. 3!r>, 1894. (Egg and 

stages I-V.) 

Moth. — Three S . Head above ami piothoia.x retldisli brown. I'alpi and patagia bcliind, 
blackisb. Fore wings dark reddish with ashen and dark brown scales. Base of the wing reddish 
brown ; in the discal space before the linear lihick discal mark a cinereous area, bnt this region is 
discolored with dark brown and continued to the outer edge as two bhickisli lines, one being the 
fifth subcostal venule, the scales over which spread out toward the apex. Outer margin with 
black and whitish streaks on the venules and in the interspaces. Apex white. 

Hind wings whitish, becoming smoky toward the outer edge, especially on the venules. 
Beneath, smoky cinereous. On the outer edge of the fore wings is a row of small black dots; ends 
of the venules black. 

Expanse of wings, 5 30 mm.; length of body, 3 13 mm. 

In a well-preserved specimen collected by C. A. Shurtleflf at Brookline, Mass. (Coll. Bost. 
Soc. Nat. nist.), the i)atagia are much darker than the rest of the thorax; the middle yellowish 
ashen region is bordered on each side by zigzag lines; on the anterior half it is frosted over with 
fine whitish scales. The costal third of the wing is white. Tiie dots of the marginal row are each 
succeeded within by white streaks. Abdomen pale cinereous, darker than tiie hind wings; tlie 
tip is not so distinctly divided as in concinnn. Hchizura hadia may be easily distinguished by its 
deep reddish brown color, dark patagia, and light hind wings, and by the linear discal spot turning 
at a high angle outward, and by the reddish shade, or two reddish-brown lines, in the middle 
beyond. There are also distinct scalloped reddish brown lines at the base and beyond the discal 
spot. The thorax is also darker red. 

Larva. — "I have found this larva on Vihurnum hniaijo, and it is certainly not an GuJemusia. 
It is without the red hump and black tubercles of (E. concinna, the body being smooth, with dorsal 
l)rocesses on the first, fourth, fiftli, (?) and eighth abdominal segments; the sides of the tlioracic 
segments are green, but tlie usual V-shaped mark is, I believe, absent. I liave not been able to 
obtain the larva recently for more careful description." (Dyar in Psyche, vi, p. 177.) 

I add Dr. Dyar's dcscrii)tion of the egg and of Stages I-^^ As my nitida is a synonym of 
concinna, Dyar's description must be that of hadia. I am indebted to Dr. Dyar for specimens of 
hndht forming tlie subjects of PI. XXVI 1. 

'■'■Efjci. — More than hemisi)herical, flat on the base, covered witli shallow, rounded, hexagonal 
areas, not distinctly delined, and becoming obscure and ])unctiform around the niicropyle. 
Diameter, 0.8 mm.; height, 0.() mm. Laid tliree or four togetlier on tlie under side of a leaf of 
the food jdant ( Viburnum). 

^'Firnt larval stac/e. — On joint 2, two subdorsal seta' on enlarged bases; on joint 5 a single 
dorsal hump bears tubercle 1; on joints (J-ll two lium|)S, tubercle 1 on eacli, l)ecoming smaller 
l)osteriorly ; on joint 12 a low single hump. Head higher than wide, the lobes distinct; i)ale 
testaceous brown. Body shining red-biown, finely mottled with yellow, this color rei)laced by 
clear yeHow subdor.'^ally on joints ;?, 4, 0, ,S, and 11, and sul)ventrally on joints 0, .S, and 0; feet 
dark. The seta' have rather large, slightly conical, brown, chitinous tubercles, normal in arrange- 
ment (6 absent), with several on the lower part of the square brown leg plate; seta; slightly- 
enlarged at tip. Anal feet elevated. 

^'■Second sta<jc. — Head bilobed with a tubercle at the apex of each lobe; red-brown with a 
rounded, i)ale yellow patch on each side of clypeus above, one on the side of each lobe and the 


<']ypeus itself tlie same color; ocelli dark; a few setie; width, 0.7 mm. A red-brown dorsal Hue 
witli niarkiugs of the same color, tiuely yellow dotted, along the lateral area and covering the 
■whole of joints 5, 7, 10, and 12; the rest of the body pale yellowish, especially on joint 8. The 
abdominal feet on joints 8 and 9 and the thoracic feet are pale. Tubercles 1 with enlarged bases, 
forming slight dorsal prominences on joints 2, .5, and 12. Anal feet brown, elevated. Setae dusky 
with glandular tips, normal, six present with five or six sets on leg plate. 

" Third stage. — Head small in proportion to the body, bilobed with a large tubercle at apex of 
each lobe, rather flat before with several setne ; pale brownish white, shaded with brown posteriorly, 
with a vertical brown band before ocelli extending to vertex of each lobe, the pair connected by 
an angular cross band above clypeus and again, faintly, near the vertex; clypeus greenish, ocelli 
dark ; width, O.O.} mm. Tubercles 1 with enlarged bases ; a slight hump on joints 5 and 12 bearing 

1 near the apes ; a pair of tubercles in place of the cervical shield. Body at first yellowish, except 
the sides of joints 2-4, which are green. Later shining leaf green. A purple-brown dorsal band 
dotted with white extends from joint 2 to the anal feet, widening a little on the middle of each 
segment, covering tubercle 1 on joint .5, but on joint 6, 1 is bright yellow; the brown color covers 
the whole of joint 7, even the foot, and stains the posterior half of joint 6 and a stigraatal patch on 
joint 5. Tubercle 1 on joint 8 yellow. The brown band covers 2 on joints 9 and 10 and stains the 
foot on joint 10, extending up anteriorly and also posteriorly on joint 11; it covers tubercle 1 only 
on joints 11 and 12 and, becoming very narrow on joint 13, passes to the anal feet. A faint white 
subdorsal band, stained with yellow, most distinct on joints 8 and 9, and forming a somewhat 
oblique yellowish mark on joint 11, suggesting the usual V-mark of Schizura larvse. The green 
ground is partly rei)laced subventrally by whitish streaks. Thoracic feet pale. Setae pale, with 
glandular tips. 

'■'■Fourth stage. — Head much as before, but a brown line extending up from the ocelli is all that 
is left of the brown on the sides of flie lobes, and the band connecting the vertical lines above is 
broken. "Width, 1.5 mm. Body as before in color, but the setae stiff, distinct, not glandular. The 
green of the sides is considerably broken up by whitish streaks; tubercles 1 on joint 6, and 1 and 

2 on joint 8, are yellow. As the stage advances the brown dorsal baud partially fades out, the 
white subdorsal line, broken on joint 11, becomes more distinct, and its posterior part forms a 
distinct V-mark on joint 11. Tubercles 1 on joints 5 and 12 make slight, but distinct, furcate 
processes. These disappear in the next stage. 

'■'^ Fifth stage. — Head small, flat before, rounded, higher than wide; white, with a faint yellowish 
tinge; from each side of base of clypeus a band extends to vertex of each lobe, cut by a small 
spot of the ground color each side of the clypeus and a larger one opposite apex of clypeus and 
narrowly bordering clypeus above; this band is purple-brown, mottled with round dots of the 
ground color; a similar fainter band behind the ocelli. A very slight prominence on joints 5 and 
12, low, scarcely even a hump ; otherwise the body is smooth, tubercles absent, setae small, dark, 
but tubercle 6 and those on the leg can be distinguished; anal feet elevated. Body green, clear 
on the sides of joints 2-4 with a dorsal purjjle-brown band mottled with white, which tajiers and 
ends at joint 5. A white subdorsal shade on joints 5-13, diftuse downward and cut by oblique 
lines of the ground color (green), broken on joint 11, the posterior part continued forward frorn 
joint 11 on joint 10 and becoming yellow, forms a V-mark supplemented by a few dots on joints 9 
and 11. A distinct yellow patch surrounds tubercle 1 on joints 6-8 with a yellow dotted dorsal 
shading; the spots 1 on joint 8 separated by a Y-shaped brown mark (in some cases the sides of 
joints 5-8 are more or less covered with dark brown, mottled with whitish, being remains of the 
brown marks of the previous stage), and the brown usually prevails in a band from the spiracle 
on joint 5 back to the abdominal feet. Bases of the feet around tubercle 6 waxy white, this area 
bordered by a rather irregular brown mark. Anal plate and feet dark. Spiracles pale brown. 
Thoracic feet tinged with reddish." 

Food Plant. — Viburnum Icntago. (Dyar.) 

Habits. — Besides the facts already given, the moth occurred in New York in August. (Riley.) 

Geograj)hical distribution. — Boston, Mass. (Sanborn, Shurtleff, Harris, Coll.); Dutchess 
iJounty, N. Y. (Dyar); Orono, Me. (Mrs. Fernald); Kittery, Me., Massachusetts, Illinois (French); 
New York (U. S. Nat. INfus., Dyar); New York, New Jersey (Palm). 
S. Mis. 50 14 


Schizura peraugulata (Edwards). 
(PI. VI, fig. 4 <?,5 ^,6 ^.) 

(Edemaaia perangulata H. Edw., Papilio, ii, p. 125, Oct., 1882. 

Smith, List Lep. Het. Bor. Amer., p. 30, 1891. 

Kirby, Syu. Cat. Lep. Hot., i, p. 567, 18'J2. 

Pack., P.syclie, vi, p. 522, 18113. 
Janaasa Ugnicolor, var. coluradtmis, H. Edw., Ent. Amer., i, p. 17, April, 18S5. 

Pack., Psyche, vi, p. 522, 18'J3. 
Schizura peiangulata Neiiiu. and Dyar, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, xxi, p. 202, June, 1894 ; Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soo.^ 

ii, p. 117, Sept., 1894. 

Moth. — "Primaries grayish white, with a fawn-colored shade along the internal margin, 
especially toward the base of the wing. The anterior lines are ob.solete, the posterior is broken 
on the costa, but its course may be traced by a series of imperfect streaks, nearly to the posterior 
margin, thence about the middle of the wing it forms a very acute angle to the center of the 
internal margin, and is slightly dentate outwardly. There is a conspicuous discal mark, some 
streaks near the apex of the costa and others near the internal angle, blackish brown, fringe 
fawn color. Secondaries sordid white, with a blackish blotch on anal angle, and the fringes and 
margin dusky. Beneath, the wings are sordid white, shading into dusky on the costa, the primaries 
broadly so, and inclosing some blackish streaks. Autenuse fawn color. Thorax brownish fawa 
color, mottled with darker shade, the collar brown-black. Abdomen sordid white, shading into- 
fawn color at the base. Legs fawn color, mottled with brownish. 

"Expanse of wings, 38 mm. One 3 , Colorado, Coll. H. Edwards." (Edwards in PapiHo, ii, 
pp. 125, 126, Oct., 1882.) 

This species may be easily recognized, and differs from its nearest ally, S. eximia, by the 
distinct linear discal mark. It has on the fore wings near the internal angle a series of brown 
slashes and a row of whitish-gray and dark slashes on the costa, near the apex, otherwise the 
Utah example is like it. The hind wings are white, with a dark spot on the internal angle; the 
wings are not dusky, nor with a whitish diffuse line such as is present in S. eximia. A $ in Mr. 
Neumoegen's collection from Canyon City, Colo. (PI. VI, fig. C), has the reddish colors of S. eximia, 
but it may be at once separated from it by the large linear discal mark. The fore wings are crossed 
by reddish zigzag lines. The large dark shade or blotch beyond the discal mark is present, and the 
black slashes on the costal region and at the internal angle are well marked. The long black streak 
on the base of the wing, along the cubital vein, is present and very distinct. A S specimen from 
Ogden,Utah (TJ. S. Nat. Museum, PI. VI, fig. 5), is much bleached, without the reddish-brown zigzag 
lines, and the fore wings are very pale silvery white on the costal region ; the veins are darker, tlie 
linear discal mark is indistinct, and beyond it is the usual dusky patch. The black stripes at the 
base of the wing extending along the cubital vein, and also along the inner edge, are distinct. The- 
hind wings are white, with a dusky discoloration along tiie internal angle. 

Expanse of wings, 3 41-43 mm.; length of body, S 20-21 mm, 

Oeographical distribution. — A member of the Campestrian subprovince, it is not known to 
exist either east or west of tlie Great Basin and Colorado Plains. 

Denver, Canyon City, Colo. (Bruce, in Ncumoegen collection); Salt Lake, Utah (Edwards); 
Ogdeu, Utah, June 20, 1885 (U. S. Nat. Museum), Colorado (French); State of Washington 
(Strecker). I have examined this specimen, which extends the distribution of this species to near- 
the Pacific Coast unless it occurred in a locality in the State east of the Cascade range. 

Schizura eximia (Qrote). 

(PI. VI, fig. 7,?.) 

(Edemaaia eximia Grote, Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geogr. Surv. Terr., Hayden, vi, p, 275, Sept. 19, 1881. 

Grote, Now Check List N. Amer. Moths, p. 19, 1882. 

Smith, List Lep. Bor. Amer., p. 30, 1891. 

Kirby, Syn. Cat. Lep. Het., i, p. 567, 1892. 
Schizura eximia Fackarti, Psyche, vi, p. 522, Sept., 1893. 

Neum. and Dyar, Trans. Amer. Eut. Soc, xxi, p. 202, June, 1894; Journ. N. Y. Eut. Soo., ii,. 

p. 116, Sept., 1894. 



PL XXVII, tig. 3. 

r/iaj-(e)'. Can. Eut., xsiii, p. 34, 1891. (Food plant given.) 

Thaxler. quoted by Dijar, Psyche, vi, p. 177, Nov., 1891. (Brief description of larva.) 

lUiar. Proc. Bost. Soe. Nat. Hist., xxvi, p. 397, 1894. (Stage IV described.) 

Moth. — Three S . Very closely related to »S'. concinna, difleriiig cliietiy iu the more produced 
fore wings, with the outer angle more oblique, and iu its larger size. Head aboye and thorax 
ash-gray, with a slight olive-green tint, behind reddish brown, as in .S'. concinna. Fore wings much 
produced toward the apex, the outer edge very oblique. The markings and shades and discolora- 
tion absent, exactly as in 8. concinna, including the costal region, the internal region, and the 
position, shape, and color of the round black discal dot. The iuternal region or margin of the 
wing is less black than iu 8. concinna, and more as in »S'. badia, but darker and claret reddish; the 
costal region is more distinctly marked with oblique dusky streaks than most of my examples of 
8. concinna, and in this respect tiie eosta is marked more as in badia. Tiie long narrow blackish 
basal streak on the submediau fold as iu S. concinna. Hind wings whitish, with a large dusky 
patch at the internal angle. The underside of both wings pale whitish aud marked as iu 8. 

Expanse of wing, i 48 mm.; length of body, S 18 mm. 

Grote, in his description, compares this moth with 8. badia, and does not refer to its close 
resemblance to (S. concinna. It differs entirely from *S^. badia in its round discal dot, that of 8. badia 
being long and linear; the thorax aud wings are less reddish brown, and the wings are much 
more elongated toward the pointed apex. 

Larra. — Dyar, who regards (Psyche, November, 1801, p. 177) this species as "improperly 
referred to Oildemasia,'' and places it " next to 8. lejHitioides and near Janansa," quotes the following 
brief description of it from a letter from Dr. Thaxter: 

(Edcmasia eiimia resembles Crclodaxi/s lci)liiwi(lcs in coloring, bnt structurally is perhaps more like biiinttntiis 
{ijwme(t). When at rest it is greatly hunched anteriorly, and the furcate prominence on segment 4 is very long. I 
should say it was surely a Ccelodasys. 

I copy Dyar's description of Stage IV of this species. He states that the "larva superticially 
greatly resembles 8chizura Icptinoides, and was at first mistaken for it." 

^'■Fourth larval stage. — Head high, slightly bilobed, flat before; sordid whitish with a vertical 
band on each side composed of brown-black dots confluent in streaks, continuous on its posterior 
edge but breaking up inwardly, the pair connected across the median suture by three more reddish 
but similar bands, which are indented ou the suture and, joining there, border the clypeus. 
Markings on side of head also reddish, dotted, confusedly, broadly reticulate. Width, 2.3 mm. 
A long, nutaut ])rocess on joint 5 i)receded by an elevation on joint 4; a slight hump on joint 9 
and a little larger one on joint 12, bearing the whitish tubercles 1. Sides of joints 2-4 sordid 
whitish, confusedly reticulate with bauds of reddish dots which become blackish stigmatally and 
dorsally, forming a narrow stigmatal and dorsal band. Body pale brown, faintly marked with 
dots of red-brown or blackish. V-mark distinct, pale yellow, with no inclosed dot. There is a 
velvety brown-black subdorsal shade, irregularly touching the region of tubercles 1 and 2, 
beginning in a narrow line on the side of the process ou joint 5, becoming more and more 
pronounced posteriorly till it fills iu all the si)ace around the V-mark. Joint 12 is again lighter, 
the brown shade forming a pair of narrow lines on the anterior side of the hump, but obtaining 
again on joint 13. Trace of a lateral line, but broken and diffuse. A distinct substigmatal line. 
Abdominal feet ou joints 7-10 pale, marked with reddish mottlings, the claspers vinous. An 
obli(iue brown line runs from base of the horn on joint 5 to the anterior side of the foot on joint 7, 
and another, subventrally, from below the hump on joint 12 to the posterior side of the foot ou 
joint 10 and, continued back subventrally, ends on the anal foot. Seta? short, rather dark. 

" Fifth stage. — Much as before, but the process ou joint ■i is pronounced, leaning backward to 
touch the horn on joint 5; width of head, S.-j mm. There is a trace of a hump only on joint 8. 
V-mark distinct, pinkish, with centering red lines, but remaining narrow, not diffuse. Dorsal 
shade mossy olivaceous brown, distinct only ou joints 9-13, often quite greenish on joints 10 and 


11; joints G-S suauswl with pinkish (lorsnllj'. The aicii on the sides of Joints 2-1 and the bases of 
the feet on Joints 7-10 below tlie snbstigaiatal line tiaiisliiL-ent whitish, with sparse, dotted, 
brown reticulations. Horn nini. lonn, tapering-, the distal half slender. When full p:rown 
the larva becomes paler throughout, though different individuals vary in shade. Feeds solitary 
ou the edge of a leaf" 

Food pIxHt.—SaUx, Po|)ulus (Thaxter); white birch (Betula pap\ir[fern). maple, beeeb; apple, 
(Beutenmiiller); "a larva was found ou the ground under an elm tree" (f)yar); "a more general 
feeder than lepiinoidcn" (Dyar). 

Geofiraphicul dixfrihiition.—So far as yet known, an inhabitant of the northern portion of the 
Appalachian subi)roviiU'e. 

Francouia, N. II. (Mrs. Slosson); Roxbury, Mass., (Sanlxuni, l>ost. Soc. Nat. Hist.); Kittery, 
Me. (Thaxter, French); Plattsburg, N. Y. (Hudson); New York (II. Edwards); northeru Kentucky 
(Sanborn, Mns. Comp. ZooL); Massachusetts, New York, Champlain, 111. (French); New Y''ork 
(Dyar); Seattle, Wash. (Dyar) ; Penusylvania, British Columbia (Palm); Keene Valley, New Y'ork 

Schizura concinna (Abbot aiul Smith). 
(I'l. VI, tigs. 1 .ind 2.3, .'i, 9.) 

rhahrna concinna Abbot aud Smith, Nat. Hist. Lep. Ins. Georgia, ii, p. 109, PI. LXXXV, 1797. 

Xotodonta concinna Hani.s, Rpp. lus. ioj. Veg. Mass., p. 309, 1811; Treatise on Ins. luJ.Veg., third edit., 

p|).425, 426, larva fig. 210, PI. \'I, fig. 11, 1802 (colored fig. of moth). 
Edema concinna Wallt , Cat. Lep. Het. Br. Mus., v, p. 1030, 1855. 
Kotodonia concinna Fitch, Third Kep. nox. Ins. N. York, p. 342, 1856. 
Edema concinna Morris, .Synopsis Lep. N. Amer., p. 242, 1862. 
a-:demusia concinna P.ack., Proc. Eut. .Soc. Phil., iii, p. 360, 1864. 
(Edemasia nitida Pack., Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., iii, p. 360, 1864. 
Notodonta concinna Riley, Amer. Ent., ii, p. 27, Sept. and Oct., 1869. (Fignres larva, pnpa, aud moth, the 

latter copied from Harris.) 
Heierocampa saVicia Edwards, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., vii. p. 121, 1876. 
(Edemasia concinna (Jrote, New Check List N. Amer. Moths, p. 19, 1882. 
(Edemasia nitida Grote, New Check List N. Amer. Moths, p. 19, 1882. 

Riley, Report Entomologist U. S. Dopt. Agr. for 1884, p. 411, 1885. 

Packard, Fifth Rep. U. S. Ent. Comm. Forest Ins., p. 457, 1890. 
Xolodonla concinna Dimmock (Anna K.), Psyche, iv, p. 279, 1885. 

Drijocampa rirersii Behr., Proc. Cal. Acad. 8c. (2) ii, p. 94, 1890. {S. salicis.Jidr Dyar in letter). 
(Edemasia concinna Smith, List. Lep. Bor. Amer., p. 30, 1891. 
(Edemasia sal ids Dyar, Psyche, vi, p. 177, 1891. 

Kirby, Syn. Cat. Lep. Het., i, p. 567, 1892. 
■(Edemasia nitida Smith, List Lep. Bor. Amer., p. 30, 1891. 

Kiiby, Syn. Cat. Lep. Het., i, p. 567, 1892. 
Schizura concinna Neum. and Dyar, Trans. Amer. Eut. Soc, xxi, p. 202, .Juno, 1894; .lourn. N. Y. Ent. Soc 
ii, p. 116, Sept., 1894. 


(PI. XXVI, ligs. 5, 5«-5/.) 

Ahbot and Smith, Nat. Hist. Lep. Ins. Georgia, ii, p. 169, 'I'ab. LXXX\', 17!t7. (All stages ligured.) 

Fitch, Third Rep. Nox. Ins. N. York, p. 342, 18,56. 

Harris, Treat, Ins. inj. Veg., 3d edit., p. 125, 1862, uiotb. i'l. VI, Mg. 11, larva, tig. 210 in text. 

Ent. Corresp., p. 303, PI. I, fig. 3, 18(i9. (Larva). 
Marten, Trans. Dept. Agr. 111., xviii, Apinud., )). 120, 1880. 
Saunders, Can. Ent., xiii, p. 138, 1881; 12th Hep. Ent. Soc. Ontario, p. 21. 1882; lus. inj. Forests, p. 63. 1883 

(compiled, figs, copied from Kiley aud Harris). 
Edwards and Elliot. Papilio, iii, p. 130, 1883. 

]>eiitenmiiUcr, Entomologica .\mericana, iii, p. 157, 1887. (List of foml plauts.) 
Mileii, Rep. Eut. U. S. Dept. Agr. for 1884, p. 411, 1885 (figs, of larva, pupa, and moth). 
Dimmock, Anna l\.. Psyche, iv, ]). 279, 1885. 

Fackard, Fifth Rep. tl. S. Ent. Comm. ou Forest lus., p. 4.57, 1890. (Larval Stages II, III, V.) 
Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., xxiv, p. .531, 1890. (Egg aud larval Stages II, IV, V.) 
•Jonru. N. York Eut. Soc, i, p. 68-69, .June, 1893. (Larval Stages I, II.) 
Dyar, Psyche, vi. p. 177, 1891. (St.ages III to V of (Edemasia salicia.) 


Moth. — Three A , five 9 . Head ash, tawny ashen, with reddish brown discolorations, thorax 
ash color with reddish brown scales behind. Fore wings very i»ale tawny in the middle of the 
wing-, between the cinereons costa and the brown inner margin. No transverse lines. At the 
base along the cnbital vein is a dark streak; there are three dark spots on the costoapical region; 
another faint linear niinnte streak in the apical interspace; in tlie two spaces below are two faint, 
long, linear slight lines between the dark veunles. A minute but distinct discal dot succeeded by a 
linear streak reaching to the outer margin. Near the internal angle are two unequal linear spots. 
A faint row of marginal brown lunules. Near the internal angle is a brown geminate discoloration. 
Hintl wings in i wliite with a dusky discoloration on the inner angle. Wings beneath pale; fore 
wings a little dusky externally; the three costo-apical dots and the spotted fringe visible beneath. 
Fringe brown on the venules. 

Female: Baseof the fore wings fuscous; beyond ashy; a distinct submedian dark basal streak, 
a minute discal dot, with a faint brown strealc beyond. Two twin costoapical streaks, more distinct 
than in the S , so also two larger, broader spots near the intei-nal angle. The marginal row of 
spots more distinct. Hind wings dark, ashy, reddish brown. 

Expanse of wings, S -'SO mm., 9 30-31 mm.; length of body, S 10 mm., 9 17 mm. 

It differs from badia in tlie wings being narrower and longer; the base of the fore wings is less 
reddish, routider, not lunate. The fringe is whiter on the edge; there is no reddish tinge on the 
liind wings. It is a slender species. After a careful examination I am unable to perceive any 
difference between what I have decided to be nit Ida and this species. This species, like the rest of 
the genus, is remarkable for the difference in the cohjr of the hind wings in the two sexes. 

A $ in the United States National Museum, labeled "240 L, from Coeur d'Alene City, 
Idaho, August 29, 1891," is, though rubbed, evidently paler on the fore wings, with less reddish 
brown than the Eastern individuals. There is no doubt about the species, as the basal 
longitudinal reddish sti'ipe is present, and it does not differ materially otherwise. It is no larger, 
tlie alar expanse being 30 mm. 

Var. salicis Edw. (one S . Type, California. I also have a S given me some years since by Mr. 
Edwards). I can not, after repeated examination, really perceive any difference between this and 
the Eastern concinna; it only differs in size, being a little larger and with slightly more pointed 
fore wings, as one would expect to lind it, in accordance with the facts pointed out in my 
Monograph of Geometrid Moths (p. 587), where a list of twenty live species of Geometrids, which 
grow larger on the Pacific than the Atlantic Coast, is given. The three last stages are described 
by Mr. Dyar, and show that the larva is closely similar in each stage to the Eastern concinna. 
Mr. Edwards's descrii)tion of the mature larva agrees exactly with our Rhode Island examples. 

Eyg. — Diameter about U mm. Low hemispherical, the height being about half the diameter. 
The shell is thin, smooth, and under a triplet not seen to be pitted, but under a half-inch objective 
the surtace is seen to be divided into regular, moderately large, flat polygonal areas, with slightly 
raised but distinct edges. No micropyle visible, and no specialized arrangement of the polygons 
on the apex of the egg. 

Freshly hutched hu-va. — Length, .3 mm. Head large, globular, smooth, and unarmed, a third 
wider than the body, deep dark, honey-yellow. The body is greenish yellow above, cherry- 
reddish on the sides; the prothoracic dorsal tubercles are larger and higher than those on the 
second aiid tliird thoracic segments and connected by a chitinous band, becoming more distinct in 
Stages 11 and HI. The first and eighth abdominal segments are reddish, including the pair of 
dorsal tubercles, which are of the same size. The end of the body is held up, uuich as in the 
fully grown larva, and I mistook it for a Schizura larva, like the ordinary species, until after it 
had molted, as the tubercles are conical in this stage as in freshly hatched Schizura' of other 
species. In some individuals the greenish dorsal tubercles are dark at the tip. The glandular 
hairs are bulbous at the tips, and a few at each end are nearly one-half as long as the body. 

Three days after, June 27, they became 5 mm. in length, the head now small, and the larvi© 
were preparing to molt, and July 29-30 three cast their skins. 

St(if/e IF. — Length, 4-."i mm. at first. Now the body is like dark opaque varnish in color. 
The head is dark reddish varnish or pitchy in hue, and dc(udedly narrows above, bearing two 
blunt knobs on the vertex; it is now wider than the body. The prothoracic shield is larger than 


before. The sides of the second and third thoracic segments are yellowish witli reddish lines, 
and on the sides of the seventh abdominal segment is a pair of lobed bright straw yellow sjKrts 
converging behind, and lower down are three yellow tubercles tiiiped witli brown. There is a 
siinilarsiiigle yellow tubercle on each side of the ninth segment. Tlu' prothoracic dorsal tubercles 
are somewhat smaller than those on the first abdominal segment, and the eighth pair are also a 
little smaller, but all the other dorsal tnbercles are still large and consi)icuons. 

The same xUuje. — Length, <! nun. Head reddish amber, not dark coral-red as in the mature 
larva; angular on the sides, with two thick, stout, rather large, black tubercles on the vertex, 
bearing a hair; there are also tive or six piliferous warts on each side of the head. Body with 
large piliferous warts, those on the prothoracic and first abdominal segments much larger (about 
three times) than the others, those on the prothoracic a little slenderer than those on the first 
abdominal segment; those on the eighth segment broader at the base, ami rather larger than 
those on tlie first abdominal segment; those on the mesothoracic slightly larger than those on 
the metathoracic; those on the second abdominal very slightly larger than those on abdominal 
segments 3 to (i, the latter slightly decreasing in size from before backward, and all considerably 
smaller than those on the ninth and tenth abdominal segments. All the tubercles, except 
on the head, bear slender hairs which are about (Uie third as long as the body is thick, and which 
are broad and tiattened at the end, which is abru|)tly truncate. All the tubercles on the body 
are of the same color as the body, which is of a general mottled reddisli hue, with no distinct 
traces of longitudinal bands, excei>t along the base of the legs; the skin is minutely dotted with 
white specks and with small lateral black piliferous warts. 

The only bright spots are the light straw-yellow bases of the dorsal tubercles on the second 
and third thoracic segments, besides a pair of latero dorsal oblique bright yellow patches on the 
seventh abdominal segment and a small bright yellow spot on each side of the base of the tenth 
segment. All the legs, both thoracic and abdominal, are concolorous with the body. The amil 
legs are normal, but smaller than the others, with nnmerons hooks, and are held slightly uplifted. 

Third .sta(ie. — Length, 9 mm. The body is rather stouter than in the previous stage. The 
head is black, and all the tubercles on the head and body, together with the thoracic legs, and the 
scale on the outside of the end of the abdominal legs are black. All the tubercles end in a hair, 
now acute and simple, while the tubercles themselves are higher and more ])rouounced than 
before. There are traces of a subdorsal and two lateral lines (these are ettaced by the alcohol). 

Fourth utage. — Length, 13 mm. The head is still black, with the two large black tubercles 
present, though smaller in proportion than before. All the tubercles on the body are much as in 
the last stage in their relative size and shape; those of the third thoracic segments are of the 
same size and lieiglit, the pair on the first abdominal segment being longer and larger than the 
others, and those on the eighth abdominal segment have not increased proportionately in size, 
but are still nearly twice as large as those on the seventh segment. The body is still red<lish, 
with (in the alcoholic specimen) traces of three or four reddish lines on each side, which are 
bordered more or less regularly with whitish. 

Fifth and hist stage. — Length, 23-30 mm. Some notable chaiiges have occurred in the 
coloration, Avhile the shining black spines arc nuich larger and more imposing than in the earlier 
stages, all these changes adapting the caterpillar more completely to its exj^osed mode of life. 

The head is now deep coral-red, smooth, with no traces of the tubercles characteristic of the 
previous stages, the vertex being smooth and simply bilobed. The two prothoracic dorsal spines, 
instead of being larger than the other thoracic spines, as in Stage 11, are much smaller, being 
oidy about one-fourth as long or as high as the mesothoracic pair; the latter are sometimes a 
little thicker but shorter than those on the third thoracic segment. Those on the first abdominal 
segment are very long, rather slen(bT, ami arise from a deep coral-red, soft, swollen hump, whose 
soft, red, swollen sides descend so as to embrace the spiracle. The dorsal spines of the second 
abdominal segment are of the same size as those on the third thoracic segment (smaller in 
si»ecimens 30 mm. in length), those of the following segments deci-easing in size to those of the 
seventh s<'gnient, while those on the eighth are slightly larger than those on the tenth segment. 

Thesnranal plate is rounded, lozenge-shaped, with a row of four large piliferous warts extending 
across the middle, while around the hinder edge are fi)ur smaller ones. On each side of the black 


ilorsiU line are seven wavy black lines alternating with white ones, so tbat the caterpillar is very 
coiisiiicuously banded and spotted. The small black tubercles on the side of the body all bear a 
■single hair. The anal legs are normal, about a third smaller than the other abdominal legs, and 
with numerous hooks. The end of the body is often uplifted. 

Until we know more of the exact structure and markings of the first stage, it would be 
premature to attempt to recapitulate tbe leading points in the ontogeny of this curious larva. 

What we have taken to belong to the second stage of concinna, and whose exact coloration 
we failed to note when collected, shows that even probably when hatched from the egg the larva 
is ijrovided with its full complement of spines, and even more, there being two on the bead, which 
are lost in the last stage. Without specimens of all the other species for comparison, we can not 
properly interpret the nature of the singular ornamentation, so unlike that of any other 
Notodontian of the American or European fauna. 

To recapitulate, it is to ])e noticed that: 

1. The head is deep dull amber in Stage II, becoming black in Stages III and IV, and deep 
coral-red in the last stage. The head is angular or squarish in Stages II-IV, bearing on the 
vertex a pair of tubercles which disappear at the final molt. Of what use tliese tubercles are in 
the early stages, and why if useful at that period of the insect's life they are not retained in the 
last stage, is difficult to understand, though the smooth shining dark coral-red head may, and 
doubtless does, make the creature more conspicuous. 

2. The hairs in the second stage are, as usual, enlarged at the end, being flattened and sud- 
denly truncated. 

3. A swollen coral-red dorsal hump arises in the last stage on the first abdominal segment, 
bearing two very long, black, blunt spines, which can be moved by the larva so as to terrify its 

4. The great dorsal spines along the entire body, and the large lateral ones, like elongated 
hobnails, have in general grown larger from the second to the last stage, rendering the creature 
probably still more distasteful and repulsive to birds and less open to attack from parasitic insects. 

0. It is worthy of notice that in this species the dorsal tubercles and spines are sepai-ated 
widely, while in other Schizurre those of the first and eighth abdominal segments grow together 
and form a single more or less movable terrifying spine. Xylinodes is intermediate, the tubercles 
on the hump being in pairs. 

G. On account of these unique characteristics and its system of conspicuous markings and 
noticeable appendages, which all unite in giving warning to birds that it is inedible, and the entire 
absence of protective mimicry, this larva occupies an unique place in the ZSTotodontian group. In 
other Schizurse we have a mixture of two properties; the larva is both disguised so as to resemble 
a part of a brown-spotted green leaf, and has a movable deterrent spine on the back. In Symme- 
rista the larva is so gaily colored as to at once indicate to birds that it is distasteful, but there 
are no deterrent spines or bristles. It is obvious that experiments should be made by feeding 
Symraerista, Schizura, and Dasylophia larva?, to birds in order to see if they would be rejected 
or not. 

The young, at least after the first molt, are so spiny that it is difficult to say from what 
existing form this caterpillar may have descended, though the stem-form was a Schizura, as Stage 
I shows. 

CopooH,.— Resembling that of S. tiHicornis. (Harris.) " The cocoon is formed of very close fine 
glossy silk, the leaves of the plant being drawn aroiind it so as to conceal it entirely. It is almost 
egg-shaped and very symmetrical." (Edwards.) A cocoon given me by Mr. Beutenmiiller is 
regularly oval, of silk, rather thin, semitranspareut, and 15 mm. in length. It was spun between 
leaves. Two broods in New York; the spring brood spinning on leaves, the winter brood in the 
earth (Elliot). 

P,q)a. — "Short, broad, bright chestnut brown, very glossy and shining, the abdominal portion 
showing the few hairs of the larval tubercles." (Edwards.) 

Hnhits. — Abbot states that in Georgia it breeds twice a year, the first brood making its cocoons 
toward the end of May, the moths appearing fifteen days afterwards. As is well known in the 
Northern States, the caterpillars of this species are common and conspicuous, feeding in clusters 
in a very exposed manner on apple leaves. 


Harris states that tlio ef;f;s arc laid iluiiiijj: .Itily '-in cliisttTs on the nuderside of a leaf,, 
generally near the end of a branch." He then observes: " When first hatched they eat only the 
substance of the under side of the leaf, leaving the skin of the upjicrsich' and all the veins 
untouched, but as they grow larger and stronger they devour wlioh^ leaves from the i)oiiit to the 
stalk, and go from leaf to leaf down the twigs and branches" (Treatise, p. 425). He adds : The fully 
grown caterpillars "rest close together on the twigs, when not eating, and sometimes entirely cover 
the small twigs and ends of the branches. The early bi-oods come to their growth and leave the 
trees by the middle of August, and the others between this time and the latter part of September. 
All the caterpillars of the same brood descend at one time and disap]>ear in the night. They 
conceal themselves under leaves, or just beneath the surface of the soil, and make their cocoons, 
■which resemble those of the ITnicoru Notodonta. They renmin a long time in their cocoons before 
changing to chrysalids, and are transformed to moths toward the end of June or the beginning of 
July " (Treatise, pp. 425-426). This habit of feeding exposed and living gregariously up to the time 
of pupation jjn.ves tlic almost entire immunity enjoyed by tiiis caterjiillar from the attacks of birds. 
We have also noticed iu Providence the simultaneous and suddeu disappearance of a whole bi'ood 
from an apple tree at the end of September. 

Eegarding the habits of this species in California, Mr. Edwards states that he detected the 
caterpillars iu tlie fall of 1875 "feeding upon willows in tlie neighbcuhood of Mount Shasta. Six 
caterpillars taken, all feeding close together, upon a dwarf willow, their brilliant colors giving to 
the phint at a little distance the appearance of a raceme of showy flowers. In a few days they 
began to undergo their change, and by the 27th of August had all transformed. The i)erfect 
insects began to appear on the 22d of December, a second followed on the !)th of January, and the 
third on the IGth of March. The remaining specimens all died in the chrysalis state." Mr. Dyar 
found the larvie he describes on the maple in the Yosemite Valley in August. 

The moth has been bred by Mr. Elliot from the willow, and i have fouud it in diftereut stages 
of growth on the willow at Brunswick, Me., in August and September. It also feeds on the 
aspen and blackberry iu Maine. 1 have also found the cater])illar feeding on the huckleberry 
( Vaccinitim). 

I found the eggs with tlie larv;e just hatching on the leaves of the willow at Brunswick, ^le., 
June 24. The eggs were iu this case somewhat scattered and few in number, and the larvae did 
not feed gregariously. The hrrv;e continue to hatch till the early part of August iu Maine, as 
August 14 I found the larvae in Stage II and also fully grown on the aspeu. 

"This curious and. well-known caterpillar was received in August from Oregon. Mr. F. S.. 
Matteson, of Aumsville, states that he found it in large numbers on a young api)le tree, entirely 
denuding the branches of leaves. This mention is made as bearing upoTi the geographical 
distribution of the species. The gregarious habits of these larviv when hatched admit of an 
easy remedy in hand picking." (Kiley, Bep. U. S. Dcpt. Agr., 1SS4.) 

After the second molt some of the larvie are iclineunioneil. September 2 an ichneumon larva 
had issued from the ventral side of the caterpillar and s\nui a white thin cocoon; the nearly dead 
caterpillar was fastened by its back to the cocoon. After a day or two the caterpillar died and 
turned wliitish, the rows of black warts becoming conspicuous. 

Kiley has observed the eggs in June; the larva' from .June to October; the moths in May and 

Food i)lants. — Aj)ple, cherry, i)lum, rose, thorn, ])ear, lictiiUi uUm, willow, aspen, blackberry, 
bramble, hucklebcu'ry ( VdcciniKm). I have found the larva' in ]\Iaine most commonly on the 
willow, and it is probably from this tree that the insect has migrated to our fruit trees. In 
California it feeds on the willow (Edwards) and maple (Dyar). 

In Beutenmiiller's list, besides the fiuit Trees already mentioned and different species of willow, 
he has fouud it on the tlowering dogwood, sweet gum, persimmon, snowdroj) tree, bayberry, and 
three different species of hickory. Apricot, wistaria, oak,, hickory, persimmon, poplar.. 

Geographical distribntioii. — This species has a wide range, extending throughout the Apjia- 
lachian, Austrorii)arian, aiul Campestriau subprovinces from Maine and Canada to ]\Iissouri and 
southward to Texas, (leorgia, aiul Florida. 


Lomlon, Giiiiada (Saunders); Quebec (Fyles); Bruuswick, Me., commou (Packard); Boston, 
Mass. (Sanborn, Harris); Anilierst, Mass. (Mrs. Fernald); Xewburg, N. Y. (Miss Morton); 
Plattsburg, N. Y. (Hudson); New York (Doll); Brooklyn, Long Island (Hulst); Providence, R. I. 
(Clark, Bridgbani, Packard); Janesville, Md. (M. C. Z.); southern Illinois (French); Missouri 
(Miss Soule); iNIanliattan, Ivans., "common on a|)])le'' (Popenoe); Aumsville, Oreg'. (Matteson Jide 
Riley); Kansas, Missouri, Idaho, California, Oregon, Iowa, New York, District of Columbia, and 
Virginia, Cceur d'Aleue City, Idaho, August 29 (U. S. Nat. Mus.); salicis, Mount Shasta (H. 
Edwards), and Yosemite Valley (Dyar): Normal form. Florida (Palm); Canada, Kittery (Me.); 
Massachusetts, New York, Maryland, North Carolina, Georgia (French); var. salicis California 

Seirodonta Grote and Robinson. 
(PI. XLV, figs. 1, 1<(, an<l Ih, venation. PI. XLVIII, tig. 10, palpus.) 

Cecrita? (in part) Pack., Proc. Ent. Sop. Pbil., iii, p. 359, Nov., 1804. 
Heterocampa (iu part) Walk., Cat. Lep. Het. Brit. Mus., Part xxxiii, p. 41i), 1865. 
Kdema (in part) Walk., Cat. Lep. Het. Brit. Mus., Part xxxii, p. 426, 1865. 
Seirodonta Grote and Rob. (inedited). List. Lep. N. Amer., p. xi, Sept., 1868. 

Grote, New Check List N. Amer. Moths, p. 19, 1882. 

.'<uiith. List Lep. Bor. Amer., p. .SO, 1891. 

Kirby, .Syu. Cat. Lep. Het., i, pp. .569, 929, 1892. 
Cecrita.m part, Nenm. and Dyar, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, xxi, p. 206, June, 1894; .Journ. N. Y. Ent. .Soc.,ii, p. 
117, .^ept., 1894. 

Moth, — i and 9 . Head prominent, not quite as large as in Heterocampa; vei-tex broad, 
triangular, with a flattened tuft in front of each antenna. Clypeus square, full in the middle, and 
toward the vertex a median elevation. Antenn.e of 5 x^ectinated three-fourths to the tip, as in 
Heterocampa; in 9 simple, with a few ciliated scales beneath. Maxilhe well developed, twice as long- 
as the head, united and coiled up. Palpi porrect, extending well beyond the front; second joint 
rather narrow and long, with a lew spreailing scales below; third joint of moderate size, rather 
short, distinct, conical. Thorax not tufted, but the prothorax with long dense hairs beneath. Fore 
wings not quite half as broad as long; costa slightly convex at the base and apex, straight between, 
not bent at the apex; outer edge oblique, not augulated, but little shorter than the internal edge. 

Venation : A long narrow subcostal cell, much as in Heterocampa {H. manteo), and the vena- 
tion otherwise scarcely differs from that oi H. manteo, except that the discal veins make a regular 
carved line. Iu the hind wings the costa is full near the base, more so than the species of 
Heterocampa; apex a little more pointed than in H. manteo; the outer edge slightly bent in the 
middle, while the costal' vein is shorter, ending much nearer the middle of the costa than in 
Heterocampa. Legs rather long, with only a single pair of tibial spurs, the outer one being twice 
as long as the inner. 

The genus differs from Heterocampa chiefly iu the venation, the discal venules forming a line 
much curved in. I confess that these characters seem to me (piite trivial, especially when we take 
into account the very close similarity of the larva to that of JJ. manteo and the great difficulty of 
distinguishing one from the other. I had concluded to unite it with the Hiterocampa, but regard 
it provisionally as a distinct genus. The style of markings is not as we find it iu Heterocampay 
there being two definite lines on the fore wings, arranged, however, much as in H. manteo. 

To place this species in the genus Cecrita, close by guttivitta and biumlata, is scarcely allow- 
able, since the larva; seem to differ so much, though the earliest stages of bilineata have yet to be 

Larva. — Body cylindrical, head smooth, rounded, no wider than the body, which is marked 
almost precisely as in Heterocampa manteo., with two pale subdorsal lines, which diverge on the 
prothoracic segment, are close together on the second and third thoracic segments, and again 
widely separate from the front edge of the iirst abdominal segment to the end of the body; some- 
times the space between is reddish and extends down on the sides of the third and sixth segments. 
A yellow or white spiracular line. A pair of small dorsal piliferous tubercles on the first and 
eighth abdominal segments; the other minute, much reduced. Anal legs long and slender. 

Gcoijrapliieal distrihntion. — The single species known is conlined to the Appalachian sub- 
province, but since it occurs at Frauconia, N. H., may be found in the Hudsonian fauna. 


Seirodonta bilineata (Packaril). 
(IM.VI. Fig.8<J.) 

Cecrila? bilineata Pack., Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., iii, p. 359, 1864. 

Seirodonia biliiieala Grote and Rob. (Inediti-il. Groto in letter.) 

Heterocampa titrbida Walk.. Cat. Lep. Het. Brit. Mns., xxxii, p. 419, 1865 {fide Grote and Rol).). 

NotodoHta {Gluphixiii ') uhni Harris, Knt. Corresp., p. 302, 18GSI. 

Edema? aaaocialn Walk.. Cat. Lep. Hct. Brit. Mils., xxxii. p. 426, 1865 (fide Grote and Kob. ). 

Seirodonta bilineata Groto, New Clieck List N. Amer. Moths, p. 19, 1882. 

Pack., Filth Kep. U. S. Ent. Connn. on Forest Insects, p. 2lit<. lf<9n. 

Smith, List Lep. Bor. Amer., p. 30, 1891. 

Kirby. .Syu. Cat. Lep. Het.. i. p. .509, 1892. 
Cecrila bilineata Xenni. and Dyar, Trans. Amer. Ent. 8oc., xxi. ]). 207, ,Iuue, 1894; .lonrn, N, Y. Ent. .Soc , ii, 
p. 117, Sept., 1894. 


(PI. XXIX, figs. 1, 1». PI. XXXV, n.iis. 1, l«-lc; 2, 3.) 

Harris. Ent. Corresp., p. 301 (PI. II. tigs. 2, 31, 1869. (Scarcely recognizable colored figures of larva.) 
French, Can. Ent., xviii, p. 49, March, 1886. (Mature larva described.) 

Packard, Fifth Rep. U. S. Ent. Comm. ou Forest Insects, p. 268. (Uncolored figure. PI. XXXII. tig. 4. Desc. 
ex Harris. 

3Ioth. — Two <? , two S . Body aud wings nuifbiinly mouse-colored. Tipper side of tlie palpi 
and end of the patagia dark. 

Fore wings crossed by two distinct, dark brown, scalloped lines edged with gray, the inner 
-situated on the basal third of the wing and tlio onter forming the usual extradiscal line, tlic two 
approaching each other on the submedian fold.' The inner line is bent inward near the internal 
edge of the wing on the internal vein (VI), then curved outward between this vein and the sub- 
costal vein. The outer line is bent outward on the internal vein and carved inward on the 
submedian fold, aud thence by a series of scallops ends, after making a great curve on the outer 
fourth of the costa. The space between the two lines is slightly darker than the rest of the wing. 
A linear black, not very distinct, discal mark. Toward the apex are four dark costal marks. 
A verj' faint sabmargiiial line. 

Hind wings aud abdomen a little paler tluiu the tliora.x and fore wings; a dusky patch near 
the internal angle. Underside of the wings uniformly mouse-colored and eoncolorous with the 
upper side of the hind wings. 

Expanse of wings, S 40 mm., 2 35-40 mm. ; length of body, S 15 mm., 9 15-17 mm. 

This plain, quakerish-in garb species maybe known by its uniform shining mouse tint and the 
two narrow distinct curved and scalloped dark lines which cross the fore wings, and by the pale 
mouse-colored hind wings. 

Young aud older itulividuals feeding on the elm were kindly sent me by Mr. Tallant, from Ohio, 
and were received July 10. A fully fed one (not mentioned, however, in the following description)' 
was found under an elm at Bath, Me., in August. 

Larva, Stage II. — "Head slightly bilobed, narrowed sibove, median suture deep; shining 
brownish black, the clypeus pale; width, 0.9 mm. Body with anal legs elevated, a little enlarged 
dorsally on abdominal scgiiuMits 1 and 8. Where the largo black tubercles of row i arc uniform 
light green a yellowish subdorsal line faintly seen; anal legs reddish. Two dorsal inirple brown 
patches (in this individual) on segments 2-5 and 10-12, respectively, incised or almost broken at the 
intersegmental furrows. Sette rather coarse, blackish, single from normal eoncolorous tubercles. 
Legs all i)ale. Length at end of stage about 9 mm. Calculated series of widths of head in 5 
stages: I, .02; II, .95; III, 1.44; IV. 2.18; V, .■}..■?." (Dyar MS.) 

Larva, Stage III {?). — Length, 10 mm. The head is much broader than the body, the front 
broail and flat, jialc yellowish green, with long darlc hairs, and on each side a curved black-brown 
line, not edged with white. The body is pale straw or lemon j'ellow, the sides below more greenish, 
•with red specks and short curved lines in front, there being very few behind the first abdominal 
segment. The dorsal briek-red stripe is arranged as follows: On the prothoracic segment are 

' This fold is the vestige of Vein V. 


two thread lines which converge a little to meet the broad single band on the second and third 
thoracic segments, and including the two concolorous tubercles, which arc dark at the tij), and are of 
the same size but farther apart tlian those on the eighth segment. On the first abdominal segment 
the red band breaks up into two subdorsal lines which pass into the blood-red, transverse, broad 
band on the third abdominal segment, which extends down each side of the segment. On the 
fourth and tifth segments are two parallel red lines, and on the sixth the broad single dorsal band 
passes down on each side, forming a lateral lobe not quite so large or so full and rounded as that 
on the third abdominal segment. This broad median, bloodred band contracts on the seventh and 
•eighth segments, where it ends. The anal legs have a reddish line on each side. A fine irregular 
lateral yellowish line passes along the lower end of the spiracles, and there are faint indications 
of an upper lateral parallel yellowish line, which are most marked in front. 

Piliferous warts: None on the first thoracic segment; two minute dorsal ones, all of the same 
size, on the second and third thoi'acic segments. Those on the first and eighth abdominal seg- 
ments are large and equal in size: those on the second and third abdcminal segments are a little 
larger than the others. The hairs on the dorsal warts are dark, those on the sides pale. 

Sfdf/e IV (?). — Length, 15 mm. About to molt. The head with its dark lateral lines as 
before; the tubercles as before, but those on the first abdominal segment are rather larger and 
■more prominent than those on the eighth segment. The two lateral lines on the second abdominal 
segment are much wider, so that the inclosed space is very narrow, and the broad transverse 
reddish band on the third abdominal segment is interrupted in the middle by a whitish green 
band which extends back more or less interruptedly to the seventh segment, on which it forms a 
broad, green, oblong spot, the greeii edged with white and inclosing a median line. The reddish 
band extends on each side of the ninth segment, and on the suranal plate is a lateral reddish, fine, 
broken line and a median whitish line. The anal legs are much as before. Two well-defined 
lateral yellow lines, while the body is more spotted along the whole length than before. The 
spiracles are pale reddish. The thoracic and abdominal legs are green. This larva is much like 
the drawings made by Bridghani (PL XXXV, fig. 3). It molted, after two days' rest, July 14; on 
July 20 it began to pupate when 25 mm. long. 

Last stage. — Length, 25 mm. Head pale greenisL, with a single dark purplish curved line on 
each side, not edged with white. Sides of the body greenish, speckled with reddish. (As the 
markings are not yet distinct, a further description could not be made.) 

Full-fed larva. — One occurred on the elm August 30, at Providence (Bridgham); length, 27 
mm. Head clear pale pea-green (not mottled with purplish), but the dark purple and white line 
is present on each side. No broad purplish discal band, the space inclosed by the white lines 
being whitish pale pea-green, and with a median white line beginning on the third thoracic segment. 
The dorsal and lateral piliferous warts are yellowish. The two subdorsal white lines extend out 
to the tip of the anal legs. 

A full-grown larva received from Miss Caroline G. Soule July 2-1, from Brookline, Mass., on 
the 26th of July began to form a cocoon on tlie bottom of the breeding box. Length, 30 mm. 
Head greenish, finely mottled and netted with purplish; a faint dark purple line broadly edged 
behind with white. Two white subdorsal lines, very distinct on the abdominal segments and 
inclosing a broad purplish dorsal baud, the two Hues finely and faintly edged with reddish i)urple, 
and contracting a little on the somewhat humped eighth abdominal segment. The retractile anal 
legs have on each side a reddish purple line. Tlie piliferous warts are all white, the hairs pale 
brown. A single yellowish spiracular line, most distinct on the thoracic segments. A second one 
not so distinctly marked aud wanting the white edging of the lines on the head. 

I have introduced these descriptions of Seirodonta hUineafa and very carefully compared the 
alcoholic larviB with those of Hetcyocampa maiifeo without as yet being able to detect any difi'erence 
between these, except that in some individuals there are but two segments red on the side, where, 
as in II. manteo, there are three segments thus marked, though the moths differ in generic and 
specific characters. 

On PI. XXXV ai'e represented the earlier larval stages of what I suppose to be this species 
rather than any of Heterocampa, as it fed on elm leaves. It will be seen that in the earlier stages 
•this genus is a Schizura rather than a Heterocampa, aud it is thus a connecting link between the 


two genera, and this justifies our placing it in a gonus apart from Heterocainpa, though its late 
larval and iniaginal characters are closelj similar to those of Ileterocanii)a. 

Cocoon. — Subterranean, or si)iiininf;- a slight cocoon when in confinement. "This is a silken 
affair, loosely constructed (judging from fragment in collection), and with earth and sand 
iucor))orated and foiming its inedomiuatiug constituents." (Kiley IMS.) 

Fupa. — Length, about 20 mm.; rather slender; reddish brown in color, sliining; punctuation 
fine and not dense; dorsal teeth at suture between meso- and metathorax 10 in number, not large, 
nearly twice as wide as long, central one largest. Tip of abdomen with two strong spurs as in 
S. ijwmca; bifurcate at tip, the inner branches approximating so as nearly to inclose a somewhat 
oval space. Spurs more or less tuberculate. 

"Described from two pupal shells evidently of undersized individuals." (Riley MS.) 

Food jAmits. — Elm (Harris, French, and myself), beech. 

Habits. — This insect was known by Dr. Harris to inhabit the elm as early as 1837. The 
catcr])illar is found from August until October. Professor French has also described the larva 
found on the elm. (Can. Ent., xviii, p. •lit.) The larva which Harris (Eut. Corresp., j). a02) found 
under a sycamore and reared on sycamore leaves is evidently the young of Hcterommpa unieolor. 
He found the caterpillar at Cambiidge, Mass., on the elm in Septendjcr and October, and observed 
it on fences August 28 and September !», showing that the larva had then left its tbod tree. I 
probal)ly was in error in stating in the footnote on page 2C8 of my report on l''orest Insects that 
the figures of Harris in PI. II "represent Lochiiuvus iiianteo,^' as the latter species is not known 
to feed upon the elm. 

Professor French's excellent description was based on thirteen individuals, all taken on a 
young elm tree at Carbondale, 111., September 20. " By October 5 all but one had disappeared 
for the purpose of pupation, going beneath the surface of the dirt in the breeding cage. Nine 
imagines were produced the following spring, the times of emergence ranging from May 24 to 
June 7. There seem to be two broods in a season, for larvte were found on elms during the early 
part of summer, but these were not reared to find out the period of the summer brood." 

Iiiley records the moths as occurring in Ai)ril, June, July, and August. 

Geoijraphicat distyihutioii. — Not yet known beyond the limits of the Appalachian subprovince. 
Franconia, N. H. (Mrs. Slosson); Orono, Me. (Mrs. Fernald); Bath, Me. (Packard); Portland, 
Me. (E. S. Morse, ,Mus. Comp. ZooL); Boston, Mass. (Harris): Amhi'rst, .Mass. (^Irs. Fernald); 
Platt,sburg, N. Y. (Hudson); Providence, II. I. (Packard); Cohunbus, Ohio (Tallaut); Maine, 
Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Carbondale and Champaign, 111. (French); New York, District 
of Columbia, Missouri, Arkansas, Texas (U. S. Nat. Mus.); Lawrence, Kans. (F. H. Snow, JIus. 
Comp. Zool.); Manhattan, Kans. (Popenoe); Chicago, 111. (Westcott); Fort Collins, Colo. (Baker);. 
Arkansas (Palm). 

Heterocanipa (Doiibleda.v). 

(PI. XLV, lig,s. 2-4; XLVI, figs. 1-.5; XLVIF, figs, l-.'i, venation; Pl.XLVIII, fig. (>, front of head; figs. 11, 12. ))alpi.). 
Lixlimnciis and Heterocanipa Donlileilay, Entomologist, p. 57, 1811. 
Mhuijada Walk., Cat. Lep. Ilet. Br. Mas., v, p. 992, 18!55. 

IJelerocampa (in part), Walk., Cat. Lop. Het. Br. Mus., v, pp. 1022-I02(i, 18.5.5. 
Ceciila Walk., Cat. Lep. Br. Mus., xxxii, p. 419, ISoS. 
Staiiropus ? Doubleday, Harris Corresp., p. 131, 18(19. 

LoihmiienH iiiid Ileterocampa Pack., Proc. Knt. Soc. Phil., iii, pp. 368,370, 1864. 
Lilodoiilu Harvey, Cau. Kut., viii, p. 5, .Ian., 1876. 

Grote, New Check List N. Amcr. Moths, |i. 19, 1882. 
Smith, List Lep. Bor. Amor., ]). 31, 1891. 
Kirliy, 8yn. Cat. Lep. Het.. i, p. .563. 1892. 
Heterocanipa Grote, New Check List N. Amer. Moths. ]>. 19, 1882. 
Smith, List Lep. Bor. Amer., p. 31, 1891. 
Kirl.y, 8yn. Cat. Lep. Hot., i, p. .563. 1892. 
Heterocanipa and Cecrita in part, Neum. and Hyar, Trans. Amer. Kut. Soc, xxi, i)p. 204, 206; Journ. N. Y. 
Knt. .Soc, ii, p. 117, Sept., 1894. 

Moth. — .5 and 9 . Head larger and more luominent tlian in any of the foregoing genera, but 
smaller than in Cerura; vertex triangular; front rather narrow, subtriangular, narrowing below. 
Eyes naked; on each side of the eyes a long broad fiat tuft, ami on the head a dense tuft of long 



scales. Eyes naked. Aiiteuu* well pectiuated ou the basal two-thirds, beyond flliform; the 
branches more or less ciliated; the Joints above not densely scaled. Falpi mnch larger and rather 
wider than usual, stout, ascending, reaching a little beyond the front; second joint longer than 
the first and rather longer than usual; the scales on the upper side short and dense, below much 
longer and uneven; third joint conical, often rather short, small, not always very distinct, being 
more or less concealed by the long loose hairs of the second joint. 

Maxilhe longer than usual and very well developed, forming several coils. Thorax not 
crested. Fore wings rather less than one-half as long as broad; costa nearly straight or slightly 
convex ; apex somewhat rounded or pointed or (in Itydromeli) squarish, (in unicolor abruptly bent), 
but usually somewhat i)roduced; outer edge long, oblique, convex (in unicolor sharply bent on 
first cubital venule, III,;). Hind wings shorter and more rounded at the apex than in any other 
genus of the family, outer edge shoi'ter, more regularly rounded than usual; costal and inner edge 
of uearly the same length. Wings not tufted. 

Fig. 80. 

-Venation of Iletrrocnnipa iihliqua; the iiame.s of tbe veins as designated on p. &6; d, 
anterior; (?', po.sterior discal vein; /, frenulum, sc, subcostal cell. 

Venation much as in Schizura, but quite variable; usually a long narrow subcostal cell, 
though it is sometiines open in iudividnals of the same species; the third subcostal venule is very 
short, and the cell between it and the fourth is minute; in the superha and hydrovieli group the 
subcostal venules tend to be bent up at their end toward the costa, and so in ustartc and biundata, 
but usually they are diverted more toward the apex, and then more parallel with the costa; the 
discal venules vary in length and direction; the anterior one is usually short and diverted 
obliquely inward to where it meets the sixth venule; the hinder discal venule either forms a 
regular curvilinear line, or is broken into two portions forming an angle with the apex, pointing 
inward, from which the median discal fold passes to the base of the wing ; the first cubital veiu 
(III;,) usually more or less detached at its origin from the second and at the bend throwing off the 
hinder discal venule ((/'). 

Hind wings with the venation quite uniform, the first and second subcostal venules separating 
a short distance beyond the origin of the anterior discal venule, the first being a little shorter than 
the second branch (in maiitco the second originates hallway between the first and the independeut) ; 


discal venules either situated nearer tlie base of the wings than usual, either forming a quite regular 
curvilinear line (siihrotutd and <iiit(!vitfa), or the hinder venule is decidedly bent inward (lii/dromeli 
and Kniroloi-) or regularly curved inward (hiumhitn). 

Legs rather stout, with thick, long tufts of scales; fore tibite with flat spreading tuft; hind 
tibia' with two pairs of large, nearly ccjual, long, sharp spurs. Abdomen long, cylindrical, not 
tufted at the end, nor densely woolly, as in Cerura. 

Coloration : The species are quite variable, but more or less dull gray, with indistinct scalloped 
transverse lines and an obscure linear or a twin discal spot; hind wings gray, with a faint interrupted 
ditfuse outer line, or whitish; in the tmbrotata group the fore wings are pale ash, with tawny 
blotches at the base, and ditt'used over the wing, while the dark markings are more distinct. 

The genus is characterized by the unusually short hind wings, with their well-rounded apexj 
the front of the head is rather narrow, the palpi stout and usually broad; the thorax very hairy 
beneath. The species are nearer those of kScliizura than any other gcnns of the family, showing 
no near relationship to Cerura in adult characters, except the width of the head on the vertex. 
The limits of the genus are doubtful, and some authors may in the future decide to divide it into 
several, pei'haps retaining Lochina'us and Cecrita as genera. I have been inclined to do this both 
from the venation and the larval characters, but when we take into consideration the unusual 
amount of individual variation in the venation such a course seems hazardous. If any division 
were to be made it must be to retain Lochmwus for a single species, mantco. 

The genus may be divided into five subgenera, which are, however, more or less artificial, and 
appear to be perhaps incipient subgenera the I'esult of the specialization of the type in different 

Subgenus 1, Foro wingu long, apex squarish; hiud wiags well rouudeil; iu the hiud wings the second 
subcostal venule arising huK way between the subcostal and independent H, (Lochmaua) manteo 

Subgenus 2. Fore wings rather long, apex pointed; hind wings rounded, short; palpi not very thick and 
stout; fore wings gray, with olive-green or reddish tints, and obscure scalloped inner and outer lines; 
discal mark diftuse and indistinct; discal venules in both wings forming a regularly curved line. 

II. (Cecrita) iimbrala, ohliqiia, astarte, guttiiillu, biundala, and phimosa 

Subgenus 3. AntenuiC with longer pectinations than iu the other species: fore wings short, broad and S([\iare 
at the apex (subrotata and hiiilromcU); venation variable, the discal venules together forming an oblique 
curve. Kiibrotala 

Subgenus 4. Discal venules forming a rather sharp angle directed inward, aud situated between the inde- 
pendent venule and the first cubital venule. Female antenna- nearly as well pectinated as in the male. 

II. (Lilodonln) hi/dromeli 

Subgenus 5. Fore wmga moderately long, with the outer edge bent, the fore wings very uniform iu color, 
and without distinct markings of any kind; venation nearly identical with that of astarte and obliqua. 

H, unicolor 

The generic characters of TAtodonta given by Harvey were these: "It differs by the antennae 
being pectinate in both sexes. 'The thorax is more brushily tufted behind ; the head more appressed ; 
the abdomen shorter." It seems to us that these characters are not of generic value, as //. tiuhroiuta 
is very near II. hydromeli, but others may prefer to retain the genus as distinct, at least until 
something is known of the larval history. 

Larva. — Body usually thickened in the middle; head with a red lateral band edged with white 
or with white and yellow, with equal red lines, the space between clear green, or tilled in on first, 
third, aud sixth abdominal .segments with red, which in some species extends down on the side; 
amil legs either nornud or long and slender. In Stage I larva either normal, unarmed, or with 
from one to nine pairs of deer-like antlers; anal legs with normal or (H. unicolor) with long, 
slender, eversible ends. 

Cocoon. — Regular oval, translucent, like very thin parchment in color and structure: spun 
between leaves. 

I'ujya. — Body usually thick and plump; front of head with two parallel, slightly marked ridges 
between the eyes; cremaster armed with two stout, large, conical spines, differing much in shape 
iu the different species. 

Geographical distribution. — The genus is confined to the New World and the species range from 
Nova Scotia and Maine to Mexico, Central America, Surinam, and Brazil. At present more species 


are known to inhabit the Appalachian aud Austroriparian subproviuces than any other region, 
and none have yet occurred on the Pacific Coast above Mexico. The genus is possibly of South 
American origin. I have also in my collection a species structurally aud in style of coloration 
quite near 11. hutudata collected on or near the coast of Brazil by the late Prof. C. F. Uartt. 


1. (Subgenus Loclimrviia.) Fore wings long; disoal S(iiiarisb blaek mark inclosed in whitish gray. 

Fore wings pale ash, crowned by four distinct scalloped lines H. manteo 

2. (Subgenus Cecrila.) Fore wings rather short, especially in ^ ; apex squ.arish; discal mark diffuse, indis- 

tinct, gray, with olive green tint, and obscure scalloped inner and outer lines. 
Palpi short, partly black ; fore wiugs ash-gray, often without a greenish lint ; transverse lines indistinct, 

discal mark usually inclosed in a large, diffuse lun.ite pale ashen patch H. guttivitta 

Palpi larger, blacker; body and fore wings more uniformly and persistently olive-green than in guttirilla, 

scalloped lines more distinct; no whitish ash discal ])atch; body and wings sometimes reddish 

instead of greenish H. biiiiidala 

Anteuu:e plumose; outer edge and fore wings oblique; brown-gray, markings much as in hiuiuhita ; 

submargiual series of sulilunate brown spots much as in biiiudnta H. Utiiata 

3. (Subgenus Hvtcrueampa.) Antennie with long pectinations; discal mark curvilinear, black; wiugs 

greenish or brown, with distinct black stripes and lines. 

a. Fore wings produced toward .apex, outer edge very ol)li([ue. 

Body and wings brown, the latter with black marks and reddish brown patches; a large oblique 
subapical white shade H. oblitjna 

Body aud wings green; inner line on fore wings less curved than in obllqua : nuirginal black lines 
more deeply scalloped; a thoracic crest H. astarto 

Without the subapical white shade; a heavy, broken, scalloped submargiual line; hind wings with 
a whitish line H. 2>u Iverea 

Submargiual shade .as in pidverea, but more dislocated H. belfragei 

b. Fore wings short aud square. 

Body aud fore wings either uniformly ocherous or brown, with a l>road, white, sabapical shade, and 
abroad, curved, dark shade behind the distinct discal mark H. subrotata 

4. (Subgenus Lilodontu.) Antenua> of 9 heavily pectinated. 

A thoracic crest ; thorax and fore wings marked with sea-green H. hydromeU 

5. (Subgenus Slemalocanqia (new).) Outer edge of wing oblique; no definite markings; of a pale ash or- 

reddish brown hue. 
Two faintly marked scalloped lines on fore wings „ ff, unicolor- 


A. Larva? with normal anal legs and young larvic with normal piliferous warts. 

A broad reddish band, extending from the side of first, thiril, and sixth abdominal segments.. H. manteo- 

B. Young larv;K armed with horns; anal legs longer iu full-fed larv;e. 

Freshly hatched larva with niue pairs of horns; prothoracic pa-r of horns represented by tubercles in 
stages II-IV; spots on the side of first, third, and sixth abdominal segments either absent or small. 

M. guUUHla 

Young larva (Stage I) with a single pair of horns, persisting as tubercles through Stage IV. A large 
oblique russet spot on side of first, third, and sixth abdominal segments H. biiindata 

Full-grown larva with two prothoracic dorsal tubercles E. piih-crea 

Body of full-fed larva thickened in the middle; two dorsal red linos diverging on the first and widest 
apart on second abdominal segment, then converging only slightly toward the fourth and fifth, 
diverging very slightly again on sixth and seventh ; in Stage I with six pairs of horns. . . M. ohViqua,- 

C. Body with long black anal filaments iu Stage I ; in last stage reduced to nearly normal length. 

Body green; a dorsal broad yellow aud red band; no lateral lines H. viiicoJoK 


Heterocampa maateo (Douljknlai,). 
(PI. V, lig. 1 g; VII. tiK. I'l <?.) 

Lochmivm manteo Doiibleday, Entomologist, p. 58, Jau., 1841. 

Harris, liut. Coiiesp., p. 131, 186H. 
JJelerocampn manlio Walk., Cat. Lep. Het. lirit. Mus., v, p. 1024, 1855. 

Tadaiia cinerasrens Walker, Cat., l.ep. llet. lir. Mus., v, p. il!)l, 18.55. (Fide Grote and Roh.). 
Hiteroviimpa manteo Morris, Synopsis Lcp. N. Aiiier., p. 240, 18G2. 

Heterocampa auhalbicans Grote, I'roc. Ent. Soc. Pliil., iii, p. 336, Dec 1863, pi. 8, tig. 2 (a jjood figure); New 
Check List X. Amor. Moths, p. 19, 1882. 
Packard, Fifth Rep. V. S. Kiit. Conim.. p. 158, 1890. 
Smith, List Lep. Bor. Amer., ]). 31, 18'J1. 
Kirliy, Syn. Cat. Lep. Ilet. Br., i, p. 564, 1892. 
Heterocampa manteo Neum. and Dyar, Trans. Anier. Eut. Soc, xxi, p. 20G, 1894; Jouru. K. Y. Enf. Soc, li, 
p. 117, Sept., 1894. 

(PI. XXIX, ligs. 2-10.) 

Doubledai/, Entomologist, p. 58, Jan., 1841. (I'ncolored tigure of mature larva, plate facing ]>. 60, fig. fi; 

pupa, fig. 7.) 
Comstock (J. H.), Rep. U. S. Dept. Agr. for IXSd, pp. 259, 260, 1881. 
nihil, V\H\x Rep. U. S. Ent. Comm., pp. 158, 159, 1890. 
Packard, Fifth Rep. U. S. Ent. Comm., p. 1.58, 1890. 

Proc Host. Soc. Nat. Hist., xxiv, pp. 545-548, 1890. 

Moth. — Three $ , two 9 (and others seen). Uniformly pale ash-j^ra.V, with three wavy diffuse 
darker liue.s cros.sing the fore wings, and a large, heavy, black discal mark, becoming in rubbed 
specimens two twin black dots inclosed in a pale ash spot. (Two very fresh and distinctly 
marked S from the United States National Museum u.sed in this description.) Male autenuiB 
moderately well pectinated, but less so than in most of the s])ecics. Head and thorax light 
ash-gray; thorax behind over the mesoscutum darker. Fore wings ash-gray, varying from pale, 
almost, a.sli to a dtirkish ash, and crossed by four usually distinct, deeply scalloped, dark 
lines, the scallops more or less tilled in with pale gray. At the very base of the wings a short line 
composed of cue scallop, which is deflected on the cubital vein and passing out along the 
internal vein becomes confluent with the second line. Tliis second line is double, consisting of 
two i)arallel, four-scalloped, dark lines, which pass straight across tlie wing, ending the same 
distance from the base both on the costa and internal edge. A large, very conspicuous, 
transversely oblong, black discal si)ot, which in old rubbed specimens usually appears as two 
thin l)lack dots inclosed in a jiale area, and which is diagnostic of the species. Extradiscal line 
double, composed of about ten scallops; where it ends on the costa dislocated and set in from the 
subcostal portion. A little more than halfway from this to the edge of the wing is a dark, 
sharply zigzag, diffuse line. A marginal row of about seven distinct black dots. 

Hind wings dark mouse colored, with a faint, diffuse, whitish line, and a dusky patch on the 
internal edge. 

Underside of the fore wings like the ui)per side of the hind wings, with the costal edge on 
the outer third i)ale, with four dark spots. Hind wings .sordid whitish; outer edge dusky, like 
tlie fore wings. Fringe pale gray, with the venular spots alternating with the more distinct 
marginal dots. 

Hind legs very hairy, with two i)airs of tibial spurs nearly equal in size. of wings, c5 40-4.") mm., 9 43 mm.; length of body, S L'1-23 mm., 9 20 mm. 

This is the most common species of the genus, being sometimes abundant enough to be 
actually destructive to oaks in tlie Bouthern States. The speckles differs from the others of the 
genus in the large, black, wide discal spot, in rubbed specimens represented by two black dots in 
a pale field, in tlie uniformly pale ash color of tlie fore wings, and the four distinct, deeply and 
numerously scalloi)ed lines. 

Ef/f/. — "About 0.8 mm. in diameter, hemispherical, shining; under high power, irregularly 
hexagonally sculptured, the sculptures consisting of raised lines. Color of dried specimen a dull 
pink." (UileyMS.) 


From the inspection of the figure by Donbleday (probably copied from Abbot's colored 
•drawiii.i;) of the larva of Lochnueiis manteo Doubleday, I feel sure that Heterocampa sitbalbicans 
Grotc is a syiiouyin. Indeed, it has been referred with a doubt by Mr. Grote to his species. 
I am indebted to Professor Kiley for an opportiuiity of examining and describing a series in 
alcohol of the larviB in all the five stages (Xo. 2759 from box 12, 155), and have myself collected 
the caterpillar in its last two stages, while Professor Eiley has given me a blown specimen and 
the opportunity of examining his own series. 

Larva^ Stage /.—Length, 4-0 mm. The head is very large, nearly twice as wide as the body, 
and flattened in front, the outline seen from in front being somewhat six-sided. There are six to 
seven minute piliferous warts, the black setne arising from them being unusually large and stiff, and 
tapering at the end; around tlie base of the warts are brown discolorations, and the row of warts 
on each side of the median line, together with the outer row, are connected by an irregular, faint, 
browuisli baud. 

The body narrows in width to the end. The dorsal and lateral tubercles are well developed, 
the dorsal ones being quite high, but on the whole rather small and all of the same shape; those 
on the prothoracic and first abdominal segments arc of about tlie same size, and only a little larger 
than those on the second and third segments; the two dorsal ones on the eighth abdominal 
segment are of the same size as those on the lirst abdominal segment, but are nearer together and 
with somewhat larger bases. The ninth and tenth segments are rather long, with well developed 
tubercles. The supra-anal plate is well developed, being rounded, not so long as broad, bearing 
on the edge eight hairs, of which the two posterior ones are bristle-like and black; near the middle 
of the plate are two black dorsal bristles. The paranal lobes are large and full, each bearing an 
■excrementiferal bristle. The anal legs are long and slender, being as long as the ninth segment, 
and are slightly retractile. The four anterior pairs of abdominal legs bear on the planta- from 
sixteen to eighteen crochets. The setie arising from the dorsal and lateral tubercles are long and 
■large, and though apparently tubular, taper, some to a point, while others are slightly docked, 
but they do not, as usual, end in a broad clear tip. But along the extreme lower side of the first 
aiid second and seventh and eighth al>dominal segments is a series of singular battledoor-like 
•setfe, a pair to each of the segments named, and arising from the lowest tubercle on the side of the 

These battledoor hairs, which are modified secretory setip, are very short, only from one-third 
to one-half as long as the other seta-, and have a slender ])edicel enlarging into an elongate 
bulbous expansion, the surface of which is striated or wrinkled longitudinally, while the tip 
appears under a half inch objective to be clear. There is also a pair of remarkable foliaceous 
oval appendages at the end of tlie thoracic legs, which we have not seen in the few other larva 
whose feet we have specially examined. These are described and figured in our paper on the 
" External structure of caterpillars." ' 

The colors, being well preserved in the alcoholic specimens examined, may be described in 
the absence of the living. The head is amber, mixed with resinous. The body is whitish above; 
the tubercles and their bases pale straw-yellow, as are the anal region and anal legs; the setaj 
are brownish, and there are pinkish stains at the base of the prothoracic and first and eighth 
abdominal dorsal tubercles. Hence it seems that in the first stage of this species the mode of 
coloration of the final stage (V) is already indicated. 

Second stage.— Lengtlh 10-11 mm. The head is now proportionately smaller than before, the 
dark spots more exaggerated, and the twin dorsal tubercles on the prothoracic and first and eighth 
abdominal segments, while not much larger than the others, are mucli darker reddish brown, with 
piidv stains around their bases, and thus contrast with the others, which are yellow. The two 
double dorsal pink lines, connecting the prothoracic and first abdominal tubercles, also the four 
short lines in front of and behind the tubercles on the eighth segment, are now distinct: also the 
subdorsal, white, lateral band on the outer side of the dorsal tubercles, while the subspiracular, 
narrow, pale yellow line is distin(;t. The stigmata on the eighth abdominal segment is twice as 
large as the others. The hairs are veiy long, black, and tapering. I can not see any battledoor 
■setic in this stage. The anal legs are provided with crochets. 

I Proceedinga Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 1800. 
S. Mis. .50 15 


Third stuf/e. — Lciistti, lU-l-"> mni. Tlic cliariU'ters of the (inal stage now appear. The head 
bas changed its shape and style of iuarkin};;s to tliat of tlic last stag;e; it is flatter in front, with 
a lateral brown line edged with white, while the large, conspicnous, dark spots Inive disa])i)eared, 
and the color of the head is dull opa(|iieaniber. The four red, parallel, dorsal lines on the second 
and third thoracic and seventh and eightii abdominal segments are now distinct. All the dorsal 
tubercles except those on the prothoracic and lirst and eighth abdominal segments have much 
diminished in size, while the others have remained stationaiy. 

Fonrtli stdijc. — Length, IS mm. The i)iliferous waits in general are smaller than in Stage III, 
and those on tlie protiioracic and lirst and ciglitli abdominal segments are smaller tlian lieiore. 
The eighth abdominal segment is slightly humped, and the anal legs are normal, though about 
one-half as thick as those in front. Tiie body is green, with a broad subdorsal and two nanow 
lateral yellow lines, as in the last stage, the lower being tlie infraspiracular line. The sides of the 
three thoracic segments are dotted with reddish pink, and there is a reddish streak on the outside 
of the anal legs. The subdorsal yellow lines diverge on the prothoracic segment, and along the 
next two segments suiH-ceding are edged within with piidc red lines. Behind the two dorsal 
tubercles ou the lirst abdominal segment they are much farther ai)art, extending to the sujjraanal 
l)late, and are whitish yellow, narrowly bordered with deep, straw-yellow, and inclose a narrow, 
yellow dorsal line. (This line in the next stage extends to the i)rothoracic segment.) 

Fifth and lant stuije. — Length, 3(t-.'$li mm. It differs in the dorsal jiiliferons warts on the lirst 
thoracic and first and eighth abdominal .segments being smaller than in the fourth stage, being 
now no larger than those on the other segments, and the hump on the eighth seguuMit has almost 
disappeared. There is, as in the fourth stage, a conspicnous red dash on each side of the third 
abdominal segment, and the other lines are as described in the fourth stage. 


1. Head large, with dark spots aiul connected lines in Stages I and IT. 

2. The si)()ts disapi)ear, and the peculiar lateral dark line edged with white characteristic of 
the final stage apjiears in Stage III. 

3. The piliferous tubercles on first thoracic and first and eighth abdominal segments attain 
their maximum in Stage II; the tendency after this stage is to return to a simple, smooth body, 
without excessive ornamentation or any decided change in coloration. 

4. In Stag<' irr all the other tubercles diminish in size. 

.j. The style of coloration of Stage V is indicated in Stage II. 

C. In Stage IV the tubercles almost reach their minimum, beconung still smaller in the final 

7. The few tenant hairs present in the first stage are battledoor-shaped. 

It is interesting to notice, in reviewing the larval history of this species, the strong tendency 
shown after the second stage to a diminution in size of the tubercles, so that by the fourth stage 
the body becomes smooth and free from all projections, humps, and spines, and thus more 
uoctuiform. At the same time the yellow and whitish stripes and i)ink blotches beconu^ indicated 
at an earlier stage than usual, as if the aim were to adaiit the caterpillar to the ribs and parallel 
greenish and yellowish lines or shades of the leaf on which it feeds. 

This is ]»eriiaps, as regarils the other species, liie most generalized and simple form in its 
early larval stages, there being no horns and the dorsal warts of nearly uniform size. 

In the group comjjrising II. hiundata, (lutticitta, and obliqua there is a singular degree of hyper- 
tro|)hy and s])ecialization of the dorsal tubercles, while in the group represented by //. »;//(•«/(>;• 
the process of hypertnjphy and specialiicatiou takes another direction, i. e., the anal legs, the lar\a' 
becoming ceruraform. 

RI':m,vuk;s. — PI. XXIX, (igs. 2, 2n re])reseut what may prove to bo the young larva of this sjn'- 
cies. It was found l)y Mr. iiridgliam on tlie walnul at Prcjvideiicie, U. 1., July ."». I have no notes 
on it. The following deseri[)tioiis have been drawn up from Comstock's specimens, the types of his 
description in his report as United States I<jnto;no]i)gist for ISSO. His Xo. L'l!>. " Notodonta on 
oak, September 23, IST'J,'' is eixual to var. v. of his description. I am indebted to Professor liilcy 


for an opportunity of examining the specimens when they were in the collection of the United 
States Entomologist, Department of Agriculture, Washington. 

Stage II f — Length, 6 mm., probably not long before molting, as the head is as wide as the 
body; it is rounded, of abnormal shape, not squarish on the sides. The piliferous warts on the 
head are minute, but bearing long bristles, and connected by broad, dark brown bands. Forming 
a rude Greek cross on each side of the vertex and on the side below are three dark spots, two on 
the back side and one near the clypeus; the sides of the latter dark, forming a V. 

On the body the piliferous warts are rather large and high, especially the dorsal ones. The 
dorsal prothoracic tubercles are conical, rounded, twice as large as those on the second and third 
thoracic segments, and deep reddish around the base. The two dorsal warts on the first 
abdominal segment are as large or slightly larger than those on the first thoracic segment, and 
somewhat forked at the tip, which is dark, giving rise to two bristles. The eighth abdominal 
segment is gibbous on the back, bearing the dark red tubercles, which are slightly larger than 
those on the prothoracic segment, and which are simple, not forked, and reddish above the base. 
The suranal plate is rounded, bearing a few high slender conical setiferous warts. The anal legs 
are long and slender, reddish, extending well beyond the suranal i^lale. The body is green, with 
yellow markings, with two interrupted broad yellovr bands, which are in fact broken into a series 
of irregular spots. From the first thoracic segment two parallel, nearly contiguous, red dorsal 
lines extend to the dorsal tubercles on the first abdominal segment, and inclosing a fine broken 
yellowish line. A similar pair of red lines, but broader and more diffuse, ou the last third of the 
body. The setie are glandular, slightly enlarged at the tips. (The specimen, alcoholic, is not 
well preserved.) 

Stage HI. — Length, 10 mm. The head is rather large, broader than the body, while the sides- 
are now somewhat squarish. The origin of the lateral dark and white line is now seen to be thus: 
The front is rather broad and flattened; on each side is a slightly curved row of about five dark 
piliferous warts, which are connected by an irregular dark band, which begins on each side of the 
vertex and curves around to the sides of the labrum. This line is broadly bordered by a whitish 
band, and outside of this are three black blotches. The sutures of the apex of the clypeus are 
broadly stained with black-brown, forming a V, as in the second stage. Piliferous tubercle* 
as in Stage II, but now the bristles taper to a point, though large and coarse, and the bases of 
those of the first thoracic and first abdominal tubercles are reddish, those of the others yellowish. 
The twin dorsal reddish lines are more distinct, and now there are two distinct, broad, subdorsal 
■white bands, containing on the inner side the dorsal tubercles, whose bases are yellowish. A 
spiracular, narrow, straw-yellow line, passing just above the spiracles and partly inclosing them. 
The anal legs are reddish, but no reddish spots or dots yet appear on the sides of the body, as 
they do in the next stage. Ou the third abdominal segment, is a large, dark, setiferous tubercle, 
■which is reddish at base; it is one-half the size of that on the first segment. 

The following description is drawn up from Comstock's type (No. 4455, " From eggs on oak, 
D. C, June 24, 1889"), var. 6. One or two were in tlie fourth stage and the others fully grown. 
Length, 32-34 mm. They (the full-grown ones) have the dorsal region between the subdorsal lines 
deep, continuous carmine or dull blood-red. The six thoracic piliferous warts are yellow, the 
dorsal lines white, the subdorsal one white, more or less tinged with straw-yellow, two well- 
marked lateral yellow lines, the supraspiracular being narrower than the lower ones. Below the 
lower line the sides of the body are more continuously blotched with carmine-red than usual. 
The lateral lines on the head are as usual black, edged externally with white. The base of the 
mandibles and of the anteunaj arc tinged with yellow. The bristles are as usual long and stiff. 

In two full-grown H. manteo, 35 mm. long, Department of Agriculture, "No. 359, 0." (pi. 
XXIX, figs. 3, 3a), kindly lent by Dr. Eiley, the coloratioual characters often, though not always, 
Been in Stage IV are retained, the red filling up the space between the subdorsal lines, passing far 
down in great lobes on the sides of the abdominal segments 1, 3, and 6, those on segments 3 and 
6 being the largest, and partly inclosing the spiracles. T je tubercles are small and normal, i. e,, 
as in the mature larvre generally. 

In one larva, 359&. 45 mm. long, the space between the two subdorsal lines is filled in solidly 
with deep, dull blood-red, only interrupted by the dorsal yellow line, while the two lateral yellow 
lines are distinct. 


11. muntto var. — ("On bircli, Virginia, September 14, 1882," Department of Agriculture.) 
Two blown specimens, full-grown larvjt. (PI. XXIX, figs. 5, 5a.) Length, 30 mm. The lieadis 
moderate in .size, shaped as in that of normal mntiteo, with a lateral, narrow, brown line, bordered 
externally with white. The head is rather freer from bristles, and is ])aler than in normal manfio; 
in fact the whole body is paler, like the underside of a birch leaf, compared with the other blown 
specimens. In one of the examples there is a fine, narrow, reddish V-shaped mark, the arms of 
the V being situated outside of the elypeus. 

On the protlioracic segment are two tlattened, yellowish, piliferous warts, connected by a 
slight low ridge. There are four dorsal suniller couical piliferous warts on the second and third 
thoracic segments. (These are just as in II. manico.) On the first abdominal segment are two 
cylindrical, conical, coral-i'ed dorsal tubercles, arising from smaller bases, and are (in one example) 
deep blood-red, forming an oval spot, situated mostly on the outside of the tubercles. These tuber- 
cles are of the size of those in Stage I Y of normal manteo, and the conical nipples are themselves 
larger than in some of the fourth stage of normal manteo, bu ':. of the same size as in the others; in fact, 
these tubercles vary nunh in size in different individuals of normal iiitinteo of Stage IV, which shows 
that they are comparatively suddenly produced or are a lately acquired character, and are thus 
inconstant. The third abdominal segment is much as in normal mnidco. Stage IV, but in one of the 
sjiecimens is a large, deep blood-red, irregular, oval, subdorsal spot of the length of the segment 
itself, and iu the subdorsal line on the sixth abdominal segment is a much smaller blood-red spot. 
The eighth segment is dorsally decidedly gibbous, and l)ears two distinct, but small, yellow, 
piliferous, flattened dorsal warts. The dorsal yellowish and the two subdorsal yellowish white lines 
are of the same width and arrangement as iu normal wifjwfco, but tho red inner border is nearly 

What at once strikes the eye are the three pairs of unetinal, deep blood-red, subdorsal spots, 
which are partly inclosed by the subdorsal lines. On the sides of the body are thickly scattered 
red spots, running sometimes into very short curved lines. 

There is a spiracular yellow line extending from next to the head to the second abdominal 
segment, beyond which it is obsolete. The abdominal feet are tipped with reddisli; the anal legs 
with two parallel reddish stripes beneath, while the lateral piliferous warts are yellow. 

It varies much in the three pairs of subdorsal, abdominal, dark blood-red spots, as they are 
entirely wanting in one of the specimens. It is plainly derived fiom nornnvl manteo, and is adapted 
for existence on the pale yellowish green underside of the birch leaf, while the deep blood-red spots 
are similar in color to those of the birch twigs or leafstalks. 

A larva near L. manteo, if not of that species. — Three blown specimens, "No. 3."i(l, on linden, 
October 17, 1874,"' were loaned me by Professor Riley. (PI. XXIX, figs. 4, 4<(.) 

I can not see any difference between these specimens and If. manteo. Length, 34 mm. The 
head is dec]) amber, with a broad, black, lateral band bordered externally with a rather narrow 
whitish band. The dorsal tubercles are as in Jl. manteo of the last stage. Those on the first 
abdominal segment are small, low, flattened and red around the base. The eighth segment is 
gibbous, with the i)iliferous warts snuiU, normal, and yellow. The j'ellow dorsal line is distinct, 
and the subdorsal lines are, as in H. manteo, broad and white, tinged with yellowish on the u])per 
edge, and broadly but very irregularly bordered with reddish inside, this edging broken up into 
red scattered s])ots. The spiracular line is yellow, situated just below the spiracles, which, as 
usual in this genus, are partly merged in the upi)er edge of the line. 

Cocoon. — In confinement s])inniiig " a very slight, elastic, silki^i cocoon," sojue "a tough silken 
cocoon, others one made only of a few threads, while .5onie had no cocoon at all, but had made a 
smooth cavity in the earth" (Riley). According to Comstock's infornnint, in nature the mature 
catei-pillar entered the ground, where they laid most of the winter before transforming. 

I'npa. — i (head wanting). Length, IS mm. End of body less blunt than in Schizura. 
Last four segments smooth, i)olished; cremaster ending in two st(mt foot-like spines, the toe very 
long ami ]ioint(Hl, the heel ])ronoun(!ed; the surface transversely dcnisely cnrrngated; vestiges of 
anal legs swolhMi and quite distinct; two $ sexual openings, the hinder one being the smaller of 
the two. (Drawn up from Riley's No. 249.) 


Pvpn. — "Leiifith, 10-22 niiii. Body only moderately robust; shiiiiug, dark reddish brown; 
dorsal teeth at posterior niargiu of inesotliorax, 12 iu mmiber, gradually decreasing in size from 
the renter laterally, nearly rectangular, and without central indenture; two spines at tip of body 
rather long and narrow, somewhat roughened, and each with an inner subapical tooth or branch, 
iu this respect somewhat similar to the pup;e of Scliizura. The slender outer branch is irregular 
in length and direction, which, however, is generallj' outward." 
(EileyMS.) y ^^^'^"^"^"'^^^ 

Habits. — During liS8b a great amount of damage was done to * \^-.-.-.:::.v.^-h^'> ^v / 
the foliage of oak forests in at least two counties of Arkansas by \ ^ .^^^^ y 

this worm, which appeared in immense numbers in January. The \/^ ^\, /9 

following extract is taken from Professor Conistock's account iu , \. ./^IauN r 

his report as United States Entomologist (Agricultural Report, \ v_L^^^/ 

1880): ^^"^^ '° 

There are jirobably two broods ol' tlie vniiable lutcrjiillar in the course Fig. 80.— I'upaut 'if. viiaiido. 

of the season, although but one, the fall brood, seems to have been noticed. 

The moths appear iu the latter part of April or in early May, and between that time and late September, when the 
principal damage is done by the worms, there is abundant time for two broods of caterpillars. 

In the District of Columbia for the last two years these larva', have been noticed very abuudantl.y upon oak, 
hawthorn, and basswood, and doubtless feed upon other plants. In late September they had reached their full 
si/.e and entered the ground, where, as we gather from Jlrs. Thomas's letter, they lie most of the winter before 

Professor Eiley has sent us the following notes on its habits and food plants, which ai)peare(l 
iu our report on Forest Insects: 

Two larv;e of a ^'otodonta were found feeding on oak and persimmon, in Virginia, Juue IS, 1881'. Another one 
was tbund Juno 20, also iu Virginia, feeding on walnut; and two more July 19, feeding on oak. fit also feeds on the 
white, post, and laurel oak, and linden.) One of the first found larva' spun up between leaves .July 19, and another 
one pupated on the surface of the ground .Inly 21. The first moth ia.sued August 5 and the other one August 12. 

Larva' of a second brood were again found August 30, feeding on apple aud black' birch, and another full-grown 
one September 3, feeding on persimmon. 

Octooer 14, 1870: S. S. Rathvon describes it as injurious to the linden trees, stri]iping them and going from one 
tree to another m the village of Lititz. near Lancaster, I'a. They went into the ground about the 1st of September. 
The specimen he sent had fifteen large Tachina-fiy eggs attached transversely across the end aud third joints. The 
white margin to the iilaek stripe was missing, and the dark purple dorsal band extends to stigmata on joints (i and 
9 and to subdorsum on 4 and 11 (box 3, No. 29), also a variety in box 3, No. 53. 

October 17, 1870: Bolter found 2 under oak leaves, both of them like that I found on oak October 2, 1870. 

.\pril 30, 1871 : One has issued from an exotic oak iu Shaw's (Jardeiis [St. Louis, Mo.]. The markings are much 
more difi'used, with a large whitish discal spot on primaries. That marked \')^ from burr oak — Mnhleman, i.ssued 
May 25, 1871. It is a varietj' and perfectly decejitive, like 2^. unicurtiis, taking the same tubular position. 

Very abundant iu 1873. October 12, leaves falling, obtained many from post oak. Three most persistent forms 
blown, a (4 in cage 12), 6 (11 in cage 11), c (1 in cage 10). 

July 6, 1874: The imagines have been issuing very irregularly. To-day I sieved the cages, and especially 17, 
in which there were a number of all three forms. They now are all alike, and the head is the only characteristic 
part. All the color is gone from the body, which is now of a uniform paris green, more or less mottled with a pale 
and dark shade, the vascular line dark aud broken. Many of these are now crawling about quite actively, while 
others are in the pupa state and others issuing. They were all in a very slight elastic silken cocoon. 

September 20, 1874: A number of nil sizes on oak, sejiai-ated into three lots — a. in cage 12; b, m cage 10; r, in 
cage 5. They are very varialjle, and there are specimens iiiternuMliate between these three forms. Some have the 
colors very bright aud distinct, and others less so. A. lot found on linden, but afterwards feeding well on oak, are 
all of the light form a in cage 13. 

November 21, 1874: Iu sieving the cages containing tVums a, Ii, and c, they were found still in the larval state, 
some having made a tougli silken cocoon, others made one only of a few threads, while some had no cocoons at all, 
but had made a smooth cavity iu the earth. In cage 5 were found two large Tachiuii larv.Tj, certainly from form c, 
one of which is preserved in box 7-40. AjJiil 10, 1875, one Tachina fly issued, marked 359 '. One moth issued April 
IG, 1875, the larva of which was found on linden, but fed also on oak in cage 13, where there are many more in the 
ground. Braconid parasite bred October, 1874. October 26, 1875: Nine from oak, all near form b. 

" Egf/s in August, Larva' in April, .lune. .Tuly, September, and October (winter as larva', transforming sometimes 
as late as July). Adults in April, May, June. July, .\ugust.'' (Riley MS.) 

Food pUmis. — Diil'ereut species of oak, including the white, post, burr, and laurel oak; 
hawthorn, basswood, persimmon, walnut, apple, black birch; iu Georgia it lives on Piuckncya 
pubcHS (Abbot's ^IS. drawings, Gray copy, Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist.); liudeu, oak (Kiley MS). 


Geographical tlisfribution. — Ranges through the Api):xliichiaii and Austroriparian snbprovinces 
and tlie eastorn jtortion of the Canii)estnan (Nelnaska), not having occurred west of the eastern 
borders of the great jilaiiis. Two s|)eciuiens only liave been rieorded from any of the New 
Enghrnd States, wliere others will probably be discovered, though rarely. It seems to abound 
most from Pennsylvania southward to Georgia. Orono, Me. (Mrs. Fernald); Lawrence, Mass. 
(Mr. Treat, Mus. Comp. Zool.); Detroit, Midi. (Mus. Comp. P^ool.); Trenton Falls, N. Y. 
{Doubleday); Plattsburg, N. Y. (G. E. Hudson); Pern, near Lancaster, Pa. (Coll. Amer. Ent. 
Soc. Phil.); Washington, D. C, Virginia, Georgia (Riley); Tallahassee, Fla. (Koebelo); St. Louis, 
Mo., Nebraska, Arkansas (U. S. Nat. Museum); Canada, Maine, Massacliiisetts, Pennsylvania, 
Ohio, Wisconsin, Champaign, 111., Texas (French). 

Heterocampa guttivitta (Walker). 

(PI. V, tig. 2 c?, 3 9.) 

Cecrittt fjutlirUta Walk., Cat. Lep. Het. Brit. Mus., v, p. 992, 1855. 
Dii/monia mucorea Herr.-Schaeli'er, Samml. aussercur. Sclniiett., fig. 514, 1856. 
Lochmaus clnercus Pack., Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., iii, p. 372, 1864. 
Misoijuda sohr'm Walk., Cat. Lep. Br. Mus., xxxii, p. 450, 1865. 
Helerucampa doitbledai/i Scudder, in Harris Eut. Corresp., ji. 134, 1867. 
Belerocaiiipa guttivitta (Jrote, New Check List N. Amer. Moths, p. 19, 1882. 
JJeterocnmpu jnilverea Pacli., Fifth Rep. U. S. Eut. Comm., p. 159, 1890. 
LM-hmivus olivatus Pack., Fifth Rep. U. S. Ent. Comui., )). 39, 1890. 
Heterocampa ynttivilta .Smith, List. I^ep. Bor. Anier., p. 31, 1891. 
Kirby, Syn. Crit. Lep. Het., i, p. 564, 1892. 
Ceerita r/utlii-ilta Xeuni. and Dyar, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc., xxi, p. 207, 1894 ; Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc, ii, p. 1 17, 
Sept., 1894. 

(PI. XXXI, figs. 1, 1», In-lrf, Id. Id, 2, 2a, 3, 3<(, 4. 4a, 5, 5((. G. Go,, 7, 7a; XXXIII, 1, In. Ic, 2, 2a, 3, ,3a.) 

French, Can. Ent., xii, ji. 83, 1880. 

Sixth Ann. Rep. S. 111. Normal Univ., p. 661, 1881). 
Packard, Bull. 7. U. S. Ent. Comm. Ins. Inj. Forest Trees, ji. 46, 1881. (Quotes French's descri|itiou.) 

Fifth Rep. U. S. Ent. Comm. on Forest Insects, p. 159, 1890. {H. puherea by error.) 

Fifth Rep. U. S. Ent. Comm. on Forest Insects, p. 397, 1890. 

Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., xxiv, p. .548, 1890. {IT. puh-crea by error.) 
Dyar. Psyche, vi, p. 178. 1891. (Fourth and last larval stages; cocoon and pnpa.) 

Moth. — Four $ , four 9 . Ground color pale olive-greenish ashen, with wliite scales and 
patches. Head above greenish ash, in front ash, and the palpi ash-colored, and generally with no 
black scales on the outside, though in some e.\:imples tliere is a streak of black, but less than in 
II. biundata. Thora-v varying from pale to dark ash, with dark olive-green scales; a dark line 
across the hinder edge of the collar; over the niesoscntum dusky brownish, and on base of 
abdomen a brown ])atch; the teguhe edged with pale ashen scales. 

Fore wings with the basal line indistinct, the scallop not so distinct and pointed as iu 
H. biundata; middle line doubly scalloped; the spaces between the diiik scallop filled with whitish 
scales. Discal mark a distinct curxed dtirk line inclosed in a large cons])icnous luiuite or oval 
ptile patch; in some iudi\iduals on the inner side of this patch and extending below it is a dark 
brown paU^li. 

The outer line is sinuous, the scallops shallow; the line curves outward deeply op])osite the 
origin of the cubital venules and loses itself toward the costa in a dilfuse greenish costal patch. 
There is a distinct submarginal .series of about eight subtriangular dusky spots, the largest one 
situated on the first cubital )ntersi)ace; this line is scarcely dislocated as compared with II. 
hiund(tt(i. Hind wings ash, whitish in s])ots; traces of an outer dusky band, distinct in the 
center, where it is externally shaded with whitish; a diffuse sordid whitish band cro.sses the 
wing, but is quite faint and best marked on the costa and at the internal angle. P>eiieiith, the 
lines and spots do not reai)pear, and both wings are uniforndy ash-brown, tlie line at base of 
fringe dusky, the fringe whitish ash, spotted with 

Expanse of wings, S 44 mm., 9 '6b-')'l mm.; length of body, $ 20 mm., 9 20 mm. 


This is a very variable species, and it is difticnlt to separate some cabinet specimens, -nlieii 
Tjot fresh, from those of U. Miiiidafa. It is distinguislied by the stouter palpi, the second joint 
being broad and busliy at the end, wliilc tlie tliird joint is sliorter than in hiundata; tlie second 
Joint is either ashen or with a narrow blacliish line ou tlie outside, while in hiundata the side is 
almost wholly black, and the third joint is much longer. It is best characterized, however, by the 
usually not very distinct, linear, curved discal mark being inclosed in a large, diffuse, lunate, pale 
ashen patch. In the well-preserved and fresh and rather melanotic Franconia specimens received 
from Mrs. Slosson this spot is small and obliquely oval. It also differs from hiundata in the less 
distinct transverse lines of the fore wings. Rubbed and worn specimens are never so uniformly 
olive-green as iu hiundata, and have never been observed becoming ocberous yellowish or reddish, 
as occasionally occurs iu hiundata. Many individuals are smaller than in hiundata. 

The specimens collected by IMrs. Slosson at Franconia, N. H., and they are very fresh and 
well ])reserved, are decidedly darker than those from the Southern Stfites and Ironi near the coast, 
while the lines and discal mark are rather more distinct. In the Franconia examples there is a 
diffuse whitish patch extending from the middle of the wing beyond the extradiscal line to the 
apex, including the two dark subapical spots or streaks. 

Iu a 9 example reared from the larva figured ou PI. XXXIII, fig. 2, 2a, the cross lines on the 
fore wings are obsolete and the wings are very pale whitish, with a slight olive tint, and the outer 
half of the wings are whitish, while both wings beneath are very pale ashen in hue. The shape 
of the wings is much the same in both species; in [pittiritta,\iovrevei, the costa of the fore wings 
is a little more full, the wings being a little more produced toward the apex. 

For my ideutitication of this species I depend on a fairly well-preserved large $ from Brooklyn, 
N. Y., which, in 18S!), I compared with and wliich well agreed with Walker's type in the British 
Museum. Mr. R. Thaxter also regards this as the (juttivitta of Walker's description. It is Loch- 
mwus cinereus of my Synopsis of the Bombycidfe of the United States (Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., iii, 
p. 372). The type of this species was formerly in the Museum of the Peabody Academy of Sciences, 
but became lost or mislaid. It was much rubbed, not showing the characteristic markings, the 
description being that of a worn specimen. It is the Lochmwus oUvatus of my report on Forest 
Insects (p. .397), being erroneously determined as that species, and not the olivata of my Synopsis. 

This is also H. pulvcrea of Riley and of my report, on Forest Insects, p. 159, and elsewhere; 
the puJvcrea of (irote and Robinson is quite a different species, as I have ascertained from an 
examination of their type in the Americrjn Museum of Natural History at New York. 

Larva (PI. XXXI, figs. 1, la — Id'). — Found on the sugar maplci, July 10, at Brunswick, Me., 
feeding on the underside of the leaf, eating out a little irregular patch; no eggs were to be dis- 

Stage I. — Length, 5 mm. Head large, rounded, much wider than the body; pitchy chestnut, 
or dull, dark amber. The body tapers gradually from the prothoracic segment to the end of the 
body, which is elevated, as usual. Anal legs slender and as long as the eighth segment is thick; 
paler at tips; cylindrical, and the tips are slightly eversible. The skin of the body is smooth and 
•shilling, of a uniform pitchy, dull reddish color, with flue, narrow, thread-like, greenish yellow, 
wavy lines. The dorsal region between the first thoracic and the eighth abdominal segments 
is greenish yellow. 

The larva is the most remarkable of its family, in possessing at this stage an extraordinary 
armature of nine pairs of enormous horns like those of a deer. (Fig. 83, III, a, h, c, (/). The protho- 
racic pair are nearly three times as large as those on the first abdominal segment, and arise from 
a dark piceous plate; each horn is stout, about twice as long as the body is thick, with two stout 
acute tines reaching forward and outward, and a third upward, with a fourth small sharp one 
projecting in front near the base; each tine bears a. hair arising from near the end. The tines are 
more or less rough and finely spinulose, especially on the opposing bases of those projecting 
ui)ward and backward. The second and third thoracic segments are smooth and unarmed and 
much wrinkled transversely. On the first abdominal segment is a pair of long, slender horns 
with the distal third smaller and bent forward and outward, with the end thickened and bearing 
two or three minute spinules and a single long hair; this pair arises from a largo black dorsal, 
«n(li\ided plate, while those behind (ou second to seventh segments) arise from a more rounded 
black plate, divided into two half-moou-shaped pieces by a distinct greenish yellow space. Those 


of the secoTid abdoiiiiiuil pair aii> iiuifli siiialler tliaii tlii' pair in front niul those hehiiid. Those' 
of the thiril abdominal segment are not so hirge as the first, but much lonj;er than those behind. 
The i^air on the eighth abdominal segment are of the same size and shai)e as those on the first 
abdominal segment, bnt are sli<;litly sliorter. Tlie suranal jdate is rouiuled, convex, shiniii"' 
bhick, fiiving rise to a pair of black horns shorter than the shortest ones in front. Thoracic legs 
blackish; the middle a1)d()iiiinal legs of a ])itchy color. 

It molted July 10, being perhaps belated, as are most in the next stage. 

iSt<((jc 11. — Length, 5-0 nun. Head and body uniformly iiver-colored or reddish brown. Head 
conical, rounded, entirely liver- red, like the body, with uo lateral bands or any nuirkings. Now 
there in only it single pair of very short horns or tubercles sitnuteil on the iirolhoraeie sef/ment, with 
no traces of the others. These protlioraeic tubercles arc cylindrical, short, scpiare at the end, 
which is dark and no longer than one-third the length of the aiuil legs, with uo branches. The 
end of the body is uplitted; the anal legs are concolorous with the body. Tiic body gradually 
tapers to the end, with no traces of any markings. 

1 found, July 14, other larvie on neighboring maple trees, of which the following is a descrip- 
tion, and think it is the same species: 

Stii<ie III. — Length, 10 mm. The head is non- renj hinje, snhtrinniiuhir, rising higher than 
the body behind, and much wider than the body; greenish, with a broad, pale reddish band on 
each side, meeting on the vertex. The prothoracic horns are now represented by the conical 
piliferous tubercles of moderate size, dark reddish at the end, from each of which a reddish line 
passes back to the first abdominal segment. The third abdominal segment is pale reddish above, 
the hue passing down to the base of the first i)air of abdominal legs. Along the back of 
abdominal segments 4 to (! is a pale reddish band interrupted by the sutures. On abdominal 
segments 7 to is an elongated, I'eddish, diamond-shaped, dorsal, pale red band, including the 
suranal plates; a faint reddish lateral spot m\ the side of the sixth abdominal segment. 
Abdominal legs yellowish, concolorous with the body. Anal legs long, slender, u])lield; thoracic 
legs i)ale; the sides of the body just above their base discolored with pale reddish. A distinct 
subdorsal yellow line on each side of the body, not so distinct on the last three abdominal segments. 

In three specimens, with little doubt of this species, which were 15 mm. in length, there are 
two parallel red lines extending backward from the prothoracic tubercles and diverging, as iu 
the smaller sjiecimens, on the first abdominal segment. On the third abdominal segment is a 
crescentiform dorsal red spot, the horns pointing anterioily; on the segment behind is a median 
triangular red patch, and on the five succeeding ones collectively is a much smaller one, cleft 
behind. In this specimen the hollow of the crescentiform spot is filled with a yellow curved spot, 
but iu one of the other examples there is in place of it a white ])atcli, and the crescentiform spot 
is represented by two short parallel lines. There is another reddish dorsal patch common to the 
seventh and eighth segments. Indeed there is much variation in the markings. The suboval 
yellow lines are distinct. There are four small, short, lateral, (ibli(|ue, reddish patches on the 
side of the body, one at the base of the third pair of thoracic legs, another at the base of tiie 
fourth pair of abdominal legs, and in one of the specimens one at the base of the first pair of 
abdominal legs. 

Sldf/e IV. — Length, 18-20 mm. Head large, wider than the body, flattened in front. The 
band on each side is rather short and broad, not reaching to the base of the anteunaj and not 
meeting above on the vertex; it is comjjosed of lines of four (colors, being black within, then white, 
then a broad pink band broadly shaded externally with yellowish. No tubercles on the to]) of 
the prothoracic segment, but a yellowish patch containing two lines forming the beginning of the 
two i)arallel reddish sienna brown lines, which end on the first abdominal segment. Behind this 
spot are three yeHow dorsal lines which end on the hinder edge of the third abdominal segment. 
On this and the next segment is a conspicuous forked sienna-brown line, inclosing on the third 
segment a white triangular patch. The two subdorsal yellow lines are broad and distinct, edged 
within with reddish on the eighth segment and on the suranal plate. iSides of the body witli 
scattered black specks. Spiracles yellow, finely edged with black. A slight, short, narrow oblique- 
line on the side at tlu^ base of the legs of the third thoracic and sixth abdominal segments. A 
reddish line on the inside of the anal legs. A black dot on the middle of the thoracic legs. 


It molted, passing into the last stage August 9-10. 

Last stdf/c. — Leugtli, 35 mm. Head as iu H. hiuiulata, with a short lateral four-colored band 
of black, white, pink, and, externally, of yellow. Body with no reddish, hrown spots on the side, 
though quite thickly speckled with dark red-brown. The rudiments or vestiges of the protlioracic 
horns are very slight, forming a yellowish, slightly swollen area. Dorsal band snow-white, fading 
into yellowish on the side, where there is a series of fine dark red-black dots; the line is widest on 
tlie second and third .abdominal segments, and at the suture, between the fourth and fifth segments, 
the anterior part of the band connects by a narrow neck with the posterior dixision of the band, 
which contains a whitish vascular line, bearing reddish dots on each side. Each side of the body 
on abdominal segments 7 to 10 snow-white, including the upi)er part of the anal legs, which are 
marked with a red line. The thoracic legs are green, with a black dot in the middle. 

Description of another larva on the red maple (PI. XXXI, fig. 1,1a). — The egg was found July 
3 on the red maple at Brunswick, Me., and it hatched July 11 or 12. The caterpillar eats the 
surface of the leaf when first hatched. 

Larva, Stage J. — Length, mm. Head moderately large, a little wider than the body, rather 
short, smooth, with a few scattered hairs, pale cherry-red. The body is moderately thick, a little 
compressed, tapering from the protlioracic segment to the anal legs, the end of the body being 
upheld, the anal legs long and slender, but not so long as the tentli abdominal segment is wide. 
It bears a remarkable series of large black forked dorsal horns, so as to appear like a young 
Ceratocampid. The first thoracic is slightly wider than the third thoracic segment, and bears a 
large shining black cervical plate, which is nearly twice as wide as long, the posterior edge being 
straight and blacker than in front. From this plate arise two large black horns, each with three 
large, long branches or tines, which are thick, acute, ending in a dark bristle; the trunk of the 
spine is short, the tines being three times as long as the undivided trunk, while there is a fourth 
minute spur below the others; the two anterior tines rise high and arcli over the head. 

The second and third tlioracic segments are unarmed, smooth, with no tubercles, but wrinkled. 
From each abdominal segment (1 to 8) arises a pair of large high dorsal black liorns. Those on 
the first abdominal segment are nearly twice as large as those on the succeeding segment, and 
arise from a large black plate which is entire, undivided; the horns m these, as all the abdominal 
ones, are a little bent beyond the middle, at the end sending off a minute sharp spine, while I hey 
end in a short black bristle. The six succeeding black dorsal plates are divided into two halves, 
each half lunate in shape. The third pair of abdominal horns are nearly as large as the first pair, 
while the three pairs following are of the same size as the second pair. The last pair of horns 
arise from the tenth segment, which are not quite so large as those on the eighth, and the segment 
bears a large undivided black i)late which extends down the sides and to the base of the anal 
legs, the latter being slender, rather long, shining black, and held extended out horizontally. 
There are uo horns on the ninth segment. 

The body is transversely wrinkled and the gronnd color is pale yellow, but the sides are so 
densely covered with fine, short, wavy, cherry-red lines as to appear red. Between the hoi-ns on 
the sixth and seventh abdominal segments is a large clear yellow dorsal area. Tlie thoi'acic legs- 
are black; the middle abdomiiuil legs cherry-red, becoming blackish toward the plantie. 

At times it jerks its head rapidly from side to side, as if to scare away an enemy. 

Another larva (PL XXXIII, fig. 1, la).^This was a rather belated larva with the body some- 
what shriveled, which occurred on the oak at Providence Septemljer 20-24. Length, 15 mm. Head 
moderately high and narrow; on each side of and rather remote from the distinct median suture 
and nearly parallel to it is a dark thread line, the frontal space inclosed being clear of dots. The 
ground color of the head is like new parchment; on each side are dark specks, forming a baud on 
each side between the antenu:e and the prothoracic tubercles. The antenute are bright yellow. 
First thoracic segment with two twin continuous yellowish humps from which arise two pale raw 
sicnnabrown tubercles, each ending in a piliferous tubercle, rising quite high over the head; below, 
not quite near the end, are two minute tubercles, the remnants of the tines of the horns of the 
earlier stage. On all the posterior segments of the body the piliferous tubercles are obsolete, 
and can not be detected with the lens. Two thoracic dorsal brown parallel lines beginning between 
the prothoracic tubercles, converging to the second thoracic segment and separating so as to form - 



Fiti. 81.— Pujia of n riultlvtita. J 

End »l 

a large oval spot on the second and fourtli abdominal segments, and endin<;' on tlic liindiM- 
edge of till' fourth, and beginning again on tlio. fiftli, then separating agiarn so as ti) inclose a long- 
oval dorsal si)ace on abdominal .^^cgnicnts 5 to 8; then contract- 
ing and ending on the surnnal plate between the bases of the 
anal legs. 

Tlie oval white spots inclose two i)arall('l faint reddish nicdian 
lines. The body is somewhat compressed, tapering to tlie end; 
the anal legs arc long, outstretched, slender, with a reddish line 
on the outside and cherry-red at ti])s. Sides of the body llesh- 
colored, with reddish dots and short lines. Thoracic legs pale, 
with a cherry red stripe on the outside. The middle abdominal 
legs pale fle.sli, with a few short wavy reddish-i)ink lines and 
specks on the outside. ' 

PI. XXXIII, tigs. 2, 2«, represent a larva from which 1 reaied 
the moth, a female of normal appearance. 

Viqvi. — Body rather stout and thick, the head rounded, much 
as usual, coarsely corrugated, with two very faintly indicated low 
parallel vertical ridges between the eyes. The abdominal segments are sparsely and not very 
coarsely punctured; the last three segments as usu;il, smooth and i)olishcd. I'.cliind the ineso- 
scutuin are six square, fattened, dull, unpolished, black tubercles, not having any median impres- 
sion to give them a double appearance (like that of Schizura leptinotdes). The cremaster ends iu 
two stout spines, which are larger and stouter than in IT. hlunihtta, 
and of (pute dilfereut shape, the terminal spine being bi-oad and some- 
what foot-like, the end being square, with the heel pointing inward 
and the toe upward at right angles to the main spine. Vestiges of 
the anal legs rather prominent, rounded, smaller than in //. biunddto. 
Vestiges of the sexual opening longer than in H. hiimduUt. Length, 
19 mm. ' 

Habits. — The eggs were found at Brunswick, Me., as early as 
July 3, and it hatched July 11 or 12. Other larva', as observed in 
Maine, hatclied about the 8th to 10th of July, feeding on the underside 
of the leaf, at first eating away a little irregular patch. Stage 1 lasts 
nine days, Stage II probably four or five days. The last stage is 
reached a month later, August t)-10; my belated individual occurred on the oak at Providence 
as late as September 20 to 2-t. The larva has the habit of jerking its head rapidly from side to 
side, as if vexed or to scare away some assailant. 

Fig. 82.— Pupa of Uete-rncampa (rutti- 
rilla, 9- ■**'/'■ si'irncli'. 

' Dr. Dvar sends me tljo following account of a variety of C. piiltivifta larva (mature) : 

"I have twice found a peculiar variety of niittii'illa fouo at Woods Holl, Mass., one at Jeft'orson. X. II. i, in 
which .'i large Itrown iloy«(il patch was retained in the stage. The following is .i full descriiition of it: 

" Head oval, higher than wide, llattened in front, smooth, green ; a purplish hand on a whitish ground, prcicilcd 
by a narrow black line from base of jaw to vertex, joining the one or the other side; a short, similar l)aiicl on I lie 
posterior lateral angle of the head at ventral side; ocelli and jaws black; palid yellowish; width .about 3..") mm. 
Body smooth, the minute, black, normal setio arising from whitish spots; .anal feet slender, slightly used. liody 
.slightl.v smaller at the extremities, appearing enlarged centrall.v in the usual position of the larva. A broad white 
subdorsal band, narrowly black-bordered above, broken on joints 2 and 11. Dorsal area .vellowish green, 
area haf-grcen. brown-dotted, spiracles salmon color. On antericu' edge of joint 'J a narrow yellow line, containing 
two purple-brown spots. A narrow white dors.-il line edged witli black, linear to joint 1 ; on joint i> it divides into 
thrc(\ all coming together again on joint S, forming an elliptical area; on joint !) it again divides, each .side bram h 
joining the sul>dorsal line on joint 11 posteriority to the break, the central line running to joint 13. These lines are 
yellowish white, scarcely black-bordered posteriorly to joint i. Hcsides theses normal markings are the following 
dark purple brown patches: (1) a narrow obliciue linear sutiventral jiatch on joint 1 from base of foot njiward :ind 
backward; (2) a subdorsal pyriform patch on joint 7 Ijctwecn the dorsal a:id subdorsal lines; (IJ) a single dorsal 
cordate patch, the deju'ession anteriorly, situated on joint 8, diviiling the dors;il line and barely reaching the 
sulidorsal. In front of this heart-shaped spot the junction of the lines forms a white spot. In the second 
example these brown patches were somewhat larger, and there was iu addition a subventral patch above the foot ou 
jgiuts 7 and 10, the latter sloping the other way from the one on joint 1." 


Riley uot.s laiv;i. as occuvring in July, and captures ..f the niotl.s in May, June, July, and 

^""^Mpla.ts.-llock or sugar maple, red maple, and tbe oak. Mr. Bridgham found a larva in 
the tlnrd stage (10 nun. in length) on the apple at Providence, July 20. t ,s the sa,ne as tha 
represented on PI. XXXI, figs. 4, ia. He also found other larv.i^ on chestnut, maple, beech, and 

""""^aplncol dMnkation-Orono, Me. (Mrs. Fernald); Brunswick, ^le. (Packard); Portlaml, 
Me.(E.S. Morse, Mas. Comp. Zool.); Frauconia, N. II. (Mrs. Slosson); Natick Mass May 2., 
Stra ton (B. S. N. H.) ; Rhode Island (H. L. Clark) ; Plattsburg, N. 1 . Hudson) ; Iowa, June ( U. S. 
N^^t Mus); Racine, Wis. (Westcott); Washington, D. C, Georgia (A. Oemler, U S. Nat Mus. ; 
P nta Go da, Fla. (krs. Slosson); "St. Johns Blui*, East Florida March and Aprd ' (Doubleday); 
New York, Maryland, Washington, D. C, Florida, Georgia (U. S. Nat. Mus.); Maine, New 
Hampshire, New York (French); Fort Collins, Colo. (Baker). 

This species probably ranges from the southern limits of the Hndsonuin fauna southward 
through' the Appalachian and Austroriparian snbprovinces, and very rarely occurs m the 
■Cainpestrian (Colorado). 

Heterocampa bitmdata Wulker. 
(PI. V, fiKS. 4 J, 5 9-) . 

Heterocampa hUmdala AV.-xlk., Cat. Lcp. Het. Brit. Mus., v, p. 1025, 1855. 
Lochma-i,^ bmmJala Pack., Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., iii, p. 370. lSb4. 
Lochmaus oUrata Pack.. Proc. Ent. 8(.c. Phil., iii, p. 371, 18G4. 
Heterocampa hiundaia Morris, Synopsis Lep. N. Amer., p. 240, 1862. 

Grote, New Chc(;k List N. Amer. Moths, p. 19, 1882. 
Hp(frae«m»osmii)i(i<7« Walk., C.aii.Nat. andOeoI., vi,p. 37, 1861. ^., ,, , i t> , ^ 

Sta>,ropJrlrrctesLs, Walk.,' Cat. Lep. Het. Brit. Mus., xxxi.. p. 416, 1865. (Fule Grote